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the noble. It is a principle that goes with the sweeping current. It is a disgusting offering of the timid, to the increasing machinations of the lawless. It is a bounty paid to their daily invasions. It is undefined and undefinable it moves and shifts about from one side to the image of God and of Christ :-of God in ruling, of Christ in administering, holy things.” (Típce Tòv kòv, ús aitiov Tôvowy nad κύριον. Επίσκοπον δε, ως αρχιερέα, Θεού εικόνα φέροντα, κατά μεν το lexsv, soũ, xrà đề iepzTsucv, Xosoroũ.Ignat. Epist. ad Smyrn. chap ix.). It was the unanimous, received persuasion of the ancient Christian world, that the outward being of a Church consisted as St. Cyprian declares—(Ecclesia est in Episcopo) i. e. in the having of a Bishop (Cypr. lxvi. sec. 6; with which compare “Of the Unity of the Church,” sec. 4, and 5. Where, the truths of the Episcopate, being the cement of the Unity of the Church, are clearly laid down; as well as the imminent peril of those who depart from the bosom of that Church, where such a Unity consists. By the way, at this place, Cyprian in his maxim of Episcopatus unus est, cujus a singulis, in solidum pars tenetur,i. e. the Singleness or Unity of the Episcopate, whereby, though a part may be assigned respectively to each Bishop, yet every individual Bishop is also accountable and interested for the welfare and soundnes of the whole Episcopal College-sets forth those very grounds, on which, the regularity of our own Bishops, in separating from the false doctrine, corrupt practice, and unwarrantable usurpation of the Bishop of Rome over his fellow Bishops, is maintained and confirmed. The sound and orderly therefore withdrew themselves from the unsound and disorderly, according to 2 Thess. iii. 6; and 1 Tim. vi. 5. Thus the depositum of all Spiritual Power was generally in the Episcopal College, of the whole of which, each particular Bishop was an accountable, and interested representative, vested with an equal power of judging and deciding for the preservation and integrity of the whole. By this, the assumed Spiritual exclusion and superiority of the Bishop of Rome, is a palpable breach of the oldest precedents of the Church, of the order of Ecclesiastical Government, and of the very nature of Church-Unity, as held in the purest ages of the Church. So, that Bishop, in his arrogant pretensions, is at the head of a Schismatical Body, and thrust himself and his adherents out of the bosom of the true Catholic Church. Compare St. Cyprian, Epist. L., where one Bishop, because of the moral incapacity of Schism, is made to give way to another. In St. Cyprian's account of the Council of Carthage, “ Opening of the Session,the spiritual usurpation of Pope Stephen is severely denounced. It is well known, that in respect to Church-Unity, the principles of St. Ignatius of the first century in Epist. ad Magnes., and Epist. ad Trall., and Epist. ad Ephes., and Epist. ad Philad., are perfectly identical with those of St. Cyprian of the third century; and who were distinguished as the greatest lights, and oracles of the Church.). We may observe, that the succession of Bishops from the Apostles, can be

other, just as the physical strength preponderates, but chiefly iť is the uplifted banner of the vile and unprincipled. It can be better described by its negative, than its positive qualities. It disregards the inconvenient shackles of truth-virtue-consistency-and

proved to demonstration, in all the Churches which the Apostles founded. The first, in every rank of such succession, is recorded to have been either an Apostle, or an Apostle's Disciple. By Epiphanius, a celebrated writer of the fourth century, the Bishops of Jerusalem are reckoned down from James to Hilarion, then Bishop. (Epiphan. Hæres. Lib. ii). It is well known, what rule Tertullian—who flourished in the second century, and one of the most distinguished writers of the primitive ages—gave, concerning those, who made a profession of Apostolic doctrine. “Let them show,” says he, “ the beginnings of their Churches, let them recite their Bishops, one by one, each succeeding another in such a manner, that the first Bishop of them have had for his author and predecessor some Apostle, or at least some Apostolic person, who laboured with the Apostles. For thus Apostolical Churches are wont to bring forth the evidence of their estates. So does the Church of Smyrna, having Polycarp, whom John did con. secrate.” (Tertul. De Præscript advers. hæret. chap. xxxii.). Catalogues of Bishops succeeding one another from the very Apostles' times, in a great number of other Churches, are handed down to us in the histories of Eusebius and Socrates. Wherefore it plainly appears, that the Order of Bishops, began under the Apostles, and was by their appointment continued after them. Seeing that this was the institution of those that were full of the Holy Ghost, and that were invested with the plenitude of Divine authority, we are to regard the government of Bishops, not merely—as has been received in all ages of the Church-Apostolical, but as actually emanating from the bosom of God. Let every member of our truly Apostolic and Episcopal Church, pronounce with the transcendently learned, and eminently pious Hooker-"Wherefore let us not fear to be herein bold and peremptory, that if anything in the Church's Government, surely the first institution of Bishops was from Heaven, was even of God; the Holy Ghost was the author of it.” (Eccles. Pol. Book vii. sec. 5.). The Seventh Book, which handles the question of Episcopacy, as far as we know, has never even been honoured with the attempt of being answered. Independent of the equally unanswerable Treatises of Archbishop Potter, and Bishops Taylor and Hall, on the same subject, we take the present opportunity of recommending particularly to our Clerical readers, a Work just published, entitled “Dissertations vindicating the Church of England” by the Rev. John Sinclaire, London, 8vo. (Rivington's). The first Dissertation, which treats on Episcopacy, is the most admirable, perspicuous, and learned essay, with which our Church has been enriched, for perhaps a century. The goading persecution, poverty, and penalties inflicted on the Church of the Apostolic

