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to any special circumstances which may exist in any particular case to avoid immediate danger.

65.-Is there any general direction in the steering and sailing rules; and if so, what is it?

A.—Yes, it is this: that nothing in the rules shall exonerate any ship, or the owner, master, or crew thereof, for the

consequences of

any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper look-out, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case. 66.-Can you repeat article(—) of the regulations. I refer to the

article containing the rule for (

[The Examiner should repeat this question, naming a different article cach time.).

67.-What does the Act of Parliament provide as to the obligation of owners and masters in obeying the regulations respecting lights, fog signals, and steering and sailing?

A.-Section 27 of “the Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Act, 1862," provides that owners and masters shall be bound to obey the regulations, and it also provides that in case of wilful default by the master or owner he shall be deemed to be guilty of a misdemeanor for each infringement.

68.-What do breaches of the regulations imply?

A.-If an accident happens through non-observance of the regulations, it implies wilful default on the part of the person in charge of the deck at the time, unless it is shown to the satisfaction of the court hearing the case that the special circumstances of the case rendered a departure from the rules necessary.

69.-If collision ensues from a breach of the regulations, who is to be deemed in fault for the collision ?

A.-The person by whom the regulations are infringed, unless the court hearing the case decides to the contrary.

70.--Do the regulations apply to sea-going ships in harbours and in rivers ?

A.-Yes unless there is any rule to the contrary made by a competent authority.

71.-Do they apply to British ships only ?
A.-No, to foreign ships as well.
72.—When did the present regulations come into operation ?
A.-On ist June 1863.

o you know where the present regulations are to be found ? A.-Yes in the Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Act, 1862," and the Order in Council of the 9th January 1863. Copies are given away on application to the Board of Trade.

73.–Do

74.—Is one ship bound to assist another in case of collision ?
A.-Yes.
75:- What is the penalty for default?

A.-If the master or person in charge of the ship fails to render assistance without reasonable excuse, the collision is, in absence of proof to the contrary, to be deemed to be caused by his wrongful act, neglect, or default.

76.—Is there any other penalty attached to not rendering assistance ?

A.-Yes. If it is afterwards proved that he did not render assistance, his certificate may be cancelled or suspended by the court investigating the case.

77.—Is it not expected that you should understand the regulations before you take charge of the deck of a ship?

A.-It is. 78.-Why?

A.-If I do not understand them and am guilty of default, the consequences will be very serious to me.

79.- What would be a serious offence ?

A.-To cause a collision by porting the helm when not required to port by the regulations and without due consideration.

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ON TAKING IN HEAVY WEIGHTS.

A DERRICK.-A derrick is a single spar rounded off at the heel to set in a shoe (similar to a shear-leg); the upper end is made with shoulders or cleats, to stop the purchase-blocks from working down, also the guys. The derrick may be used for many purposes instead of shears to great advantage, especially on board of merchant ships when discharging, it being so easily swung from a perpendicular position to rake over the ship's side, the heel resting in its shoe, and the head canted in any position by the guys. Any kind of a purchase may be used at a derrick-head, but the most general is the single and double burton.

On the subject of providing means.--Few ships go to sea without a spare topmast, or a spar to make one, which spar is in every way calculated for a derrick, if it will make a topmast. The rigging-that is the various guys and ropes necessary to sustain it in its position, and the purchase-blocks for lifting the weight-may be secured to the

spar any height above the deck to suit the particular purpose in hand, without either cutting the spar, or nailing on cleats, as, by a well-managed arrangement of lashings, all slipping or shifting of position may certainly be prevented. It is necessary to observe, as a general rule, that in supporting a yard, or derrick, or shears, the supporting guys should

be attached to the yard or spar at the spot from which the weight is to be suspended.*

Note.—The more a derrick approaches a perpendicular position, the less will be the strain upon the guys.

SECURING LOWER YARDs.f-In hoisting in or out heavy weights by the lower yards, the more you consider them merely as outriggers, the better you will insure their safety. In whatever manner you guy your purchases out to the yard-arms, whether by blocks, thimbles, or lashings, be careful that the purchase pendants render well through them. The yards should be well topped up, good rolling tackles on the opposite side, and trusses well taut after the yards are laid; but should the yards be required for a continuance-as the main-yard is in hoisting in or out heavy guns—the pendant should then go over the lower cap and down on the opposite side of the deck, and be there well lashed to the top tackle bolt. The yard and masts should be covered with canvas sufficiently for cross-lashing the main-yard to the mast, after it is top up. It would be still advisable to have good rolling or yard tackle on the opposite side of the purchase.

To Get HEAVY MACHINERY IN OR OUT.-Protect the side and decks with planks, and shore the beams well up in the between decks. If the machinery is heavy, the best plan is to cant the main-yard a little, untruss it, and pass a strong lashing round the main-yard and mast; then have a spare spar, with a piece of plank under the heel, for a shore from the deck, lashed to the yard, about a foot inside where the yard tackle comes. Over the main hatchway rig a pair of shears, securing them with guys to the fore and mainmast-heads, and putting planks under their heels, which should be on the beam before the main hatchway. According to the size of the shears and strength of purchase, almost any weight may be lifted out in this manner; and it is recommended, when getting heavy machinery in or out, to use the yard tackle over the hatchway as well as the other in case of accident; and in lowering over the side, use the tackle on the shears to lower with, as well as the yard tackle.

