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LIGHTS ON THE EAST COAST OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.

Cape de la Hague-One fixed light.
Cape de la Here-Two fixed lights.
Fecamp-One fixed light.
Ailly-One revolving light, every minute ;

eclipses not total within 10 miles. Alpreck-One fixed and flashing light,

every 2 minutes a Red flash; flash pre

ceded and followed by a short eclipse. Cape Grisnes-opposite Dungeness-One

revolving light, every half minute;

eclipses not total within 12 miles. The illuminating apparatus is now superseded

by an electric one. The tashes are of greater duration and intensity than before.

EAST COAST OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.

9

every minute.

Kentish Knock-Lightvessel-One revol- | Cromer-One revolving light, every minving light, every minute.

ute. On the East side of the Sand in 11 fathoms, Dudgeon-Lightvessel-One fixed light. carries 2 Balls, vertical.

Near the Shoal, in 9 fathoms, Galloper-Lightvessel-Two fixed lights. Outer Dousing-Lightvessel--One revolOn S.W. part of Shoal, in 20 fathoms,

ving light, Red face every 20 seconds. Sunk-Lightvessel-One fixed light.

On the Western side of the Sand, in o fathoms. Fairway East of Swin, in o fathoms.

Spurn-Lightvessel-One revolving light Shipwash - Lightvessel-One fixed light. off N.E. end of Sand, in oh fathoms.

Off the Point, River Humber, in o fathoms. Orfordness-- Two fixed lights.

Spurn-on the Point-Two fixed lights. When in one, S. of the Ness, they lead through Hollesley Bay, close to the N.W. edge of the

Bull Sand-Lightvessel-One fixed light. Whiting, and across the outer edge of the S.E. end of Bull Sand, in 5 fathoms. Cutler Sand; and to the North, they lead in- Flambro' Head-One revolving light every side of the Knoll, the Ridge, and the Napes.

2 minutes; two flashes Bright, one PakefieldOne fixed Red light,

Red. When bearing N.N.E., clears Lowestoft-Two fixed lights.

North end of Smithic Shoal. Corton Lightressel-One revolving light, Whitby-Two Bright fixed lights. every 20 seconds a Red face.

South Lighthouse open East of North one clears Corton Gatway--Two fixed Red lights.

Whitby Scar Rock, a Red light from North

Tower inshore of and over Scar Rock. Lights Kept in a line, N.N.W. W., lead through the

visible from N. 28° W. round Westerly to Gatway.

S. 17° E. St. Nicholas--Lightvessel--Two fixed lights Hartlepool-on the Heugh-Two fixed At Northern extremity of Hewitt's Channel, one Bright and one Red. The latter at the

lights in one tower; high light Bright, afterpart of the Lightvessel, 20 feet above the low light Red.

Upper light all night; small lover light, from Cocklc-Lightvessel-One revolving light

half flood to half ebb. every minute.

Sunderland-North Pier Head-Two fixed At North entrance, Eastern side, in 5 fathoms. lights in one tower. Winterton-One fixed light.

Sunderland-South Pier Head-One fixed Newarp-Lightvessel—Three triangular

light. fixed lights.

The lower light on North Pier Head is a small Near the North end of the Cross Sand, in 17

(clistinguishing) Red light, 18 feet below the fathoms.

upper light; and both are exhibited all night.

South Pier light exhibited from half flood to Hasborough-Two fixed lights.

first quarter ebb. In one, N.W. by W., they lead through Has

Souter Point-(Building.) borough Gatway.

Tynemouth-One revolving light, every Hasborough--Lightvessel-- Two fixed lights

minute. Near North end of the Sand, in 15 fathoms. Leman and Ower-- Lightvessel--Twolights;

Coquet-S.W. part of the Island-One

fixed light, Bright. upper light revolves every minute;

Brilliant when seen from the Eastward, between lower, fixed.

