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with the starboard helm, haul down the staysail, brace the head yards by, and put the helm hard a-starboard. She will then be in the posi
tion indicated by fig. III.
Fig. III.-Riding weather tide with the wind on the port quarter and the anchor on the starboard quarter. If the first of the tide had taken her on the port quarter, she would have to be forged ahead with the wind on the starboard side, in which case she would lie with the helm a-port on the opposite side of the anchor to No. I. When the weather tide slacks set the foretopmast-staysail, and tend the helm, keeping her taut ahead of her anchor until she resumes the place of No. I again. On the lee tide haul down the staysail when she comes head to wind.
Fig. IV. Has anchored with the wind blowing across the tide, and a shoal on her starboard side. The rule is when the wind is before the beam, the ship lays to leeward of her anchor, and when the wind is abaft the beam she lays to windward of her anchor. In the case of No. IV, the wind is right abeam, in which case a ship is usually laid to leeward with the yards all braced aback, and the staysail set with the sheet to windward; there is also a shoal near her, and the rule in that case is to sheer towards the danger if the ship will lie that way, so that if she breaks her sheer she may go from the danger. But if a ship is riding near a shoal on a lee-tide it is safer to sheer from the danger, lest the combined force of wind and tide should start the anchor, and drive her on the shoal. In the case of No. IV, and the wind veering aft, the ship must be set ahead of her anchor by filling the yards, and hauling the lee-staysail sheet aft, and steering her taut ahead of her anchor through the positions of Nos. V and VI, until you get her laid to windward in the position of No. VII.
If No. IV should not be set ahead when the wind veers aft, she will break her sheer, and perhaps foul her anchor. See Nos. VIII and IX. The same thing will happen with No. III if the wind should haul on the starboard quarter, unless she is set ahead and laid at the opposite side of her anchor as soon as the wind begins to change.
Fig. VIII.-Represents a ship in the same position as No. IV, with the wind veering aft. No. IX is the same vessel just after she has broken her sheer. In this case a ship goes across to the opposite side of her anchor, and must be kept there by changing the helm to leeward, and hauling the main-yard forward, keeping the fore-yard braced by. In all cases the mizzen-yards are laid the same as the main-yard.
When a ship is riding on a weather tide in blowing weather, she should be very carefully watched, lest she should break her sheer and
foul her anchor, or break the chain. The mate should be called immediately whenever the wind changes, and when the tide slackens he should be called before the ship begins to cant, or else he will be too late to manœuvre the ship properly in swinging.
In moderate weather a ship will often require more sail than the foretopmast-staysail, to take her across clear of her anchor; in these cases the jib and maintopmast-staysail should be set.
UPON COMING TO AN ANCHOR.-When a ship is coming to an anchor, she should always be under easy sail-as the topsails, jib, foretopmaststaysail, and mizzen.
COMING-TO IN A TIDEWAY.-If a ship be running over a weather-tide, with the wind on her port quarter, and it be required to ride to leeward, it is plain that the port anchor will be most serviceable, as the chain will not cross the cut-water or touch the copper in bringing up. If the wind be so strong that she will stem the tide after the sails are clewed up, she will not lay astream of her anchor. To round her in the ordinary manner would not stop her way, until the anchor be let go, in which case, before she could get away from it, in all probability there would be a sufficient quantity of the cable paid upon the top of it to insure its coming up upside down; the helm, therefore, must be put hard up when the anchor is let go, and if the tide be weak, the port-staysail sheet hauled aft, when she will shear away from her anchor, and drop as nearly astream of it as the strength of the tide will permit. The helm, of course, must be afterwards eased, that she may not have too broad a shear.
If, with the like wind, it board anchor will be best. only fore-and-aft sails set. sails set after the anchor is
be required to ride to windward, the starFurl all the square-sails, and come-to with Put the helm down, and keeping the staygone will shear the ship to windward, the
The old fashion of mooring ships with an anchor on either side-that is to say, supposing the prevailing wind north, the anchors shou'd be laid east and west-has long been exploded. It has been shown that the combined strength of two cables so placed is equal only to one-sixth of a single chain laid in the direction of the wind. See An Enquiry relative to various Important Points of Seamanship, by Nicholas Tinmouth. The reader is strongly recommended to a perusal of Mr. Tinmouth's work, being a scientific enquiry into subjects with which it should be the object of every officer to make himself acquainted, but which few have the opportunity of practically investigating in the ordinary course of the merchant service.
strength of the wind and tide determining how much canvas is requisite for the purpose--more, of course, in light winds and neap tide than when both are stronger-the staysails also requiring to be kept set if she will not keep a taut cable without them.
COMING TO AN ANCHOR ON A LEE TIDE.-In coming-to upon a strong lee-tide with a fresh breeze, where there is a risk of snapping the chain or endangering the windlass by rounding-to, and bringing her up with stern-way, the jerk may be very considerably eased by wearing round and putting the helm up when the anchor is let go. By these means a good scope of chain is laid in the mud, through which she must drag it before she can bring much strain on the windlass, and considerably ease the surges consequent upon bringing up when astream of the anchor with much stern-way.
