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In a note the Editor explains (!) eals: -

Eals, i. e. eux.
Let us then attempt to translate the passage.

“ The lay people cries him mercy,
Prays him much that he remain with them,
And if he now will not give it up (i. e. the journey)

..? that he may be willing to defer it.” As the Latin has it, p. 382, 1. 43 :

Ut vel omittat iter, vel differat.” Still there is a gap to be filled up. A competent scholar will at once see that Mr. Luard's edition is rectified, and his note superseded by the following alteration (which the unlearned reader may note does not do the slightest violence to the MS.) :-

Seveals le vuille purluigner. At least that he may defer it.” Cf. Burguy, II., 331:-“ Veals, veaus, etc., sont des dérivés du latin vel dans sa signification de méme, aussi, et le s final est paragogique. Veals ne répond pas à l' igitur latin, mais à saltem; il signifiait, au moins, du moins. On préposait souvent si [se] a ces formes, de là siveals,&c.

And now I have finished my task. Perhaps I have been biassed in my criticism by the utter disappointment which the whole edition caused me, on coming to examine it for linguistic purposes. I could not possibly have believed, without seeing the matter before me, that a work could be issued under such high auspices with so little real claim to public attention. I have done what I could in the way of correction of the mistakes quoted, but I fear that it is a thankless office. If on any particular occasion I have used language severer than that occasion warrants, I can only regret that the number and general avoidableness of the mistakes have given the key-note to the whole criticism. Mr. Luard has expended on this edition, as I have not the slightest doubt, an amount of labour and

thought that might have sufficed for ten such poems, if he had only possessed the requisite previous knowledge. With even a little more knowledge, the importance of the poem linguistically would have been felt so deeply by him, that it perhaps might have made him hesitate before undertaking such a task.

One always is more or less sorrowful at the sight of labour expended in vain.

[NOTE ON P. 5 (e).] The book to which I refer is a gram

A student could of course make no mar of Icelandic, published by Franz sense out of that. Another example Thimm. Its title-page declares it to be : will suffice: Ex pede Herculem.

· A short practical and easy method At $ 57, Rusk has : of learning the Old Norsk tongue or “Det indskudte v beskytter et foreIcelandic language, after the Danish of gående ö (eller au) for at forandres tel Rask, with reader &c., by H. Lund." a (eller á), foran Endelsen -a, og erIt is, in fact, a translation of Rask's little holder derved samme Virkning som u." grammar

“ Kortfattet Vejledning til i.e. “The inserted v hinders a foredet oldnordiske eller gamle islandske going ö from changing to a, before the Sprog.” But it is shamefully trans- ending -a, and therefore (the v] has the lated. Here are a few examples. same effect as u." For the better un. $ 52. In speaking of the declension

derstanding of this, the reader should of masculine nouns, which add r for know that the vowel u changes into ö nom. sg., Rask says :

an a of preceding syllable, thus “aska," “Hvor det sidste Rodbogstav er r, but “ösku," and vice versa, we have s, dèr vakler Brugen imellem rr, ss, “ögn(u),” but “agnar.” Rask means, eller enkelt r, s, med bortkastet Köns- therefore, that ör, which takes an intermærke; dog findes vel oftest: þórr, calary v, before the ending of the gen. herr, hauss, íss, óss, men hamar, kur- sg. ar, is not changed to ar in the root teis, fordi den sidste har mindre Vægt." syllable, by the influence of the case

" Where the final consonant of ending with initial a, but keeps its ö; the root is r, s, there the usage fuc- i. e. ör has gen. ör-v-ar (instead of artuates between rr, ss, or merely r, s, v-ar as might have been expected, on with omission of the mark of gender; analogy of still we find oftenest þórr, herr, hauss,

ögn, gen. agn-ar). íss, óss, (with two rr, ss] but hamar, kurteis (with only one], because the last

But now let the reader compare the has less weight.” Here is Mr. Lund's

above with the unmitigated nonsense, curious rendering : “ In the last radi.

given as a translation, in Lund's gramcal letters r and s the use fluctuates

He has :between r and rr, s and ss þorr, herr, 57. “The inserted letter v requires a hauss, íss, óss, is often found because preceding ö (or au) before they change of little consequence.”

into a or á if it terminates in a and has

i. e.



therefore the same effect as u.” (No What is to be thought of a Transstop of any kind).

lator, or Editor, or Compiler, or what. Similar specimens of this sort of ever designation is most fitting (and translation occur everywhere in the the Italian proverb says very appropribook.

ately: — “traduttore, traditore,”') who Yet bad as that is, it is nothing com- should print as above, pared to what I am about to show.

{mik, þat, as the Genitive, Throughout the greater part of the

mín, þess, as the Accusative, book, the Editor has absolutely inverted Genitive and Accusative, in the

of a pronoun in any Teutonic tongue ? declension of nouns, adjectives, and

NOUN. pronouns! Thus, from p. 8 to p. 34, If the reader can get a look at the every page is full of mistakes. One

book, pp. 18, 19 will furnish him with wonders with a great and increasing forty-eight mistakes of the same kind. wonder as one reads on. Here, for ex. It is plain that nothing but the ample, is his paradigm at p. 9:

crassest ignorance of the Danish lanSing. Nom. land

guage (and indeed of any Teutonic

language whatever) could have perpe. Gen. land

trated such a hideous blunder. Dat. landi

Would the reader know how the mis. Acc. lands (!)

take was made, he has only to look at And so on, in every case.