S. by W. W., and N. by E. } E. A dim light Near the S.E. point of the Ower, but 5 miles S. is seen round the remainder of the circle.

of its shoalest spot, and 4 miles E.S.E. of the In the direction of Hauxley Point Buoy and shoalest part of the Leman,

Boulmer Rocks it appears Red.

water.

LIGHTS ON THE EAST COAST OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND,

351

every 10 seconds.

point.

Farn—Two Lights; high revolving every Pentland Skerries-on the Island-Two half minute; low, fixed.

fixed lights. Highest light, near S.W. point of the Island; lowest, near it: N.W. Low light is visible

Bearing N.N.E. and S.S.W. between the bearings of S.S.E. } E. and S. E. Dunnet Head-on the Head-One fixed Longstone-One revolving light, every

light. half minute.

Visble from S.E. E. to W. by N. I N., by the

North. St. Abb's Head-One flashing light, flashes

Holburn Head-One flashing light, every

10 seconds. Inchkeith-on the summit of the IslandOne revolving light, every minute. Cantic Head-Orkney Islands-One re

volving light, every minute. Isle of Yay-on the summit of the Island Two fixed lights.

Hoy-Orkney Islands—Two fixed lights. When in one, bearing S.S.W. W. and N.N.E., The high light stands on the N.E. point of E., they lead about half a mile to the Eastward Gremsa Island; and the low light on its N.W. of the North Carr Rock. The lights must on

Iligh light, Red from Seaward, but no account be opened to the Westward.

White when between S.S.E. E. and V.S.W.; Bell Rock-One revolving light, every 2

it also lights a small are towards Cava, in

Scapa How, between N. ) W. and N.N.V. minutes, Bright and Red alternately. W.* The low light, White, is visible between

E. } S. and W. N. round by S. When the Buddonness or Tay-on the Ness-Two

lights are in one, they lead between the rocks fixed lights.

of Bow and Kirk; when within half-a-mile of Bearing N.N.W.X W. and S.S.E. E. Learling the shore on this line, the high light disappears lights between the Gan and Abertay Sands, below the foreground, and it is then time to at the mouth of the river Tay.

haul towards the Stromness shore, when the

Red light will re-appear. Girdleness - on the Ness -- Two fixed lights Vertical, in the same tower. Seen from N.N.E. Start Point-on the East Point of Sanday to W.S.W.) W. by the Eastward.

Island-One fixed light. Buchanness—on the Ness-One flashing | North Ronaldsha-on the North Pointlight, flashes every 5 seconds.

One flashing light, flashes every 10 Visible from N. by E. to S.W. by W. by the

seconds. Eastward. Kinnaird Heach-on the Head-One fixed

Sumburgh Head-on the S.W. Point of the light.

Shetlands-Ono fixed light. Shows Red N.N.W. W., and Northerly as far Visible froin X.E. by E. I E., round to N.W. by as the land admits. Visible from W.N.W. to

N. N. by the Southward. S.S.E. | E., Northerly and Easterly.

Cape Wrath-on the Cape, N.W. point of Covesea Skerries-on Craig Head-One re- Scotland–One revolving light, every volving light, every minute.

2. minutes; Bright and Red alterVisible from W. by N. | N., round Northerly and Easterly, to S.E. by E. | E., Bright; but

nately. from S.E. by E. E. Southerly to S.E.S.,

Visible from S. } E. to S.W. by W., by the N. Red.

Butt of Lerris-N. Point-One fixed light. Tarbetness-on the Ness-Oneintermittent light.

Barra Head-highest part of Bernera Visible 2 minutes, then suddenly eclipsed half Island, 8. Point of Hebrides-One

a minute. But to the Westward of the Ness, Intermittent light. the light is permanently visible.

White 2) minutes, then dark i minnte, visible Noss Ilead-on the Head-One revolving from X by E. to E.N.E., by W. and S.

light, every half minute; Bright to

seaward and Red towards Sincluir Bay Skerryvore-on the Rock, 12 miles W.S.W. Visible from W.w.w. to s.W. | W., by the

from Tyree Island–One revolving Eastward.

light, every minuto.

