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the iron band close to the stern-post. Have a kedge with a slip-rope to sink the rudder, which, being put over the side and brought to the rudder trunk, can easily be hauled into its place; haul the chains taut forward, one on each side; put the cap on, ship the tiller, and put a lashing on each side the rudder-head to the deck, to keep the rudder from lifting.*

A spare cap cut away at the after-part, so as to fit the stern-post at the water's edge or a little below, may be used instead of the iron band as in the above plan, the topmast being passed through the round hole of the cap. To the topmast, which is the main piece of the rudder, will, of course, be bolted pieces of spar, so as to assume as much as possible the shape of a rudder, and pieces of plank will be nailed athwart it.

NOTE.--"A ship might lose her rudder at a critical moment in crossing the bar of a river, when a few minutes more might run her aground if she were unmanageable; and, in this case, what temporary rudder is best becomes a question for which a few moments only are given to decide. The plan of steering by the stream cable payed out astern, or with the stern-boat lowered instantly, with the plug out, and towed astern by a hawser, with guys leading up to each quarter, would, perhaps, then be adopted, while a ship losing her rudder at sea would have leisure to adopt any other plan.

" It might be an advantage if every vessel would take some opportunity of trying how she could steer with a stern-boat in the manner described, and what length of towline was required to enable her to steer the most easily, so as to avoid wild yawing. The experiment might be made in moderate weather with the wind on the quarter, and also right aft, under topsails, topgallantsails, and foresail, running five or six knots. Nothing gives confidence so much as practice.The Kedge Anchor, By W. Brady, U.S. Navy.

BOARD OF TRADE INSTRUCTIONS For the Guidance of Masters and Seamen when using the Mortar and

Rocket Apparatus for Saving Life.

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In the event of your vessel stranding on the coasts of the United Kingdom, and the lives of the crew being placed in danger, assistance will, if possible, be rendered from the shore in the following manner, namely:

A rocket, or shot with a thin line attached will be fired across your vessel. Get hold of this line as soon as you can, and when you

have secured it, let one of tho crew be separated from the rest, and, if in the day time, wave his hat or his hand, or a flag or handkerchief; or, if at

* The above plan of a jury rudder was given me at Sheerness by a gentleman, who, many years ago, constructed a rudder on this plan for a frigate of which he was carpenter. The plan is substantially the same as that given by Capt. Sedgwick, in Golden Hints to Young Mariners.

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night, let a rocket, a blue light, or a gun be fired, or let a light be dis

a played over the side of the ship and be again concealed, as a signal to those on shore.

When you see one of the men on shore separated from the rest, wave a Red flag, or (if at night) show a Red light and then conceal it; you are to haul upon the rocket line until you get a tailed block with an endless fall rove through it. 3.

Make the tail of the block fast to the mast about fifteen feet abore the deck, or if your masts are gone, to the highest secure part of the vessel. When the tail block is made fast, and the rocket line unbent from the whip, let one of the crew, separated from the rest, make the signal required by Article 1 above.

4. As soon as the signal is seen on shore, a hawser will be bent to the whip line, and will be hauled off to the ship by those on shore.

5. When the hawser is got on board, the crew should at once make it fast to the same part of the ship as the tailed block is made fast to, only about eighteen inches higher, taking care that there are no turns of the whip line round the hawser.

6. When the hawser has been made fast on board, the signal directed to be made in Article i above is to be repeated.

7. The men on shore will then pull the hawser taut, and by means of the whip line will haul off to the ship a sling life-buoy, into which the person to be hauled ashore is to get and be made fast. When he is in, and secure, one of the crew must be separated from the rest, and again signal to the shore as directed in Article i above. The people on shore will then haul the person in the sling to the shore, and when he has landed will haul back the empty sling to the ship for others. This operation will be repeated until all persons are hauled ashore from the wrecked vessel.

8. It may sometimes happen that the state of the weather and the condition of the ship will not admit of a hawser being set up; in such cases a sling life-buoy will be hauled off instead, and the shipwrecked persons will be hauled through the surf, instead of along a hawser.

Masters and crews of stranded vessels should bear in mind that SUCCESS in landing them in a great measure DEPENDS UPON THEIR COOLNESS, AND ATTENTION TO THE RULES HERE LAID DOWN; and that by attending to them many lives are annually saved by the mortar and rocket apparatus on the coasts of the United Kingdom.

The system of signalling must be strictly adhered to; and all women, children, passengers, and helpless persons should be landed before the crow of the ship.

INVOICES.

INVOICE.-An account of goods sent by merchants to their correspondents at home or abroad, in which the peculiar marks, the numbers, the value, and contents of such packages are set forth; as also charges, such as freight, insurance, &c.

MANIFEST.

MANIFEST.-A document, signed by the master, containing the name or names of the place or places where the goods on board have been laden, and the place or places for which they are respectively destined; the name and tonnage of the vessel; the name of the master, and the name of the place to which the vessel belongs; a particular account and description of all the packages on board, with the marks and numbers thereon; the goods contained in such packages, goods stowed loose, the names of the respective shippers and consignees, as far as such particulars are known to the master. The manifest must be made out, dated, and signed by the master, at the place or places where the goods, or any part of the goods, are taken on board.

