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THE OFFICIAL LOG-BOOK.

THE Board of Trade sanctions forms of official log-books, which may be different for different classes of ships, so that each such form contains blanks for the entries after-mentioned, and an official log of every ship (except ships employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of the United Kingdom) must be kept in the appropriate sanctioned form; and this official log can, at the discretion of the master or owner, either be kept distinct from the ordinary ship's log, or united therewith,--so that, in all cases, all the blanks in the official log be duly filled. Every entry in every official log must be made as soon as possible after the occurrence to which it relates, and, if not made on the same day as the occurrence to which it relates, must be made and dated so as to show the date of the occurrence and of the entry respecting it, and in no case must any entry therein in respect of any occurrence happening previously to the arrival of the ship at her final port of discharge, be made more than twenty-four hours after that arrival.

Every master of a ship, for which an official log-book is required by the act, must make or caused to be made therein, entries of the following matters:

1. Every legal conviction of any member of his crew, and the punishment inflicted.

2. Every offence committed by any member of his crew, for which it is intended to prosecute, or to enforce a forfeiture, or to exact a fine; together with such statement concerning the reading over such entry, and concerning the reply (if any) made to the charge as required by sec. 244.

3. Every offence for which punishment is inflicted on board, and the punishment inflicted.

A statement of the conduct, character, and qualification of each of his crew, or a statement that he declines giving an opinion on such particulars.

5. Every case of illness or injury happening to any member of the crew, with the nature thereof, and the medical treatment adopted (if any).

6. Every case of death happening on board, and of the cause thereof.

7. Every birth happening on board, with the sex of the infant and the names of the parents.

8. Every marriage taking place on board, with the names and ages of the parties.

9. The names of every seaman or apprentice who ceases to be a member of the crew, otherwise than by death, with the place, time, manner, and cause thereof.

10. The amount of wages due to any seaman who enters Her Majesty's service during the voyage.

II.

The wages due to any seaman or apprentice who dies during the voyage, and the gross amount of all deductions to be made therefrom.

12. The sale of the effects of any seaman or apprentice who dies during the voyage, including a statement of each article sold, and of the sum received for it.

13. Every collision with any other ship, and the circumstances under which the same has occurred (sec. 282).

In the case of foreign-going ships, the master must, within fortyeight hours after the ship's arrival at her final port of destination in the United Kingdom, or upon the discharge of the crew, whichever first happens, deliver to the Shipping Master, before whom the crew is discharged, the official log-book of the voyage.

The entries hereby required to be made in official log-books shall be signed as follows: that is to say, every such entry shall be signed. by the master and by the mate, or some other of the crew; and every entry of illness, injury or death, shall also be signed by the surgeon or medical practitioner on board (if any); and every entry of wages due to, or of the sale of the effects of any seaman or apprentice who dies, shall be signed by the master and by the mate, and some other member of the crew; and every entry of wages due to any seaman who enters Her Majesty's service shall be signed by the master and by the seaman, or by the officer authorised to receive the seaman into such service.

LEADING LIGHTS IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL.

ON THE ENGLISH COAST.

Bishop Rock-Scilly Isles-One fixed light.
W. N., 4 miles from St. Agnes' light.
Lat. 49° 52' N., Long. 6° 27' W.
Hidden between the bearings of S.W. by W.
and W. by N. N., visible 16 miles.
St. Agnes-Scilly Isles-One revolving
light, every minute, visible 17 miles.
Seven Stones-Lightvessel, in 40 fathoms
-Two fixed lights (has two masts).
Longships-One fixed light, visible 14 miles.
Wolf-(Building).

N.B.- of a mile E. by N. is frequently a vessel moored, with a light. Lizard-Two fixed lights, visible 21 miles. When in one, these lights keep clear of the Manacles to the eastward; and of the Wolf to the westward.

St. Anthony's-entrance to Falmouth

One revolving light, every 20 seconds. A fixed light (White), 37 feet below revolving

light, to clear Manacles Rocks, only seen between the bearings N.N.E. E. and N. by E. E. Eddystone-One fixed light, visible 13

miles.

Start Point-One revolving light, every minute.