15 miles.

12 miles.

LEADING LIGHTS OF ST. GEORGE'S CHANNEL.

COAST OF IRELAND. Fastnet—on the summit of the Rock-One | Bailey-On S.E. Point of Howth Penin

revolving light, every 2 minutes; visi- sula-One fixed light, visible 15 miles. ble 18 miles.

Houth-On E. Pier Head-One fixed Red This is instead of that formerly shown on Cape light, visible ir miles.

Clear. There is a dangerous rock, carrying Rockabill-One flashing light, every 12 only 11 feet at low water, 400 yards N.E. by E. of the Fastnet.

seconds. White tash between N. i W. Kinsale-on S. Point of the Old Head- and S.W. by S. Red flash towards One fixed light, visible 21 miles.

land. Red light is shown in a line to the Horse Rock, Carlingford-On Haulbowline Rock-Two

in Courtmacsherry Bay; Bright to Seaward. fixed lights in the same tower, visible Cork Harbou-on Roche Point-Two

lights; upper light Red, revolving The lower light from half food to half ebb. every minute; lower, Bright, fixed.

Dundrzem Buy-On St. John's Point-One The lower bright light at foot of tower, marks intermittent light, every minute, visi. the Daunt Rock.

ble 12 miles. Ballycotton-on the Outer Island-One

The light is Red for 45 seconds-suddenly flashing light, every 10 seconds; visible

eclipsed for 15 seconds. 18 miles.

South Rock-On the rock-One revolving seen from E. I N., round Southerly, to W.AN.

light, every minute and a half, visible There are red panes of glass at the foot of the apparatus, to warn vessels not to approach

within that mark. When visible tack off shore. Copeland-Onsmall Copeland Island - One Minehead-S. side of Head-One inter- fixed light, visible 16 miles. mittent light, every minute.

Maidens-On the Rocks, Two fixed lights, Bright 50 seconds; suddenly eclipsed 10 seconds. visible 13 and 14 miles. Seen from E. by N. . N. to W. S., and visi

Rathlin--On N.E. Point of Island-Two ble 21 miles. Waterford-Hook Tower, E. side of on

lights in same tower; the upper light trance-One fixed light, visible 16

revolving every minute, giving a Bright miles.

light during 50 seconds, then eclipsed Saltecs--Light vessel – Two fixed lights,

for 10 seconds. The lower light, fixed. visible 9 miles.

The upper light visible from Seavard, between

the bearings of S.E. I S., round by the East. Off Coningbeg Rock, the Southernmost of tho

ward, to N.E. by N.; and in the channel Saltees Islands, in 32 fathoms.

Westward of Rathlin Island, from E.X.L. Tuskar-On the Rock-One revolving N. to E. I N., and i coloured' Red on the line

light every 2 minutes; visible 15 miles, of the Carickarana. Rock. Visible in clear Two sides Bright, one Red.

weather 21 miles. The lower light is a separate

light within the distance of 10 miles, and from Red light seen 10 miles, and visible every sixth

seaward between the bearings of S.E. by S., minute.

and N.N.E. - E., and not visible in the chanBlackwater Bank-Lightvessel-One fixed

nel Westward of Rathlin Island. light, visible

9
miles.

Innishowen-On Dunagree Point-Two In 19 fathoms, off N.E. part of Bank.

fixed lights. Lucifer-- Lightressel--One fixed Red light. Innistrahul-On N.E. part of the Island

Outside the Luc fer Shoals in 21 fathoms. Arklow-South Lightvessel-One revolv

One revolving light, every 2 minutes,

visible 18 miles. ing light, every minute. Arklow-North Lightvessel-Two fixed Lough Swilly-On Fanad Point-One lights.

fixed light, Red, but towards the Codling-Lightvessel-One Rel revolving Tory Island-On N.W. part of the Island

Lough, Bright, visible 14 miles, light, every 20 seconds. DUBLIN BAY.

-One fixed light, visible 16 miles.