BILLS OF LADING.

BILLS OF LADING.-An acknowledgment, signed usually by the master of a ship, certifying the receipt of goods on board, and engaging, under certain exceptions, to deliver the said goods safely at the port to which the ship is bound, either to the shipper or to such other person as he may signify by a written assignment upon the bills of lading, on the payment of the stipulated freight.

The exceptions in a bill of lading are—the Act of God, the Queen's enemies, fire, and all and every other accidents and dangers of the seas, rivers and navigation of whatever kind or nature soever. Sometimes these exceptions are limited in particular trades; thus, in the trade to and from the West Indies, the following limitation is added : “save risk of boats, so far as ships are liable thereto;" but the exception does not make the owner or master liable for a loss in the boats to which they would not be liable in the ship to which the boats belong.

The bills of lading determine the contents of the cargo of a ship.

Although the goods are shipped in pursuance of a charter-party, yet the master must sign bills of lading—the former being the instrument

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and evidence of the contract for the shipping and conveyance; and the latter being the evidence of and title to the particular goods shipped for conveyance under that contract.

On delivery of the goods on board, the master or his mate signs a common receipt for them, which must be returned to the master, or cancelled, on the bills of lading being delivered. Bills of lading ought to be signed within 24 hours after the delivery of the goods on board, the master having satisfied himself as to the quantity shipped and the condition in which they are shipped. The bills of lading should always be read previous to signing, as objectionable clauses might be inserted.

Three stamped bills of lading are usually made out, one for the merchant or shipper-another (which is sent by post) for his agent or consignee—and a third is retained by the master for his own use and security, and for his guidance in delivering the goods.

When the quantity, quality, or condition of the goods, or the contents of the casks, bales, or packages, are unknown, or the goods are liable to deterioration, the master ought to qualify his obligations in the bills of lading, by writing under his signature, “Quantity and quality," or " Contents unknown,” or “Not liable for deterioration."

When the ship is hired by a charter-party, the bills of lading are delivered by the master to the charterer, but when goods are sent by a general ship* (that is, one in which the goods of several unconnected parties are laden, to be conveyed to the ship's port of destination), each person sending goods on board receive bills of lading for the same.

Upon delivery of the goods at the port of destination to the shippers' factors, or assigns, the giving up of the bills of lading sent to the factors or assigns is a sufficient discharge, but the master may insist on a receipt.

Bills of lading are transferable, either by blank or special endorsement, like ordinary bills of exchange, and the master is bound to deliver the goods to the holder producing the endorsed bill, who has acquired a legal right to it.

In case several parties claim the goods, or where there is a doubt as to who is entitled to delivery of them, the master should lodge the goods in the custody of a wharfinger or warehouseman, so as to preserve his lion for the freight; and he should do the same if no such bill of lading is produced to him during the lay days, or the demurrage days, when they are fixed; and then he should apply for a judicial authority to sell as much of the cargo as will pay the freight and charges.

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* In bills of lading of a general ship to consignees in England from consignors abroad, in order to have a remedy for demurrage, take care to have inserted the clause—“ Consignees paying freight and demurrage."

CHARTER-PART Y.

CHARTER-PARTY.—A contract in writing, between the owner or master of a ship and the freighter, by which the former lets the ship, or part of the ship, under certain specified conditions, for the conveyance of the goods of the freighter to some particular place or places. Generally, however, a charter-party is a contract for the use of the whole ship.

No precise form of words or set of stipulations is requisite in a charter-party. The forms of charter-party may, and indeed in many cases must, be varied to suit the views and intentions of the party concerned.

A charter-party specifies the nature of the voyage, and expresses the terms on which the cargo is carried. The owners or masters usually stipulate that the ship shall be tight, staunch, and strong, and in every respect seaworthy; well and sufficiently found with all the tackling, apparel, furniture, and provisions requisite, and with the proper complement of crew for the voyage; that the ship shall be ready by a day appointed to receive the cargo, and wait a certain number of days to take it on board; that, after lading, she shall sail with the first fair wind and opportunity for the port of destination (the dangers of the sea excepted), and there deliver the goods to the merchant or his assigns in the same condition they were received on board; and further, that during the course of the voyage the ship shall be kept tight and staunch, and furnished with sufficient men and other necessaries, to the best of the owner's endeavours. On the other hand, the merchant usually covenants to load and unload the ship within a limited number of days after she shall be ready to receive the cargo, and after arrival at the destined port, and to pay freight in the manner appointed. It is usual, also, for each of the parties to bind himself in penalties for non-performances of the covenants, articles, and agreements in the charterparty—it is signed by the contracting parties and a witness.

A charter-party is generally under seal, but sometimes a printed or written instrument is signed by the parties, called a memorandum of a charter-party; and this, if a formal charter-party be not afterwards executed, is binding. But in whatever form the writing may be, it must bear a stamp, in terms of the Stamp Act.

A charter-party when the ship is let at the place of the owner's residence, is generally executed by them, or some of them (and frequently by the master also), and by the merchant or his agent. In a foreign port it must necessarily be executed by the master or the owner's authorised agent (if such there be) and the freighter or his agent.

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