GETTING UNDER WAY FROM A SINGLE ANCHOR.-See all ready forward for getting under way, the rigging fair for making sail, the cat and fish tackles rove, and the fish davit at hand. Heave short on your chain, and pawl the windlass. Loose all the sails if the wind is light, and sheet home and hoist up topsails, topgallantsails, and royals. If there is a stiff breeze, set topsails alone, whole or reefed. You should always, if it will answer, cast on the opposite side from your anchor; that is, if you are riding by your starboard anchor, cast to port. Brace your head yards aback and your after yards full, for the tack you mean to cast upon. The sails being set, man the windlass again, give her a shear with the helm, and trip your anchor. As soon as your anchor is aweigh, hoist the jib. The foretopsail aback will pay her head off. Put the helm for stern-board. When her head is off enough, fill away the head yards and haul out the spanker, shifting the helm for headway. Trim the yards for your course, and make sail on her. If the wind is light and the sea smooth, you may cat and fish your anchor after you get under way, but it is best in a rough sea to keep the vessel hove-to until the anchor is catted and fished.
TO MAKE SURE OF CASTING THE SHIP THE RIGHT WAY.-From unforeseen changes of wind and weather, it becomes unsafe to remain at anchor, and doubts are entertained of the ship casting the right way, the ship should be cast by means of a spring, and the cable slipped-to effect which, the stream cable or a good hawser should be got out of the quarter, and bent to the riding cable outside the hawse-pipe on the opposite side, and hove taut, but kept clear for letting go and running. Veer away the riding cable, having previously unshackled it, and when the ship has been sufficiently canted for the sails to act, and she begins
to draw ahead, slip, or cut if necessary, the slipped part of the bower chain having been previously buoyed.
- RIDING AT ANCHOR IN A GALE OF WIND.-Vessels when riding in a roadstead in a gale frequently have their windlasses torn to pieces through the chain tightening and then slackening, as the vessel is drawn ahead or drops astern. The following plan has strong recommendations, as affording support to the windlass :-Reeve a good lufftackle, and hook the single block on to the chain close to the windlass on the fore part, the double block being hooked to a toggle in the hawse-pipe, and hove well taut. Another tackle is then put on the chain abaft the windlass, and hove taut also. The one tackle acting against the other will keep the chain always tight round the windlass, and consequently prevent the great surging so trying to a windlass and a ship.
KEEPING WATCH.-The officer, when relieved, should point out to his successor the bearings of lights or any objects in view, give him the soundings alongside, the time at which the ship is expected to swing if in a tide-way, how the cable grows, as well as any order or direction that may be passed as to tending the ship. The deep-sea lead should be kept over the side, and the soundings tried frequently, and the bearings of the lights or other objects taken repeatedly. He should enter in the night order-book, as well as on the log-slate, the bearing of the different lights and soundings when he leaves the deck, signing his name to the same at the time, and he who relieves him should see that these entries agree with his own observation. He should look at the cable occasionally, and see how it grows, and also see that the spare anchor is ready for letting go, and chain clear for running.
RELIEVING THE WATCH AT SEA.-Having received the course, sail set, account of weather, and orders for the night relative to reports or calling the captain, see that the quartermasters, in relieving each other, do not give up the wheel until the ship is steady on her course; that the wheel ropes are clear, and, if running before a gale, that the relieving tackles are hooked, and sufficiently overhauled to allow the helm going hard over either way-taking care that the blocks of the relieving tackles are placed so as not to be jammed under the tillerthat the life-buoys are clear for letting go, and boat's falls ready.
COLLISIONS AT SEA, &c.
Art. 1. In the following Rules every Steam Ship which is under Sail and not under Steam is to be considered a Sailing Ship; and every Steam Ship which is under Steam, whether under Sail or not, is to be considered a Ship under Steam.
Rules concerning Lights.
Art. 2. The Lights mentioned in the following Articles, numbered 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, and no others, shall be carried in all Weathers, from Sunset to Sunrise.
Art. 3. Seagoing Steam Ships when under weigh shall carry:
(a) At the Foremast Dead, a bright White Light, so fixed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 20 Points of the Compass; so fixed as to throw the Light 10 Points on each Side of the Ship, viz., from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam on either Side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Five Miles:
(b) On the Starboard Side, a Green Light so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 10 Points of the Compass; so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam on the Starboard Side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Two Miles:
(c) On the Port Side, a Red Light, so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 10 Points of the Compass; so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam on the Port Side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Two Miles:
(d) The said Green and Red Side Lights shall be fitted with inboard Screens, projecting at least Three Feet forward from the Light, so as to prevent these Lights from being seen across the bow.
Art. 4. Steam Ships, when towing other Ships, shall carry Two bright White Mast-head Lights vertically, in addition to their Side Lights, so as to distinguish them from other Steam Ships. Each of these Mast-head Lights shall be of the same Construction and Character as the Mast-head Lights which other Steam Ships are required to carry. Art. 5. Sailing Ships under weigh, or being towed, shall carry the