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Greenwich Date by Chronometer
To Find the Hour-angle
On Finding the Longitude by Chronometer
On Finding the Variation by an Azimuth ..
On Finding the Latitude by Reduction to Meridian ..
On Finding the Latitude by a Meridian Altitude of a Fixed Star
Examination Papers
Description and Adjustments of the Sextant, &c.
On the Chart - Mercator's Chart
How to Find the Course to Steer in a Known Current
On the Log Line
Marking the Lead Line
On Soundings
Lloyd's Rules for the Stowage of Mixed Cargoes
On Stowing Iron, Lead, Machinery, &c.
On Rigging Ships
On Making and Taking in Sail
On Tacking, Wearing, Boxing, &c.
Gales of Wind, Lying-to, &c.
On the Management of Ships at Single Anchor--with Diagrams
Mooring, Unmooring, &c.
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
Rule of the Road--with Diagrams
On Taking in Heavy Weights
Use of Mortar and Rocket Apparatus
Manifest ..
Bills of Lading
Charter Party
Protests and Surveys
Lloyd's Agent
The Official Log Book
Leading Lights in the English Channel

East Coast of England and Scotland
St. George's Channel

Bristol Channel
Observations relative to Entering and Navigating the English Channel
Construction of Rafts ..
On the Use of Commercial Code of Signals-with Plates


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Under The Merchant Shipping Act, 1854,"





UNDER the provisions of "The Merchant Shipping Act, 1854," no "Foreign-going Ship"* or “Home Trade Passenger Ship"'* can obtain a clearance or transire, or legally proceed to sea, from any port in the United Kingdom unless the Master thereof, and in the case of a Foreign-going Ship the First and Second Mates or Only Mate (as the case may be), and in the case of a “Home Trade Passenger Ship" the First or Only Mate (as the case may be), have obtained and possess valid Certificates, either of Competency or Service, appropriate to their several stations in such ship, or of a higher grade; and no such ship, if of one hundred tons burden or upwards, can legally proceed to sea unless at least one officer besides the Master has obtained and possesses a valid Certificate, appropriate to the grade of Only Mate therein, or to a higher grade; and every person who having been engaged to serve as Master, or as First or Second Mate or Only Mate of any “Foreign-going Ship,” or as Master or First or Only Mate of a “Home Trade Passenger Ship,” goes to sea as such Master or Mate without being at the time entitled to and possessed of such a Certificate as the Act requires, or who employs any person as Master, or First, Second, or Only Mate of any “Foreign-going Ship,” or as Master or First or Only Mate of any

“ Home Trade Passenger Ship,” without ascertaining that he is at

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By a“Foreign-going Ship" is meant one which is bound to some place out of the United Kingdom beyond the limits included between the River Elbe and Brest; and by a “ Home Trade Passenger Ship” is meant any Home Trade Ship employed in carrying Passengers; and it is to be observed that Foreign Steam Ships when employed in carrying Passengers between places in the United Kingdom are subject to all the Provisions of the Act, as regards Certificates of Masters, Mates, and Engineers, to which British Steam Ships are subject: s. 291 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854, and s. 5 of the Merchant Shipping Act, &c., Amendment Act, 1162.


the time entitled to and possessed of such Certificate, for each offence incurs a penalty not exceeding fifty pounds.

2. Every Certificate of Competency for a “Foreign-going Ship" is to be deemed to be of a higher grade than the corresponding Certificate for a “Home Trade Passenger ship," and entitles the lawful holder to go to sea in the corresponding grade in such last-mentioned Ship; but no Certificate for a "Home Trade Passenger Ship" entitled the holder to go to sea as Master or Mate of a Foreign-going Ship.

3. Certificates of Competency will be granted to those persons who pass the requisite examinations, and otherwise comply with the requisite conditions. For this purpose examiners have been appointed, and arrangements have been made for holding examinations at the ports and upon the days mentioned in the Table marked A, page 16. The days for examination are so arranged for general convenience, that a candidate wishing to proceed to sea, and missing the day at his own port, may proceed to another port where an examination is coming forward.

4. Candidates for examination must give in their names to the Local Marine Board if the place where they intend to be examined is a port where there is a Local Marine Board, on or before the day of examination (except in the case of London* and Liverpool), and must conform to any regulations in this respect which may be laid down by the Local Marine Board ; and if this be not done, delay may be occasioned.

