I 2. heavy weights, anchors, &c., in and out; casting a ship on a lee-shore; and securing the masts in the event of accident to the bowsprit. A MASTER must be twenty-one years of age, and have been six years at sea, of which at least one year must have been as First or Only Mate, and one year as Second Mate. In addition to the qualification for a First Mate, he must be able to find the latitude by a star, &c. He will be asked questions as to the nature of the attraction of the ship’s iron upon the compass, and as to the method of determining it. He will be examined in so much of the . laws of the tides as is necessary to enable him to shape a course, and to compare his soundings with the depths marked on the charts. He will be examined as to his competency to construct jury rudders and rafts; and as to his resources for the preservation of the ship's crew in the event of wreck. He must possess a sufficient knowledge of what he is required to do by law, as to entry and discharge, and the management of his crew, and as to penalties and entries to be made in the official log; and a knowledge of the measures for preventing and checking the outbreak of scurvy on board ship. He will be questioned as to his knowledge of invoices, charter-party, Lloyd's agent, and as to the nature of bottomry, and he must be acquainted with the leading lights of the channel he has been accustomed to navigate, or which he is going to use. In cases where an applicant for a certificate as Master Ordinary has only served in a fore-and-aft-rigged vessel, and is ignorant of the management of a square-rigged vessel, he may obtain a certificate on which the words " fore-and-aft-rigged vessel” will be written. This certificate does not entitle him to command a square-rigged ship. This is not, however, to apply to Mates, who, being younger men, are expected for the future to learn their business completely. 13. An EXTRA MASTER'S EXAMINATION is voluntary, and intended for such persons as wish to prove their superior qualifications, and are desirous of having certificates for the highest grade granted by the Board of Trade. IN NAVIGATION.--As the vessels which such Masters will command frequently make long voyages, to the East Indies, the Pacific, &c., the candidate will be required to work a lunar observation by both sun and star, to determine the latitude by the moon, by Polar star off the meridian, and also by double altitude of the sun, and to verify the result by Sumner's method. He must be able to calculate the altitudes of the sun or star when they cannot be observed for the purposes of lunars,—to find the error of a watch by the method of equal altitudes, -and to correct the altitudes observed with an artificial horizon. ADVERTISEMENT TO THE NINETEENTH EDITION. In this Edition of the “Guide Book," the examples requiring the use of the Nautical Almanac have been adapted to the year 1872, while considerable additions have been made in various parts of the work, with a view to meet the present requirements of the Examinations. T. L. A. South Shields, August 77b, 1869. Page 37, line 13 from bottom, for “ in stating” read “in seeking." 95, for “the Table, page 89" read “the Table, page 94.” » 118, line 13 from bottom, for “page 114" read "page 116." 173, Example 12, for “March 64” read “ May 62." » 176, line 6 from top, for “London A. M. tide" read “ London P.M. tide.” » 198, the index of log. sec. of lat. should be o not 3. » 263, Example 11, line 9 from bottom, for “found to be 4" 28m” read “ found to be 3h 38m.” » 263, Example 12, line 4 from bottom, for “observer” read " object.” CONTENTS. PAGE, 21 36 .. 76 78 .. Notices of Examinations of Masters and Mates 16 Exercises in the Simple Rules of Arithmetic 17 Decimal Fractions .. On Logarithms .. Tables of Natural Sines, &c. 54 Tables of Logarithmic Sines, &c. 56 Navigation-Definitions of, &c. 62 Preliminary Rules in Navigation—To Find Difference of Latitude 70 To Find Meridional Difference of Latitude 71 To Find the Latitude in 72 To Find Middle Latitude 73 To Find the Difference of Longitude 73 To Find the Longitude in 75 Correcting Courses-Leeway Variation 84 Local Deviation .. 89 On the Traverse Table 97 Traverse Sailing Parallel Sailing .. 106 Middle Latitude Sailing 108 Mercator's Sailing The Day's Work .. 117 The Conversion of Civil into Astronomical Time 141 The Conversion of Longitude into Time 142 The Conversion of Time into Longitude 143 On Finding the Greenwich Date 144 To Reduce the Sun's Declination 147 To Find the Equation of Time .. 155 Correction of Sun's Observed Altitude 158 To Find the Latitude by Sun's Meridian Altitude 161 Variation by an Amplitude On Finding the Time of High Water, Method I 174 Method II 179 By Admiralty Tide Tables At Foreign Ports 186 100 IIO 168 183 |