above all, of right and undeviating principle. All these stand in its way. All these it loathes and contemns. Such is that doctrine that is now urged, to prostitute the noblest gifts of God to man, in order, that by the conciliating process of uniting truth with falsehood-purity

Leighton, by the instigation of Presbyterian or Puritanical usurpers and hypocrites, doubtless, whetted the very conspicuous research and talent of Mr. Sinclaire, who is at present a Presbyter of the venerable Scotch Episcopal Church ). Thus from all that has been said, we may conclude, that Christianity was no where planted—no, not in the remotest district of Christendom, without the divine government of Bishops. We must, indeed, almost despair in bringing even such facts as the above, to be either received or understood by Sectaries. Stubborn fools! What other grounds have they for believing Christianity itself ? Consummate absurdity! To reject what is built upon evidence, as demonstrative in its force, and as identical in its nature, as any proofs they can have, for receiving even the truth of God. In either case, the proofs depend upon mere facts, and these facts upon the ordinary vehicle of human testimony. In vain can we hope for the worshippers of ignorance to believe in the divine origin of these Institutions ; for a belief-an enlightened belief in them, pre-supposes a profundity of knowledge. Sectaries, it must be owned, do not require knowledge of facts, or the memorials of historical testimony—for they luckily have the traditions of Apostles, the practice of Antiquity, and the decrees of General Councils, in the more convenient and ready vapours of their own prolific imaginations! No truth requires a reason or investigation from their infallible judgment; for internal Visions supply the place of any other authority! They have got the Bible. They have possession of the materials, and scorn the direction of a Master-Builder! God gives them the Revelation of Jesus Christ — it is enough; what further use of heavenly, and appointed Government ! It is for us at pleasure to build and govern! Well did the quaint, but truly witty Owen Felltham, describe these self-sufficient wretches — “ ChurchRebels, who exclude order, that their brains may rule.” (Felltham's Resolves, “ Of Puritans," p. 8.). We need not be surprised, that Sectaries, when they deny the institutions that God has appointed for the ruling of his Church Militant, aim a degree higher, and modestly pretend to a portion, if not the total, of the knowledge of the Church Triumphant; and whether for the advocacy of Orthodoxy or Heterodoxy, profess, in either case, to have a ready, and overflowing storehouse of brain-visions, and heart-illuminations! Making Revelations, is not a whit superior to new fashioning a Providence ! To this infatuation, which in Religion, as St. Cyprian says, produces“ spurious, profane, and sacrilegious ordinances,” as the consequence of “ defiance of a divine institution” (St. Cypr. Epist. xliii.), we have a striking analogy in the conduct of all Sectaries,

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with impurity-the sneering smile of the scoffing infidel might be gratified—the capacious appetite of the latitudinarian might be satedthe scowling front of superstition might more easily again inthral a besotted land of ignorance —and that the eternal destinies of even thousands