In the same Tower is shown a fixed light in the direction of Berry Head, visible only when the Start Point bears between W. S. and S.W. by S.; also a faint continuous light is seen within 10 miles.

Portland-near the Bill-Two fixed lights.
When in one, bearing N.N.W. W., they lead
between the Race and Shambles.
Shambles-Lightvessel, on East end of

shoal in 15 fathoms-One fixed light. Needles-Isle of Wight--One fixed light. Red from N.W.AN. round Westward to S.W. by W., except between East and E.S.E., when it will appear as a White light; it also appears White from N.E. by E. to N.E. by E. E. Hurst-Two fixed lights, visible 13 and

10 miles.

Leading light up the Solent is shown from lantern of the high lighthouse, 76 feet above high

water.

St. Catherine-Isle of Wight-One fixed light, visible 19 miles. Daboll's fog-horn traverses an arc of 215° from E. S. to N.W. by Southward, the duration being 5 seconds, with an interval of 15 seconds. Warner--Lightvessel--One revolving

Ushant-N.W. point of Island-One revolving light every 20 seconds. Twice Bright, once Red. Lat. 48° 28'5 N., Long. 5° 3' W. Ushant-N.E. point of Island-One fixed light. Hanois Rock-One revolving light, every 45 seconds; Red light visible all round

the western horizon.

The Casquets bear N.E. by E. E., a miles.

light, every minute.

In 13 fathoms, on East side of Bank. Bembridge, or Nab-Lightvessel, in 5 fathoms Two fixed lights. Owers-Lightvessel, in 19 fathoms-One

fixed light.

Beachy Head-One revolving light, every 2 minutes. (Brilliance 15 seconds, darkness 1 minute).

Kept open of the next Eastern Cliff, leads outside the Royal Sovereign, and other shoals. Note the difference between this light and that on Cape Grisnez, which flashes every half minute.

Dungeness-One fixed light, visible 15

miles.

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ON THE FRENCH COAST.

Casquets--opposite Bill of Portland--Three revolving lights, every 20 seconds.

Relative position E. N., S.W. W., and N.W. W. The three lights will appear as two when viewed in either of these three or in the opposite directions.

Barfleur-One revolving light, every half minute; does not quite disappear within the distance of 12 miles.

LIGHTS ON THE EAST COAST OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.

350

Cape de la Hague-One fixed light.
Cape de la Heve-Two fixed lights.
Fecamp-One fixed light.
Ailly-One revolving light, every minute;
eclipses not total within 10 miles.
Alpreck-One fixed and flashing light,

St. Nicholas--Lightvessel--Two fixed lights At Northern extremity of Hewitt's Channel, one Bright and one Red. The latter at the afterpart of the Lightvessel, 20 feet above the water.

EAST COAST OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.

Kentish Knock-Light vessel-One revol-
ving light, every
minute.
On the East side of the Sand in 11 fathoms,
carries 2 Balls, vertical.
Galloper-Lightvessel-Two fixed lights.
On S.W. part of Shoal, in 20 fathoms.
Sunk-Lightvessel-One fixed light.
Fairway East of Swin, in of fathoms.
Shipwash-Lightvessel-One fixed light.
Off N.E. end of Sand, in of fathoms.
Orfordness-Two fixed lights.

When in one, S. of the Ness, they lead through
Hollesley Bay, close to the N.W. edge of the
Whiting, and across the outer edge of the
Cutler Sand; and to the North, they lead in-
side of the Knoll, the Ridge, and the Napes.
Pakefield-One fixed Red light.
Lowestoft-Two fixed lights.
Corton Lightvessel-One_revolving light,
every 20 seconds a Red face.
Corton Gatway-Two fixed Red lights.
Kept in a line, N.N.W. W., lead through the
Gatway.

Cockle-Lightvessel-One revolving light

every minute.

At North entrance, Eastern side, in 5 fathoms.
Winterton-One fixed light.
Newarp-Lightvessel-Three triangular

fixed lights.

Near the North end of the Cross Sand, in 17 fathoms.

Hasborough-Two fixed lights.

