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the nante 'of Lancaster not being . The second seal, exhibited by so much adored as heretofore the living creature like unto an

'ox, in the west, refers to the Em

as peror Trajan, and to a time of civil AN ABRIDGMENT OF MEDE ON Per

* war, commencing A. D. 98... THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN.


The third seal, exhibited by the - To the Editor of the Christian living creature like unto a man, in Guardian.

the south, signifies an age of jusSIR,

tice, and commences with the EmI LATELY offered to your atten- peror Severus, A. D. 193. i tion a summary view of Mede's The fourth seal, exhibited by Key to the Apocalypse. The Key the living creature like unto an is followed by a Commentary, writ- eagle, in the north, relates to a peten in Latin, of which I now pre- riod of war, famine, and pestilence, sent you the abridgment, adding and commences with the Emperor · references to Mede's supplement- Maximinus, A. D. 235. ary epistles, in which particular The fifth seal signifies the perpoints are separately discussed; secution of Christians, commenand from inattention to which, mis- cing with the Emperor Aurelian, apprehensions have sometimes been A. D. 268, and extending to the formed respecting our author's opi- grand persecution by Diocletian.' nions. The edition of Mede's The sixth seal represents the works which I refer to is that of subversion of the Roman heathen 1672. It is remarkable that Mede empire by Constantine the Great, has given us an epitome of his sys- in the beginning of the fourth tem (page 916), in which he men- century.-See p. 591. tions the year 365 as the epoch of. Chapter vii. "The saints are sealthe trumpets, and mentions only ed for preservation before the trumthe year 542 as the last term of the pets sound, which are to destroy existence of the remains of the the Roman empire; and before the old Roman empire. This epitome prevalence of Antichrist, during merits particular attention, and all which time they are to be prewould well deserve a place in your served. The innumerable comvaluable miscellany; but it has not pany signifies the general assembly superseded the necessity of abridge of the converted under the last ing his larger work, as it varies in 'trumpet, succeeding to the elect some respects from his Latin Com- saints during the apostacy. mentary, and is frequently incom- Chapter viii. The time is now plete as an abridgment. But to come to answer the prayers of the proceed to the epitome of the La- martyrs (chap. vi. 11), and to de. tin Commentary.

stroy the Roman empire, which • Rev. chap. v. and vi. The sce-' had persecuted them, called the mery of the Apocalypse, here de- third part of the earth (chap. xi. scribed, corresponds to the state 4). The prophecy, in every poliof the Israelites encamped in the tical system, supposes“ a political wilderness, and having the ark of earth, sea, heaven, &c. ? the covenant.-See p. 916. . The first trumpet signifies the .. Here begins the prophecy of irruption of the northern nations, the sealed book.

upon the death of Theodosius the Chapter vi. The first seal exhi. First, A. D. 395.–See p. 917, in bited by the living creature · like which the year 365 is preferred.' unto a lion, represents our Lord The second trumpet represents exalted to his kingdom in the east, Rome taken by Alaric, A. D. 410, and going forth" conquering and and the Roman empire at length, to conqueri"-See p. 918. A. D. 455, divided into ten, kingo domas : Britons, Saxons, Franks, measured, signifies the state and Burgundians, Visigoths, Suevians duration of the primitive church, and Alans, Vandals, Alemans, Os- built upon the divine foundation. trogoths, Greeks.

(Ezek. xliii. 7, 10.) See p. 587.' The third trumpet denotes the Verse 2. The outer court sige fall of the western empire, A. D. nifies the state and duration of the 455 to 476.

church apostate during the 1260 The fourth trumpet refers to years: as the outer court of the she extinction of the majesty of temple of Solomon was to the inRome, in the city itself, after it ner in size as three and a half to had glimmered under the Ostro- gne, so are the times of the aposgoths, A. D. 542.

tate church to those of the primi* Chapter ix. The three last woe tiye church ; i.e. 1260 to 360, as trumpets are inflicted on the apos- three and a half to one. The tate Roman empire.

time of the vision seen by St. John The fifth trumpet signifies the is the latest epoch of the 360 incursion of the Mahometan Sara- years. · sens, A. D: 750 to 1055; the five Verse 3,4. The two witnesses months, twice mentioned, signify- testify to the Gentiles in the court ing 300 years. See p. 906. of the Gentiles, during the 1260

The sixth trumpet represents years, as Moses and Aaron testithe passing of the Euphrates by fied to the Israelites. That these the Turks, a little before the year witnesses are two churches is prov1800. The time of 396 years, ed by this, that they are said to bere allotted to them, was from be two candlesticks. A. D. 1067 to 1453 ; that is, from Verse 5. They denounce the their preparation, or the establish- wrath of God. ment of their empire, before the Verse 6. They have the power passing of the Euphrates, to the of the keys; and, like Elias, shut taking of Constantinople. The heaven till Baal be destroyed. The chapter closes rith a description of prophecy of the witnesses relates to the state of the papal apostacy, the time of the vials, to which an after the capture of Constanti. allusion is here made. . . pople.

