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SAILING INTO SPITHEAD AND ST. HELEN's By Night.-Keep St. Catherine's Light in sight until the Nab Light bears N.N.E.; then steer for the Nab Lights, passing a little to the eastward of the lights. If going to St. Helen's Roads, steer to the N.W.; anchor in 6 or 9 fathoms, with the Nab Lights S. by E., or S.S.E.
If bound to Spithead, bring the Nab Lights to bear south; steer up until the Warner revolving light (every minute) bears N.W. N. to N.W. by N.; then steer for it, passing on the north side of it; then, by keeping the Nab lights just open westward of the Warner Light, it will take you into Spithead.
WORKING INTO SPITHEAD.-Stand towards the Dean Tail and Elbov into 7 fathoms; to St. Helen's Roads 8 or 7; to the Warner 15 or 14; to the Elbow 9 or 8; to the Horse 15; and to No-Man's Land 17 fathoms. When standing towards the Warner and No-Man's Land, tack the first shoal cast, it being steep-to, and the western tide sets over them.
THE OWERS.—The Owers lie off Selsea Bill. When to the westward of the lightvessel, do not bring it to bear eastward of S.E. by E. ; if from the eastward, keep it to the northward of W. by N., and go into not less than 10 or 12 fathoms. Pass to the southward of the light.
ROYAL SOVEREIGN AND HORSE SHOALS, OFF Beachy Head.—Seaford Cliff kept in sight to the southward of the pitch of Beachy Head, will lead at least 2 miles to the southward of the Southern Head. A: night, vessels coming from the eastward will open Beachy Head Light to the southward of Beachy Head Cliffs, when it bears N.W. I W.; and whether bound up or down Channel, when to the eastward of Beachy Head, and within 9 miles of it, by keeping the light open they will pass about a mile to the southward of all the Royal Sovereign Shoals.
Stephenson's SHOAL.—The E. end lies 31 miles W. S. from Dungeness Lighthouse. To avoid this shoal, keep Shakspere's Cliff, near Dover, open to the south ward of the lighthouse. There are 3 or 4 fathoms on Stephenson's Shoal, with 4 or 5 fathoms around it. The South Foreland and Dungeness Lights in one, lead three-quarters of a mile to the southward; or the latter E. by N., northerly.
To Anchor IN Dungexess West Bay, which shelters from all northerly and N.E. winds, bring the lighthouse to bear E. S., and Fairlight Mill open of the church of that name. You will have 6 fathoms, and a good berth for starting, in the event of a change of wind. Vessels of light draught of water can go much nearer to the beach ; eastward of Stephenson's Shoal, and towards the lighthouse, it is steep-to-12 and 14 fathoms close to the shore.
DUNGENESS East Bay affords good shelter to vessels of all classes, in from 4 to 12 fathoms, upon pretty good holding ground, with the wind between N. by E. and S.W. The dangers in this bay are the Roar and Swallow Banks. On the latter, which lies N.E. | E. from Dungeness, 3 miles, there are from 2 to 3) fathoms, but on the Roar, which is
very shallow between Dym Church and Lydd, there is as little as 9 feet. A black buoy is placed in 3 fathoms, called Newcombe, 1}
9 mile to the N.E. of Dungeness. To the N.E. of the Roar, the Bank continues until about Hythe, having on it from 33 to 4) fathoms, at 11 mile from the shore, all good anchoring ground. Vessels would have a good berth in 6, 7, or 8 fathoms water, with the wind to the northward of E. by N., abreast of the Castle at Sandgate, and Folkstone pier-clock open of Mill Point.
THE VARNE, between 7 fathoms at each end, is 43 miles in length, N.E. by E.; its breadth varying from a half to three-quarters of a mile. The shoalest part (9 feet), about a mile from its N.E. end, bears S.S.W. I W., 9 miles from the South Foreland; and S.W. by W., 8} miles from Dover Castle. A large red spiral buoy with staff and ball is moored in 13 fathoms, near the north-east end of this shoal with Folkstone Church bearing N.W. f N., and South Foreland high lighthouse N.N.E. ; and its south-west end is pointed out by the lightvessel, which exhibits a quick revolving red-light, and lies in 16 fathoms water, with Dungeness lighthouse W. by N. \ N., and Folkstone Church, north.
THE RIDGE is about 9 miles in length, and 2 broad; its shoalest part (6 feet) is 3 miles from the S.W. end. From this, Dover Castle bears N.N.E., 16 miles; Dungeness Lighthouse, N.W. W., 133 miles.
ANCHORAGE IN THE Downs.-Upper Deal Mill on with Deal Castle W.S.W. W., and the South Foreland upper light on with the south side of Old-stairs Point S.W. W., in 7 or 8 fathoms; or with Upper Deal Mill to the northward of Deal Castle W.S.W., and the Upper Foreland Light to the Northward of Old-stairs Point.