To vessel: passing to the S. E. of the Island, the Kish Bank Lightvessel –One light, re- light will disappear behind its heights, beo volving every minute.

tween N. W. by N., and X.W.W. Poolbeg– Two fixed lights in one tower, Rathline o' Birne-On the Island-One visible 12 miles.

fixed White light, visible 16 miles; At the end of S. Wall, at the entrance to the Red towards the mainland and Sound,

river Liffey. The lower light is shown from Eastward of the Island.
half fooil to half ebb. The lower light is
much fainter than the upper one.

Aranmore Island-One Bright (or Red) Poolbog-One fixed light, visible to miles, flashing light. Flash every 20 seconds. At the end of the N. Wall or Quay.

Light Red to Eastward.

3 miles)

WELSH AND SCOTCH COASTS, INCLUDING THE

ISLE OF MAN. Snalls on the Rock-One fixed light, | Formby--Lightvessel--One fixed Red light visible 15 miles.

visible 8 miles. South Bishop-on the Rock-One revol. At the point of meeting of the Crosby and Queen's

Channels. ving light, every 20 seconds; visible

Moored in 40 feet. 18 miles.

Great Orme Head-One fixed light, visiblo Cardigan Bay-Lightvessel, between South

24 miles.

White between S.E. by E. E. by the South to Bishop and Bardsey Island - One Red

West; Red from W. to W.IN. revolving light every 30 seconds, when

ISLE OF MAN. it appears brightest. Bardsey-on the Island–One fixed light, Ayre- mile S. W. of the Point-One revisible 17 miles.

volving light, every 2 minutes; Bright Stack-on South Stack Rock, off N.W. and Red alternately, Visible 15 miles

Point of Holyhead Island - One revol- from S. by W. North-easterly to ving light, every 2 minutes; visible W. by N. 19 miles.

Calf of Man-W. side of Calf Island-Two During foggy weather, a small Bright light re

revolving lights every 2 minutes; visi. volving in 14 minute is occasionally shown

ble 24 and 22 miles: high light visible about feet above the sea, and 30 yards

40 North of the main light.

from E N.E. to S.E. by E., by the Skerries-on the highest Island-One fixed Westward. light, visible 16 miles.

When in one, they lead on the Chicken Rock. A Red gleam shown over the Coal Rock to Douglass-on the Head –One fixed light, E.S.

visible 14 miles, Lynus-on the Point-One flashing light, Not visible from Lang Ness, but with

in 10 seconds; visible 8 and obscured offing it will be seen N.E. } E., and the Call 2 seconds; seen 16 miles.

light at the same time Y.W. by W. W.

Bahama Bank-Lightves:el, a mile off the ENTRANCE TO MERSEY AND S.E. tail of the Shoal, in i fathomsDEE RIVERS.

Two fixed lights, visible io miles. Air-on the Point, at low water markOne fixed light.

Mull of Galloway-on S. point-One inFrom X.W. to V. it shows bright; from N.W. termittent light, every 3 minutes; Northerly, to E. by S. & S., Rid; from E. by

visible 2 minutes, and half minuto 8. S. to s. by E., Bright. The Red light is visible only within the lloyle Sand. A Bell

eclipsed. Visible 23 miles from N.E. is sounded in foggy weather.

to N. W. 1 W. Liverpool North-West Lightship-One re- Corsewall-on the Point, W. side of en. volving light, every minute.

trance of Loch Ryan-One revolving Off the W.extieme of the 3 and 4 fathom Tongue light, every 2 minutes; Bright and

in 64 fathoms. Hoyla ke-nearthe Church-Two fixed lights

Red alternately; visible is miles from When in one S.W. by S., you may haul up the

N.E. by E., Northerly, to S. W. Ruck Channel.

Sanda Island-on Ship Rock-One fixed Bidston-on Bidston Hill-One fixed light

Red light. visible 23 miles.