.: Verse 7. What follows is alto- Chapter X. The oath of the gether an allusion to the passion of angel points to the end of the our Lord. When the witnesses. three times and a half of the fourth are about to finish their testimony, monarchy. (Daniel, vii. and xii.) a partial reformation having been - The mystery is to be fulfilled in effected, the Roman seven-headed the establishment of the kingdom beast shall wage war with them of the Messiah. (Chap. xi. 15.) and kill them. The witnesses bén The seven thunders refer to seven gan to take off their sackcloth at periods of the seventh trumpet, the Reformation, and have been still future. At the seventh verse doing so more and more to the prę. the sealed book ends. This angel sent time. Their death will be poappears to be our Lord himself. litical and ecclesiastical, and the Compare Dan. xii. 6, 7.

reformed church will fall as far as · At the eighth verse the vision this judgment extends. There is

of the little open book.commences. here an allusion to Luke, xxi. 20. . The scaled bogk related to the Ro- -See p. 596, 759, 760. man empire ; the open book re- Verse 8. By the great city is lates to the church, and contains a meant, not the city, but polity of new prophecy, given to $t. John, Rome. The street signifies some· Chapter xi. 1. The inner sourt, thing within the polity; besides CHRIST. GUARD. VOL. VI. . XX.


which, there is nothing of the and xi. having recapitulatėd, in 'same kind; perhaps, the territorý the history of the church, the of Rome.

whole “apocalyptical period, this Verse 9, 10. Whether the pre- second vision of the same little vention of the burial of the wit- book traverses the same ground nesses be a deed of barbarity or again: the war of the dragon with kindness, in the sense of preserv. Michael, coincides with the temple ing them from extinction, seems measured, by which war is meant uncertain. These three and a half the contest of Heathénism with days signify so many years." Christianity, until the church had

Verse 11, 12. In conformity to produced a second son, corretheir death, their resurrection will sponding to our Lord. og be a restoration to their former :- Verse 1. St. John is called to state, but to a higher station, per- see another vision. The woman haps by the call of the supreme whom he sees, is the primitive magistrate...120:

church, 'clothed in the righteousVerse 13. Their ascension is ness of Christ, and having all subaccompanied with a great commo- {unary things and legal ordinances tion and revolution, viz. that of under her feet, the powers of 'the fifth vial, followed by the ter- darkness being subjected to her. "inination of the second woe: as 'Gal. iv. I cant ha the fifth vial is followed by the very ' Verse 2. The pains of the wosame destruction of the Turks und man signify persecution, u n der the sixth vial.' This is the fall Verse 3, 4. The dragon is the of Babylon described in ch. xviii. 'Gentile Roman empire, worship*Philippus Nicolai supposes, by the ping Satan : the seven heads are tenth part, the ten kingdoms to be seven hills, and seven successive intended. Rather, by the tenth, dynasties of Rome: the ten horns may be signified the tribute paid are the ten kings which should to the city. Most probably the arise in its last state: the stars cast whole of modern Rome, being a down are the kings within the Rotenth part of ancient Rome, is in. nan empire. There is an allusion tended. It may be expected, then, here to Pharaoh and Moses, as althat the patrimony of St. Peter so to Herod. See also Ez. xxix. 3. will be taken away, and the Pope Verse 5. The son of the wodriven into exile.' The Pope and man, the mystical Christ, or cardinals being departed, the small church formed in his members. number of seven thousand slain, Gal. iv, 19. Rev. ii. 26, 27. This may signify the number that person is Constantine, raised to the 'rish in Rome, or, perhaps, the men throne of the empire, but not of honour: the ecclesiastics are immediately upon his mystical intended by names of men. The birth. en el bars others see the finger of God in Verse 6. This flight of the wothis judgment, and so far give glo. man into the wilderness is men· ry to God.