A VESSEL parting her cables in the Downs during a S.W. gale should steer to pass about 2 cables eastward of S. Brake buoy (a correct bearing of which should always be taken before dark); if S. Foreland high Light and Gull Light are seen, bring former S.W. ^ W., or latter, N.E. * E. After passing on either side of lightvessel, keep her S.W. I W., and when N. Foreland Light is N.N.W.or N. Sand Head Lights E.S.E., haul out to eastward and lie-to in 18, 19, or 20 fathoms, taking care, in running through the stream, to come no nearer the Brake than
7 fathoms, nor to the Goodwin than 11 fathoms, While at the back of
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the Goodwin, do not come under 30 or 28 fathoms, nor bring the Goodwin light-vessel to the eastward of north, until you bring the South Foreland Lights in one, W. by N., when you may pass the South Sand Head lightvessel close-to on either side, and proceed to the anchorage in the Downs.
WORKING OUT OF THE Downs.-Cast towards the shore, if convenient, to get the first of the ebb; stand towards Deal, in 7 fathoms; tack before the Hope Sand comes on with Cap Point, to avoid Deal Sand; stand towards the Goodwin to 12 fathoms, or till the South Sand Head lightvessel bears S.S.W. * W., but not more westerly; towards Walmer, into 9 or 8 fathoms; and to the South Foreland 12 or 11.
DEPTHS TO BE OBSERVED WORKING IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL
NEAR THE HEADLANDS.
CONSTRUCTION OF RAFTS, &o.-Having collected all the materials on board suited for the purpose, such as lower or topsail-yards, topmasts, jib-booms, lowermasts, &c.; place the spare topmast in the centre, the jib-boom on one side of it, and the topsail-yard, on the other. Next reeve a rough topgallant-sparthrough the slings of six empty water casks, and float them to one side of the above spars, another similarly on the other side. Then place other spars athwart them at regular distances, lashing the lower ones to the upper securely at every crossing on these transverse pieces. Lay a deck, constructed of planks or small spars, or other materials that would fill up, bolting, nailing or lashing them down, with six good swifters round the whole. Erect shears with two light spars, such as two topmast-studdingsail-booms, and hoist a topgallantsail to it, and, as a means of steering the raft, a large oar or small
spar fitted to a crutch at the after part of the raft will answer this purpose. Or take three topmast or topgallant-studding sail-booms and lay them on the deck, then drive dogs or staples, one about a foot from one end of each spar, and one about a third from the other end of each ; pass a lashing slack through these last dogs; then lift 'one end of the spars up, open out and a triangle is formed. Now pass a lashing through the dogs at the lower end to keep the heels steady. Lash from leg to leg of the triangle three small spars close to the lower ends, and also the same number of small spars about two feet from the ends, and drive staples to keep the lashings from slipping; then between the cross pieces lash three empty water casks or provision barrels, adopting such methods with cross lashings as will prevent the possibility of their slipping. The raft now being rigged, the upper part being the cradle, hitch rope so as to form a sort of network. The raft can be hauled alongside and provisioned.
The first plan of constructing a raft can only be adopted when the ship has little motion, since it would be impossible, in a gale of wind or with the ship rolling gunwales over, to cast spars adrift for the purpose of rigging a raft; but the second method appears so simple, and at the same time so much in the power of every seaman to construct. In a raft thus constructed a dozen men may find comparative safety; no sea can wash them out. It may be lifted by three or four men and thrown overboard in the hour of need.
COMMERCIAL CODE OF SIGNALS.*
1.-How many Flags does the Commercial Code of Signals consist of?
A.–Of Eighteen Flags, including One Burgee and Four Pennants; but there is in addition a “Code Signal" or "Answering Pennant."
The Board of Trade have determined that all Candidates for Master's and Mate's Certificates of Competency must, on and after the ist December, 1868, pass a satisfactory examination in the “Commercial Code of Signals” for the use of all Nations. The examinations are intended to elicit whether the Candidate possesses-
ist.-A knowledge of the distinctive features of the Code.
2nd.—The power of making and interpreting with facility Signals made with Flags, as well as Distance and Boat Signals.
3rd.—The power interpreting Signals made the Semaphore.
For this purpose the Examiners are supplied with models of Masts, Flags, and Semaphores,
2.-What do these slags reprosent ?
A.— They represent the consonants of the Alphabet, from B to W; and it is by a combination of Two, Three, or Four of these Flags in a hoist that arbitrary signs are made, which represent words and sentences of the same signification in all languages.
3.-Describe the several Flags and Pennants?
White, centre Red.
CODE SIGNAL OR ANSWERING PENNANT. Red and White, in vertical stripes. 4.—Where are the Flags to be hoisted in signalling ? A.-At the Peak or Mizzen-mast-head, where they can be best seen. 5:- What is the object of the Code Pennant, and how is it used ?
A.—The object of the Code Pennant is to show this particular Code is used, and it is to be hoisted under the ensign.
6.-Is the Code Signal used for any other purpose ?
A.—Yes, it is used for an answering Pennant—that is to indicate that any Signal that has been hoisted is understood.