Rask's paradigm :To make the matter clear to the

“ Ent. N. land reader, it may be as well to give a few

G. land specimens of each class.

H. landi
Mr. Lund gives :-

E. lands"

But our Editor had not the slightest $ 105. Nom. ek $ 107. Nom. þat

idea that the G. in the second line has Gen. mik

Gen. pat
Dat. mer

Dat. því

nothing to do with Genitivus, but is the Acc. mín

Acc. þess

initial of the Danish term for “Accu.

cusativus," and that the E. in the fourth ADJECTIVE.

line is the initial of the Danish word $86, Mas.

“Ejeform” = “Possessive case.” Nom.

As a delectus of specimens in the Gen. spakan

Gen. spakt translation, I may refer in particular to Dat. spökum

Dat. spöku

$ 51, 52, 56, 64, 68, 69, to be found Acc. spaks Acc. spaks

on pp. 8-17 in the declension of nouns.

:} spake Ntr

. Nom. spakt



TUS. By GEORGE SALMON, D.D., Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Dublin.

SOME twenty years ago, the attention of all students of Ecclesiastical History was directed to Hippolytus, in consequence of the then recent discovery of a lost portion of his Refutation of all Heresies. I believe, however, that that work does not fill so influential a place in the history of religious opinion as the unpretending tract on Chronology on which I purpose in this paper to make some comments. In his notice of the writings of Hippolytus, Eusebius mentions a chronological work of his, containing a sixteen years' cycle for the computation of Easter, and bringing down its chronology to the first year of the Emperor Alexander. This account was repeated by other writers; but nothing more was known of this work until the year 1551, when a marble statue was dug up at Rome, containing on the sides and back inscriptions in Greek uncial letters. The inscription on the back contains a list of works composed, doubtless, by the person represented by the statue ; and several of these we can identify with works known to have been composed by Hippolytus. On one side of the chair is a calendar, showing the Paschal full moons for seven cycles of sixteen years each, beginning with A. D. 222, the first year of the Emperor Alexander. On the opposite side is a table, showing the corresponding Easter Days. Some controversy has been raised as to the date to be assigned to this statue, but the reasons stated by Döllinger (Hippolytus und Kallistus, p. 27) are absolutely conclusive in proving this statue to be one of the earliest remaining

See, in particular, Gieseler, Studien und Kritiken, 1853, p. 783.

works of Christian art, and that it must have been erected shortly after the death or banishment of Hippolytus : that is to say, that the date of the statue cannot be much later than A. D. 235. From the list of works inscribed on the statue, it appears that Hippolytus was the author of another work on Chronology beside that containing the explanation of his Easter cycle. Of this second work I shall speak presently. The work on Easter is completely lost, but the cycle itself engraved on the chair enables us to make a tolerable guess as to what the contents of the work must have been. In order to make what follows more intelligible, I give a translation of the cycle of full moons. has been stated that the original is in Greek; but the Roman calculation by Kalends, Nones, and Ides is employed.

“In the first year of the reign of the Emperor Alexander, the fourteenth day of the Paschal moon occurred on Saturday, April 13, after the Intercalary month. It will take place in following years as exhibited in the table, and it has taken place in past years as shown. The fast must always be broken off on the Sunday: Int. April 13. G. F. (5) E.

B. A.
April 2. D. (0) C. B. A.

F. E.
B. March 21, 22, A. (?) G. F. (6) E. D. C.
Int. April 9.

G. (3) F. E. D. C. B. A.
D. C. B. A. G. F.

E. ('s)
March 18. A. G. ( F.

E. D. C. B.
B. Int. April 5.
G. F. E. D. (9) C. B.

D. C. B. A. G. F. E.
April 13.
C. B. A. G.

E. D.
April 2. G. F. E. D.

March 21, 22.

D. C. B. A. G. F. E.
April 9.
C. B.


E. D. ("")
March 29.
G. F. E. D.

B. A.
March 18. D. C. B. A. G. F.
B. Int. April 5. C. (4) B. A. G. F. E.

D. (*)

E. D. C. B. A. For the convenience of printing, the following notes, written in words in the table, have been indicated by references :-(") Incarnation of Christ. (*) Hezekiah. (3) Josiah. (4) Exodus, according to Daniel. (3) Esdras, according to Daniel, and Wilderness. (6) Hezekiah, according to Daniel, and Josiah. (1) Passion of Christ (6) Joshua. (9) Joshua, according to Daniel. (0) Exodus. (") Wilderness. (**) Esdras. (**) Does not correspond to any note on the table, but marks the year of the cycle answering to Hippolytus's date of the Creation. B. marks the Bissex. tile years; Int. those in which an Intercalary month is inserted.

March 29.

March 25.

A. (10)

ن ن ن ن نعل

March 25.

F. (*)

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