In one, N.W. by W., they lead through Hasborough Gatway. Hasborough--Lightvessel--Two fixed lights Near North end of the Sand, in 15 fathoms. Leman and Ower--Lightvessel--Two lights; upper light revolves every minute; lower, fixed.

every 2 minutes a Red flash; flash preceded and followed by a short eclipse. Cape Grisnez-opposite Dungeness-One

Near the S.E. point of the Ower, but 5 miles S. of its shoalest spot, and 4 miles E.S.E. of the shoalest part of the Leman.

revolving light, every half minute; eclipses not total within 12 miles. The illuminating apparatus is now superseded by an electric one. The flashes are of greater duration and intensity than before.

Cromer-One revolving light, every minute.

Dudgeon-Lightvessel-One fixed light.
Near the Shoal, in 9 fathoms.
Outer Dowsing-Lightvessel--One revol-

ving light, Red face every 20 seconds. On the Western side of the Sand, in o fathoms. Spurn-Lightvessel-One revolving light

every minute.

Off the Point, River Humber, in 9 fathoms.
Spurn-on the Point-Two fixed lights.
Bull Sand-Lightvessel-One fixed light.
S.E. end of Bull Sand, in 5 fathoms.
Flambro' Head-One revolving light every
2 minutes; two flashes Bright, one
Red. When bearing N.N.E., clears
North end of Smithic Shoal.
Whitby-Two Bright fixed lights.

South Lighthouse open East of North one clears
Whitby Scar Rock, a Red light from North
Tower inshore of and over Scar Rock. Lights
visible from N. 28 W. round Westerly to
S. 17° E.

Hartlepool-on the Heugh-Two fixed

lights in one tower; high light Bright, low light Red.

Upper light all night; small lower light, from
half flood to half ebb.

Sunderland-North Pier Head-Two fixed
lights in one tower.
Sunderland-South Pier Head-One fixed

light.

The lower light on North Pier Head is a small (distinguishing) Red light, 18 feet below the upper light; and both are exhibited all night. South Pier light exhibited from half flood to first quarter ebb. Souter Point-(Building.) Tynemouth-One revolving light, every

minute.

Coquet-S.W. part of the Island-One fixed light, Bright.

Brilliant when seen from the Eastward, between

S. by W. W., and N. by E. E. A dim light
is seen round the remainder of the circle.
In the direction of Hauxley Point Buoy and
Boulmer Rocks it appears Red.

LIGHTS ON THE EAST COAST OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.

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351

Pentland Skerries-on the Island-Two fixed lights.

Bearing N.N.E. and S.S.W.

Dunnet Head-on the Head-One fixed light.

Visble from S.E. E. to W. by N. N., by the North. Holburn Head-One flashing light, every IO seconds.

Cantic Head-Orkney Islands-One revolving light, every minute. Hoy-Orkney Islands-Two fixed lights. The high light stands on the N.E. point of Gremsa Island; and the low light on its N.W. point. High light, Red from Seaward, but White when between S.S.E. E. and W.S.W.; it also lights a small are towards Cava, in Scapa Flow, between N. W. and N.N.W. W. The low light, White, is visible between E. S. and W. N. round by S. When the lights are in one, they lead between the rocks of Bow and Kirk; when within half-a-mile of the shore on this line, the high light disappears below the foreground, and it is then time to haul towards the Stromness shore, when the Red light will re-appear.

Start Point-on the East Point of Sanday Island-One fixed light.

North Ronaldsha-on the North PointOne flashing light, flashes every 10 seconds.

Sumburgh Head-on the S.W. Point of the Shetlands-One fixed light.

Visible from N.E. by E. E., round to N.W. by N. N. by the Southward.

Cape Wrath-on the Cape, N.W. point of Scotland-One revolving light, every 2 minutes; Bright and Red alternately.

Visible from S. E. to S.W. by W., by the N. Butt of Lewis-N. Point-One fixed light. Barra Head-highest part of Bernera

Island, S. Point of Hebrides-One
Intermittent light.

White 2 minutes, then darkminute, visible from N. by E. to E.N.E., by W. and S.

Sherryvore on the Rock, 12 miles W.S.W. from Tyree Island-One revolving light, every minute.

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