Pladdı Island-on S.E. Point of Arran Leasowe-One fixed light, visible 15 miles. Island—Two fixed lights, vertical; On the shore midway between the Mersey and visible 17 and 14 miles, from N.W. by

Dee rivers. Rock-One revolving light, every minute; | Darer Island-on Eastern part-One re

W., Southerly, to N. E, by E. visible 14 miles.

volving light, every 30 seconds; visible On the point W. Side of the river Me say. This light is Bright for two minutes, then Red the

17 miles from N. & W. to E. by S., third minute. A Fixed light shows down the by the North. Ruck Channel and up the river, when 11 feet Clyde River-Cumbræ, on W. side of Little

Cumbræ-One fixed light, visible 15 Crosby_Lightvessel-One fixed Yellow

miles. light, visible 8 miles; distinguished by Mull of Cantyre-on S.W. headland of a Green fixed light under bright one. Crosby Channel, N.E. elbow of Great Burbo

Cantyre-One fixed light. Bank. Moored in 48 feet at low water. Rhynns of Islay-on Oversay Island, off Crosby-near Crosby Point-One fixed S.W.Pointof Islay--One flashing light light, visible 12 miles.

every 5 seconds. Z Z

4

water.

LEADING LIGHTS OF THE BRISTOL CHANNEL.

one.

Trevose Head-on N.W. part-Two fixed the Channel into the River, and a White strip lights, visible 19 miles. The lower

will show up the river between the bearings

of N.E. by E. | E. and E. by N.) N. light is so feet in advance of the higher Nash—on the Point-Two fixed lights, Lat. 50° 33' N., long. 5° 13' W.

visible 18 and 16 miles. Lundy-on the ridge of the Island ---Two

The lights in one, N.W. by W. I w., lead a lights in one tower; upper, revolving cable's length S. of Nash Sand. every 2 minutes; lower, fixed, and Mumbles-on the Head--A fixed light, visible 30 miles.

and visible 15 miles. Low light only visible from the Westward, be

Scarueather-Lightvessel-One Red retween S. by E, to N.E. Flatholm-on the Island, S. Point-One

volving light, every 20 seconds.

Off the W. end of the Sand. A half globe above fixed light, and visible 17 miles.

usual globe. English and Welsh GroundsLightvessel Helwick-Lightvessel- A light revolving One revolving light, every minute,

1 and visible io miles.

every minute, and visible 10 miles.

Off West end of the Sand, in 161 fathoms. Moored S. side of Bristol Channel, in 6 fathoms.

Caldyon Caldy Island, S. part--A fixed Usk-W. side of entrance of the river

light, and visible 19 miles. One fixed light, and visible 10 miles.

St. Ann's-on St. Ann's Point, Milford Red, between the bearings of S.E. * E. and S.S.E. - E. and between the bearings of S. by

Haven-Two fixed lights, and visible E. and S.S. W., from whence into the land it 19 and 17 miles. will be White. It will then show White be. When in one, they lead clear of the Crow and tween $.8.E. E. and S, by E. E. to mark Toes Rocks.

NAVIGATING THE

THE ENGLISH CHANNEL.

WHEN running for the Channel, the ground should invariably he sought for in good time; nor should the lead in any case be neglected after the ground has been once obtained, especially during the night; because in the parallel of 51° 10' N. the same sou:idings will be found as at 10, 18, 28, and 43 leagues from Scilly. Nor is this identity confined to that latitude alone. By the above precaution, all the various alterations in depth, substance, and colour will be progressively unfolded while advancing to the eastward, and the parallel of latitude with greater facility preserved or regained if temporarily quitted.

Generally speaking, the water in the entrance of the channel is from 8 to 10 fathoms deeper towards the French coast than towards the English. The soundings, too, are coarser; the stones are larger; and the different substances altogether more loose and unconnected, and the compound of a paler colour than on the northern side of the Channel.

THE BEST PARALLEL for entering the Channel is between 49° 15' and 49° 25', according to the inclination of the wind; because it is between those limits that the relative situation of your vessel can with the greatest certainty be ascertained, as well in respect to depth of water

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