5. Testimonials of character, and of sobriety, experience, ability, and good conduct on board of ship will be required of all applicants, and without producing them no person will be examined. As such testimonials may have to be forwarded to the office of the RegistrarGeneral of Seamen in London for verification before any certificates can be granted, it is desirable that candidates should lodge them as early as possible. The testimonials of servitude of Foreigners and of British Seamen serving in foreign vessels, which cannot be verified by the Registrar-General of Seamen, must be confirmed either by the Consul of the country to which the ship in which the candidate served belonged or by some other recognized official authority of that country, or by the testimony of some credible person on the spot having personal knowledge of the facts required to be established. Upon application to the Superintendent of the Mercantile Marine Office candidates will

* At London applications for examination must be made on Fridays from 10 till 4, and on Saturdays from 10 till 3.

At Liverpool applications for examination must be made on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, during office hours.

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be supplied with a form (Exn. 2), which they will be required to fill up and lodge with their testimonials in the hands of the examiners.

6. Services which cannot be verified by the proper Entries in the Articles of the Ships in which the Candidates have served cannot be counted. Thus,- for instance, A Man will state his Service to have been as Second or Only Mate, and to support this assertion will produce a Certificate of Discharge or Employment by the Master stating that he served as Mate, when on reference to the Articles it appears that he has actually been rated as boatswain; the service in such a case will not be regarded as having been in the capacity of Mate.

Whenever a Man has, from any cause, been regularly promoted on a vacancy in the course of the Voyage from the rank for which he first shipped, and such promotion, with the ground on which it has been made, is properly entered in the Articles and in the Official Log Book, he will of course receive credit for his service in the higher grade for the period subsequent to his promotion.

7. The examinations will commence early in the forenoon on the days mentioned in page 16, and will be continued from day to day until all the candidates whose names appear upon the Superintendent's list on the day of examination are examined.

8. Where the Local Marine Board are in every respect satisfied with the testimonials of a candidate, service in the coasting trade may be allowed to count as service, in order to qualify him for examination for a Certificate of Competency for Foreign-going Ships as a Mate, and two years' service as Mate in the coasting trade may be allowed to count as service for a Master's Certificate, provided the candidate's name has been entered as Mate on the Coasting Articles, and provided he has already passed an examination. QUALIFICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY

FOR A “ FOREIGN-GOING SH 2." The qualifications required for the several ranks undermentioned are as follow:

9. A SECOND MATE must be seventeen years of age, and must have been four years at sea.

IN NAVIGATION.—He must write a legible hand, and understand the first five rules of arithmetic, and the use of logarithms. He must be able to work a day's work complete, including the bearings and distance of the port he is bound to, by Mercator's method; to correct the sun's declination for longitude, and find his latitude by meridian altitude of the sun; and to work such other easy problems of a like nature as may

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be put to him. He must understand the use of the sextant, and be able to observe with it, and read off the arc.

IN SEAMANSHIP.—He must give satisfactory answers as to the rigging and unrigging of ships, stowing of holds, &c.; must understand the measurement of the log-line, glass and lead line; be conversant with the rule of the road, as regards both steamers and sailing vessels, and the lights and fog signals carried by them, and will also be examined as to his acquaintance with “the Commercial Code of Signals for the use of all Nations."

An ONLY MATE must be nineteen years of age, and have been five years at sea.

IN NAVIGATION.-In addition to the qualification required for a Second Mate, an Only Mate must be able to observe and calculate the amplitude of the sun, and deduce the variation of the compass therefrom, and be able to find the longitude by chronometer by the usual methods. He must know how to lay off the place of the ship on the chart, both by bearings of known objects, and by latitude and longitude. He must be able to determine the error of a sextant, and to adjust it, also to find the time of high water from the known time at full and change.

IN SEAMANSHIP.-In addition to what is required for a Second Mate, he must know how to moor and unmoor, and to keep a clear anchor; to carry out an auchor; to stow a hold; and to make the requisite entries in the ship's log. He will also be questioned as to his knowledge of the use and management of the mortar and rocket lines in the case of the stranding of a vessel, as explained in the official log-book.

A FIRST MATE must be nineteen years of age, and have served five years at sea, of which one year must have been as either Second or only Mate, or as both.*

IN NAVIGATION.-In addition to the qualification required for an Only Mate, he must be able to observe azimuths and compute the variation; to compare chronometers and keep their rates, and find the longitude by them from an observation of the sun; to work the latitude by single altitude of the sun off the meridian; and be able to use and adjust the sextant by the sun.

IN SEAMANSHIP.-In addition to the qualification required for an Only Mate, a more extensive knowledge of seamanship will be required, as to shifting large spars and sails, managing a ship in stormy weather, taking in and making sail, shifting yards and masts, &c., and getting



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* Service in a superior capacity is in all cases to be equivalent to service in an inferior capacity.

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