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to draw ahead, slip, or cut if necessary, the slipped part of the bower chain having been previously buoyed. - RIDING AT AncuOR IN A GALE or WIND.—Vessels when riding in a roadstead in a gale frequently have their windlasses torn to pieces through the chain tightening and then slackening, as the vessel is drawn ahead or drops astern. The following plan has strong recommendations, as affording support to the windlass:-Reeve a good lufftackle, and hook the single block on to the chain close to the windlass on the fore part, the double block being hooked to a toggle in the hawse-pipe, and hove well taut. Another tackle is then put on the chain abaft the windlass, and hove taut also. The one tackle acting against the other will keep the chain always tight round the windlass, and consequently prevent the great surging so trying to a windlass and a ship.

KEEPING WATCH.-The officer, when relieved, should point out to his successor the bearings of lights or any objects in view, give him the soundings alongside, the time at which the ship is expected to swing if in a tide-ray, how the cable grows, as well as any order or direction that may be passed as to tending the ship. The deep-sea lead should be kept over the side, and the soundings tried frequently, and the bearings of the lights or other objects taken repeatedly. He should enter in the night order-book, as well as on the log-slate, the bearing of the different lights and soundings when he leaves the deck, signing his name to the same at the time, and he who relieves him should see that these entries agree with his own observation. He should look at the cable occasionally, and see how it grows, and also see that the

sparo anchor is ready for letting go, and chain clear for running.

RELIEVING THE WATCH AT SEA.—Having received the course, sail set, account of weather, and orders for the night relative to reports or calling the captain, see that the quartermasters, in relieving each other, do not give up the wheel until the ship is steady on her course;

that the wheel ropes are clear, and, if running before a gale, that the relieving tackles are hooked, and sufficiently overhauled to allow the helm going hard over either way-taking care that the blocks of the relieving tackles are placed so as not to be jammed under the tillerthat the life-buoys are clear for letting go, and boat's falls ready.

REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING

COLLISIONS AT SEA, &c.

Art. 1.

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2

Preliminary. In the following Rules every Steam Ship which is under Sail and not under Steam is to be considered a Sailing Ship; and every Steam Ship which is under Steam, whether under Sail or not, is to be considered a Ship under Steam.

Rules concerning Lights. Art. 2. The Lights mentioned in the following Articles, numbered 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, and no others, shall be carried in all Weathers, from Sunset to Sunrise.

Art. 3. Seagoing Steam Ships when under weigh shall carry :

(a) At the Foremast Head, a bright White Light, so fixed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 20 Points of the Compass; so fixed as to throw the Light 10 Points on each Side of the Ship, viz., from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam on either Side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Five Miles:

(6) On the Starboard Side, a Green Light so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 10 Points of the Compass; so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 Points abaft the Beam on the Starboard Side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Two Miles :

(c) On the Port Side, a Red Light, so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken Light over an Arc of the Horizon of 10 Points of the Compass; so fixed as to throw the Light from right ahead to 2 Points abast the Beam on the Port Side; and of such a Character as to be visible on a dark Night, with a clear Atmosphere, at a Distance of at least Two Miles:

(d) The said Green and Red Side Lights shall be fitted with inboard Screens, projecting at least Three Feet forward from the Light, so as to prevent these Lights from being seen across the bow.

Art. 4. Steam Ships, when towing other Ships, shall carry Two bright White Mast-head Lights vertically, in addition to their Side Lights, so as to distinguish them from other Steam Ships. Each of these Mast-head Lights shall be of the same Construction and Character as the Mast-head Lights which other Steam Ships are required to carry.

Art. 5. Sailing Ships under weigh, or being towed, shall carry the same Lights as Steam Ships under weigh, with the Exception of the White Mast-head Lights, which they shall never carry.

Art. 6. Whenever, as in the Case of small Vessels during bad Weather, the Green and Red Lights cannot be fixed, these Lights shall be kept on deck, on their respective Sides of the Vessel, ready for instant Exhibition; and shall, on the Approach of or to other Vessels, be exhibited on their respective Sides in sufficient Time to prevent Collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the Port Side, nor the Red Light on the Starboard Side.

To make the Use of these portable Lights more certain and easy, the Lanterns containing them shall each be painted Outside with the Colour of the Light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with suitable Screens.

Art. 7. Ships, whether Steam Ships or Sailing Ships, when at Anchor in Roadsteads or Fairways shall exhibit, where it can best be seen, but at a Height not exceeding Twenty Feet above the Hull, a White Light, in a globular Lantern of Eight Inches in Diameter, and so constructed as to show a clear uniform and unbroken Light visible all round the Horizon, and at a Distance of at least One Mile.

