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HEADS OF

EXAMINATION

In Regulations respecting Lights and Fog Signals and in the Steering and Sailing Rules.

1.

What light or lights are required by the regulations to be exhibited by sailing vessels at anchor in a roadstead or fairway?

A.-One light only, viz., a white light.

2. What light or lights are required by the regulations to be exhibited by steam ships in a roadstead or fairway at anchor.

A.-The same as for sailing vessels.

3. Where is the anchor light to be exhibited?

A.--Where it can best be seen. It must of course be placed where there is the least possible chance of obstruction from spars, ropes, &c., &c.

4. To what height may the anchor light be hoisted?

A.-It may be exhibited at a height of 20 feet above the deck, but not higher.

5.-What is the description of the lantern containing the anchor light required by the regulations?

A.-Globular.

6. In what direction or directions must the anchor light show?

A.-It must show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light, visible all

round the horizon.

7.-At what distance must it be visible?

A.-At least one mile.

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8.-What is the number of lights required by the regulations to be carried by sailing ships when under weigh at night?

A.-Two.

9.-Of what colour are these lights, and how are they to be placed on on board the ship?

A. A green light on the starboard side, and a red light on the port side.

10. What description of light must be shown from the sides of sailing vessels under weigh; and over how many points of the compass, and in what directions, and how far, are they required to show?

A. Each light must be so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 10 points of the compass; so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard and port sides respectively; and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles.

11. What lights are they to carry when being towed at night? A. The same.

12.—Are the side lights required to be fitted with screens; and if so, on what side, and of what length, and how?

A. Yes, on the inboard side; at least three feet in length, measuring forward from the light. They are to be so fitted as to prevent the coloured lights from being seen across the bows.

13. What is the number of lights required by the regulations to be carried by steam ships when under steam at night?

A. Three lights.

14.-Of what colour are these lights, and how are they to be placed on board the ship?

A.-White at the fore-mast head, green on the starboard side, and red on the port side.

15. Over how many points of the compass, in what direction, and how far, is the fore mast-head light of a steamer required to show?

A.-Over 20 points, viz., from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on both sides. It must be of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least five miles.

16.—Are they required to be fitted with screens; and if so, on which side, and of what length?

A.-The green and red lights are to be fitted with screens on the inboard side, extending at least three feet forward from the light, as in the case of sailing vessels.

17.-Over how many points of the compass, in what directions, and how far, are the coloured side lights of steamers required to show?

A. Each light must be so constructed as to show an uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 10 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard and port sides respectively, and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere at a distance of at least two miles.

18.-What description of lights are steamers required by the regulations to carry when they are not under steam, but under sail only?

A.-Side lights only, the same as sailing vessels.

19.-What exceptional lights are to be carried by small sailing vessels in certain cases?

A. Whenever, as in the case of small vessels during bad weather, the green and red lights cannot be fixed, these lights shall be kept on deck, on their respective sides of the vessel, ready for instant exhibition,

and shall, on the approach of or to other vessels, be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side.

To make the use of these portable lights more certain and easy, the lanterns containing them shall each be painted outside with the colour of the light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with suitable screens.

21.- -What description of light are sailing pilot vessels required to carry?

A.-Sailing pilot vessels are not to carry coloured side lights, but a white light like an anchor light, and to burn a flare up every 15 minutes. 22.-What lights are open boats and fishing boats required to carry? A.-Open fishing boats and other open boats shall not be required to carry the side lights required for other vessels; but shall, if they do not carry such lights, carry a lantern having a green slide on the one side and a red slide on the other side; and on the approach of or to other vessels, such lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side.

Fishing vessels and open boats when at anchor, or attached to their nets and stationary, shall exhibit a bright white light.

23.-May open boats use a flare up?

A. Yes, if considered expedient.

24. Is the flare up to be shown by open boats instead of or in addition to the lantern with the coloured slides?

A. The flare up must be in addition to the lantern with the two coloured slides.

25.-What lights are steam ships required to carry when towing other ships?

A.-Steam ships, when towing other ships, shall carry two bright white mast-head lights vertically, in addition to their side lights, so as to distinguish them from other steam ships. Each of these mast-head lights shall be of the same construction and character as the mast-head lights which other steam ships are required to carry.

26.—Are sailing vessels required to use any signals when at anchor or when sailing in thick weather or in a fog; and if so, what are they? A.-Yes; a fog horn and a bell.

27.-When is each sort of signal to be used?

A.-The fog horn is to be sounded when under weigh in a fog, and the bell when in a fog and not under weigh.

28. How often are the fog signals of sailing vessels to be sounded? A.-As often as necessary, but every five minutes at least. 29.-Are steam ships required to use any signals in a fog or in thick weather; and if so, what are they?

A. Yes, a steam whistle and a bell.

30.-When is each signal to be used?

A.-The steam whistle to be sounded when under weigh, and the bell when not under weigh.

31.-How often are the fog signals of steamers to be sounded? A.-As often as necessary, but every five minutes at least.

32.-At what height above the deck is the steam whistle to be placed; and where?

A.-Not less than eight feet above the deck. Before the funnel. 33.-What other precaution is to be observed by steamers when steaming in a fog?

A. The regulations require that steam ships in a fog shall go at a moderate speed.

34.-What precaution is to be taken by steamers approaching another vessel?

A. If there is risk of collision, the steamer is to slacken speed, or if necessary stop and reverse.

35.-If you see a white light alone, what does it denote as regards the ship carrying it?

A.-It denotes the presence of a vessel at anchor, or a pilot vessel, or a fishing vessel attached to her nets; or it may be the foremast-head light of a vessel, under steam, with her side lights not within sight on account of distance, fog, &c.

36.-If you see a green or a red light without a white light, or both a green and a red light without a white light, is the vessel carrying the light or lights seen, a vessel under steam or a vessel under sail? A.-A vessel under sail.

37.-How do you know?

A.-Because there is no white light at the foremast-head.

38.-If you see a white light over a coloured light, is the vessel a vessel under sail or a vessel under steam?

A vessel under steam. The mast-head light denotes that the vessel is under steam.

[The Examiner will then take one model of a vessel, which he will place on the table, and call it A. He will then take the mast or stand with a white and a red ball on it, and place it at the other end of the table, and call it B.

The Examiner should be careful that the model of one vessel only is used when the questions numbered 39 to 49 are asked.]

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