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in respect to this world's concerns. Where is the Sectary who ascribes their ideas of power and government, to the Source and Founder of all dominion ? Have they not Religions and Worlds, without the revealed, superintending hand of God ? At least in both, an opposition is set up to the counsels of Omnipoterce. The pages of our political annals, with melancholy effect, prove this truth. But what wonder is it, that since they have got a Religion, aye, Revelations without God, they should also impose, with an equal claim of independence, a Government without God, over this lower world! What, men practise in Religion, pervades their every thought, and every action. The design of making Worlds, it is true, has not yet got admittance into their catalogue of inventions; but we might well ask, where is the difference of making Churches, Religions, Revelations, Worlds, and forging after their own humours, the administrations of a governing Providence? They that attempt any one of these, might as well make trial of their skill in all ; and when like Alexander they had compassed all, to seek out even then something unknown, and hitherto unexplored, to demise and excogitate! It remains for a future occasion, to enter into the minuter details of all these matters, with accuracy and truth. We had omitted mentioning, that in England, the Order of Bishops, was in full force, before the days of either Saxons or Normans. This Order had its commencement with the first planting of Christianity in Britain, which had its rise under the auspices of King Lucius, not fully two hundred years after Christ. If this account, which the Venerable Bede gives, of the origin of Christianity in Britain, be generally considered fabulousand that we admit, with the most learned divines, that England was converted by the ministry of St. Paul, the Episcopal Government, therefore, was not only ancient, and universal, but directly the appointment of an Apostle. (On this interesting topic, consult Bp. Stillingfleet's “Antiquities of the British Churches,” in his Works, vol. iii. p. 24. Bower's Lives of the Popes, vol. i. p. 33. Mason's “ Vindication of the Church of England," book iv. chap. 16.) Early in the fourth century, a deputation of British Bishops is known to have been at the Council of Arles. In all our Church Histories, very ancient mention is made of our Bishops. Sulpicius Severus, usually designated the Christian Sallust, an eminent Ecclesiastical Writer of the fifth century, records, that Britain had three Bishops present at the Council of Ariminum, which was held in the middle of the fourth century. (“ Historia Sacra,” lib. ii.). St. Augustine, who had been sent by Pope Gregory the Great (A.D. 601.) to convert the Saxons to Popery, found many Bishops, who had been long established. The conference which Augustine had with seven

yet unborn, might be offered as a more easy and ready sacrifice, to the Moloch of idolatry, and the Whore of Babylon. After this brief notice of principles, that menace all our institutions with rapid and inevitable ruin, let us now summarily dismiss the affair of Portugal,

British Bishops, and Dinoth—Abbot of the Seminary of Monks, at Bangor, accompanied with several Bangorian Monks, in order to draw over the Ancient British Church to a conformity with the Papal Com. munion, and to persuade them to yield to the obedience of the Pope, is well known. Their determined resistance, not only proves the independence of their Church, but the excessive arrogance and usurpation of the papal emissaries. In fact, the English Bishops avowel an utter ignorance of the Pope, and his pretensions. Augustine, in the bitterness of his disappointment, threatened them with the immediate vengeance of Heaven, and the invasion of an English army. The sequel, too well proved, the sincerity of his brutal threat. Geoffry, of Monmouth, informs us that Ethelbert, King of Kent, stirred up an army of Saxons against Bangor, in consequence of the Bangorian Monks rejecting the overtures of Augustine, and twelve hundred and fifty were massacred in cold blood!!! Du Pin, one of the most reputable and popular Romish Historians, honestly says—“Some historians accuse Augustine, the monk, of having had a hand in the massacre of these poor Britains, who did not deserve such hard usage, by reason they maintained their ancient customs, and the liberties of their Churches, without deviating from the Catholic Faith.” Thus British popery had its customary initiation, in the intrigues of usurpation, tyranny, and the horrors of sacrilegious murder. So that from the earliest days, the order of Bishops, exercised in these countries the high privileges, and sacred offices, of their institution. We have thus given some details, merely, in exemplification and confirmation of that sate and sound rule of Vincentius Lirinensis-Antiquity, Universality, and Unanimous Consent of the Faithful. Upon this rule our Apostolic Church has built her Faith, her Government, and her Worship. An observance of this maxim, freed us from the ancient errors of Popery, and restored us the simple beauty of ancient Truth. Upon Revelation, as interpreted by Apostolic Tradition, is upreared our whole superstructure. This tradition, when proved to be of God, and not of the delusioos of darkness, must therefore be a consistent, consonant, and confirmatory interpreter of Scripture. For Revelation itself, coming from the mind of God, through the Apostles, must remain as an abiding test, to try those traditions, which are humanly alleged, to proceed from the same inspired and infallible source: and if these traditions—upon the very same evidence, namely, historical testimony, that proves the authority of the written word-are found with it to have a common origin; in both then we have a mirror, in which we may safely, upon the authority of the Church, trace the accurate outlines of our Faith and Discipline. Upon this stable basis rests, among other matters, the

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