Art. 8. Sailing Pilot Vessels shall not carry the Lights required for other Sailing Vessels, but shall carry a White Light at the Mast-head, visible all round the Horizon,-and shall also exhibit a Flare-up Light every Fifteen Minutes.

Art. 9. Open Fishing Boats and other open Boats shall not be required to carry the Side Lights required for other Vessels; but shall, if they do not carry such Lights, carry a Lantern having a Green Slide on the one Side and a Red Slide on the other Side; and on the Approach of or to other Vessels, such Lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient Time to prevent Collision, so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the Port Side, nor the Red Light on the Starboard Side.

Fishing Vessels and open Boats when at Anchor, or attached to their Nets and stationary, shall exhibit a bright White Light.

Fishing Vessels and open Boats shall, however, not be prevented from using a Flare-up in addition, if considered expedient.

Rules concerning Fug Signals.

Whenever there is Fog, whether by Day or Night, the Fog Signals described below shall be carried and used, and shall be sounded at least every Five Minutes; viz. :

(a) Steam Ships under weigh shall use a Steam Whistle placed before the funnel, not less than eight feet from the deck:

Art. 10.

Art. 12.

Art. 13.

(6) Sailing Ships under weigh shall uso a Fog Horn:

(0) Steam Ships and Sailing Ships when not under weigh shall use a Bell.

Steering and Sailing Rules. Art. 11. If Two Sailing Ships are meeting End on or nearly End on so as to involve Risk of Collision, the Helms of both shall be put to Port, so that each may pass on the Port Side of the other.

When Two Sailing Ship are crossing so as to involve Risk of Collision, then, if they have the Wind on different Sides, the Ship with the Wind on the Port Side shall keep out of the Way of the Ship with the Wind on the Starboard Side; except in the Case in which the Ship with the Wind on the Port Side is closed hauled and the other Ship free, in which Case the latter Ship shall keep out of the Way; but if they have the Wind on the same Side, or if One of them has the Wind aft, the Ship which is to windward shall keep out of the Way of the Ship which is to leeward.

If Two Ships under Steam are meeting End on or nearly End on so as to invole Risk of Collision, the Helms of both shall be put to Port, so that each may pass on the Port Side of the other.

Art. 14. If Two Ships under Steam are crossing so as to involve Risk of Collision, the Ship which has the other on her own Starboard Side shall keep out of the Way of the other.

Art. 15. If Two Ships, one of which is a Sailing Ship, and the other a Steam Ship, are proceeding in such Directions as to involve Risk of Collision, the Steam Ship shall keep out of the Way of he Sailing Ship.

Art. 16. Every Steam Ship, when approaching another Ship so as to involve Risk of Collision, shall slacken her Speed, or, if necessary, stop and reverse ; and every Steam Ship shall, when in a Fog, go at a moderate speed.

Art. 17. Every Vessel overtaking any other Vessel shall keep out of the Way of the said last-mentioned Vessel.

Art. 18. Where by the above Rules One of Two Ships is to keep out of the Way, the other shall keep her Course, subject to the Qualifications contained in the following Article.

Art. 19. In obeying and construing these Rules, due regard must be had to all Dangers of Navigation; and due regard must also be liad to any special Circumstances which may exist in any particular Case rendering a Departure from the above Rules necessary in order to avoid immediate Danger.

Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any Ship, or the Owner, or Master, or Crew thereof, from the Consequences of any

Art. 20.

Neglect to carry Lights or Signals, or of any Neglect to keep a proper Look-out, or of the Neglect of any Precaution which may be required by the ordinary Practice of Seamen, or by the special Circumstances of the Case.

Whereas there has been doubt or misapprehension concerning the effect of the said two articles :

And whereas the Admiralty and the Board of Trade have jointly recommended to her majesty to make the following additions to the said regulations for the purpose of explaining the said recited articles, and of removing the said doubt and misapprehension:

Now, therefore, Her Majesty, by virtue of the powers vested in Her by the said recited Act, and by and with the advice of Her Privy Council, is pleased to make the following additions to the said regulations by way of explanation of the said two recited articles; that is

to say,

The said two articles, numbered 11 and 13 respectively, only apply to cases where ships are meeting end on or nearly end on in such a manner as to involve risk of collision. They consequently do not apply to two ships which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other.

The only cases in which the said two articles apply are when each of the two ships is end on or nearly end on to the other; in other words, to cases in which by day each ship sees the masts of the other in a line or nearly in a line with her own; and by night to cases in which each ship is in such a position as to see both the side lights of the other.

The said two articles do not apply by day to cases in which a ship sees another ahead crossing her own course; or by night to cases where the red light of one ship is opposed to the red light of the other; or where the green light of one ship is opposed to the green light of the other; or where a red light without a green light, or a green light without a red light, is seen ahead; or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but ahead.

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