* “By examining the merits and character of a derrick, it will, no doubt, be found to possess advantages so numerous and valuable as to render it superior in every respect to a lower yard for the purpose of lifting a heavy weight. The main and principal advantages are, that it transfers the whole weight to the deck, which can be well supported by props below ; it relieves all anxiety about the safety of the mast and yard, and it can be placed vertically, or at any angle most suitable to a particular

It can be supported without any difficulty, either with or without the aid of a mast; it is very soon rigged and ready for use, and as quickly dismantled. These advantages are sufficiently numerous to recommend it for general use in all cases where strength is required."-An Enquiry relative to various Important Points of Seamanship, by Nicholas Tinmouth, Master Attendant, Woolwich Dockyard.

+ From Professional Recollections, by Captain Liadert, R.N.

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ACCIDENTS.

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CLOSE-HAULED AND SPRING YOUR BOWSPRIT.—Hard up the helm, brail up the spanker, and get her before the wind; get a hawser from the mast-head, and another from the topmast-head led in through the hawse pipes, and set up to the bowsprit, not forgetting to parcel them in the way of the hawse pipes. Send the flying jib-boom in, send down the foretopgallantmast, fish the bowsprit with spare spars, reeve the stays through the hawse-pipes, and set them up.

BOWSPRIT CARRIED AWAY.—Get the ship before the wind, secure the foremast, clear away the wreck, and rig a jury bowsprit of a spare maintopmast or a jib-boom.

BOBSTAYS CARRIED AWAY.—Bobstays are generally carried away when sailing by the wind, and mostly in rough weather; therefore, the instant it is known, the ship should be put before the wind, and should the bobstays be gone in the way of the cutwater, it will be very difficult to reeve new bobstays. The best way, perhaps, is to take a few lengths of the stream chain cable, with which make a clove-hitch round the bowsprit as much outside the bobstay collars as possible; then take the ends through the inner hawse-holes, one on each side, heave them both well taut together, and set up to the windlass.

THE CAP ON THE MAST-HEAD WORKED LOOSE.—Make wedges and wedge it tight again; if this cannot be done, put a good lashing round the topmast and mast-head.

THE TRESTLE-TREES CARRIED AWAY.-Reeve as stout a rope as the sheave-hole will permit through it, splice a thimble in both ends, and set it up as tight as possible to the eye-bolts in the cap, or to the cap itself.

MAIN-YARD SPRUNG IN THE SLINGS.—Take a couple of studdingsailbooms and cut each of them in two halves, lengthways put these four halves round the yard and fish it.

THE PARRAL OF TOPGALLANT-YARD CARRIED AWAY.-In such a case, much of the whole force and weight of the yard and sail are thrown on the mast-head, and the topgallantmast is endangered by it. If the ship is by the wind, brace the topgallantsail aback immediately, and lower it at the same time; but if before the wind, immediately brace by and lower the topgallant-yard. Great care must be taken that the topgallant-sheets are not started, as that would much endanger the mast by the sail forcing itself against, and perhaps entangling itself round, the topgallant-stay.

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be attached to the yard or spar at the spot i. be suspended.*

Note.-The more a derrick approaches a perper the strain upon

the

guys. SECURING LOWER YARD.-In hoisting the lower yards, the more you consider thei better you will insure their safety. In what purchases out to the yard-arms, whether by ings, be careful that the purchase pendants The yards should be well topped up, good i site side, and trusses well taut after the yar yards be required for a continuance-as the or out heavy guns—the pendant should the down on the opposite side of the deck, and top tackle bolt. The yard and masts shou. sufficiently for cross-lashing the main-yard up. It would be still advisable to have goc the opposite side of the purchase.

TO GET HEAVY MACHINERY IN OR OUT. with planks, and shore the beams well uj the machinery is heavy, the best plan is to untruss it, and pass a strong lashing round then have a spare spar, with a piece of p! shore from the deck, lashed to the yard, ab yard tackle comes. Over the main hatch securing them with guys to the fore and mai planks under their heels, which should be on hatchway. According to the size of the shi chase, almost any weight may be lifted out recommended, when getting heavy machinery tackle over the hatchway as well as the othc: in lowering over the side, use the tackle on as well as the yard tackle.

* “By examining the merits and character of a derr. to possess advantages so numerous and valuable as to spect to a lower yard for the purpose of lifting a principal advantages are, that it transfers the whole we well supported by props below; it relieves all anxiety and yard, and it can be placed vertically, or at any an

It can be supported without any difficulty, eithe mast; it is very soon rigged and ready for use, and a. advantages are sufficiently numerous to recommend where strength is required.”—An Enquiry relatire to ex manship, by Nicholas Tinmouth, Master Attendant, W.

† From Professional Recollections, by Captain Liadert,

case.

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