tioned by anticipation, and will be Verse 14. The passing of the more particularly described in ver. second woe signifies the destruc- 14. * tion of the Turks, coinciding with Verse 7, 8. This war is that of the gathering together of the kings the martyrs and confessors in the of the earth to Armageddon, the primitive church contending with

termination of the 1260 years, the Heathenism. * conversion of the Jews, and the Verse 9. The victory of Con. · reign of the Messiah. .

stantine. Chapter xii. The first vision of . Verse 10, 11. The exaltation of the litt). book contained in chix, Constantine. . .' su

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Verse 12. Satan being dethron, the rise of the beast, as above de. ed, has recourse to the lower sçribed, in its last form. classes of society, and endeavours Verse 5. The 1260 years of its to maintain Heathenism by their continuance coincide with the time means, and finally to recover his of the outer court trodden under power.

foot by the Gentiles. Ch. xi. 2.. : Verse 13, 14, 15. The flight and See p. 600. 654. 660. habitation of the woman in the Verse 7. This war commenced, wilderness, corresponds to the state with the acme of the beast, and, of the Israelites after the fall of was waged against the Waldenses Pharaoh, and is, as it were, an in- in the twelfth century. . termediate state between Egypt Verse 11. The two-horned beast and Canaan, extending to the se- is the ecclesiastical empire, or the venth 'trumpet. The church is to Pope and his clergy, by which the be considered as departing gradu- above secular empire is restored. ally into the wilderness, while Pha. It arrogates the power of binding, raoh follows in great wrath. The and loosing, proper to the Lamb great eagle is the Roman empire, of God. This is signified by its and the two wings are the two two horns. Cæsars of the Roman empire, un- Verse 14. The new secular der whom the church retired into Roman empire is signified by the the wilderness. (Exod. xix. 4. image of the heathen empire set 2 Esd. xi. and xii. Clem. Alex. up to be worshipped. The life Stron. lib. 3.). The time of her given to the image means the revihabitation in the wilderness is 1260 val of that empire in the rise of years. The water which the dra- the secular modern empire, The gon casts out of his mouth is the fire from heaven signifies the Papal pestilential doctrine of Arianism. anathemas (2 Thess. ii. 9, 10), of See Prov. xv. 28.,

which there was a remarkable inVerse 16. The multitude of stance in the icononiachical conChristians help the church in the troversy, A. D. 720. . councils.

Verse 17. Literally accomplish: Chapter xiii. 1, 2. The dragon ed in the case of the Waldenses. being enraged, with the woman, The name of the polity ACTELVO:* now settled in the wilderness, be, Chapier' xiv. 1. The 144,000, gins to raise a vicarial kingdom in the company of the uncorrupt Rome, consisting of a secular and Christians during the apostacy, as ecclesiastical government. The before described in chap. vii. They ten-horned beast is the modern, have Christ's and his Father's secular Roman empire, divided in- name'; and hence it manifestly apa to ten kingdoms, after the incur- pears that, they who have the sion of the norihern nations. This beast's name, have renounced the beast is here exhibited as rising name of the Lamb.: under its last head, and as resem- Verse 2. This refers to chapbling in disposition the three for- ter v. 11. mer empires. (Dan, vsi.) The dra- Verse 3. The new song is an gon gives to it the late power of allusion to the doxology of the an the heathen Roman empire, which gels on the birth of our Lord. See had been destroyed by Constantine chap. v. 12, 13, where the new and his successors, See p. 743. sorg is set forth.

Verse 3, The seven-headed Verse 6. Angels represent those dragon was the heathen Roman over whom they preside. This is empire under its sixth head, which the protestation against saint and was younded to death by Michael. image 'worship, particularly in the The healing of the said wound is East, commencing A, D. 720,

Verse 8. This angel pronounces same is drawn out at length from the decree of the destruction of chap. xv.5, to the end of chap. xvi,' Home —the Waldenses and Albi- The church is here represented as. genses particularly intended. purified and washed, and as giving

Verse O. Luther and the Re- glory to God for his judgments. formers are here signified.

The angels came out of the temple, Verse 13. A solemn warning of now filled with smoke, and to be the approach of the resurrection opened at a térixination of the to judgment, coinciding with chap. vials. Ex. xi. 34. 1 Kin. viii. 10. xi. 18, the first resurrection, After the vials the ark of the 1 Thess. iv. 16. .

testimony will be seen, and the Verse 14. See Jer. li. 33; Is. cloud removed. The end of the xvii. 3. Christ himself is the au-' vials is described also in chap, xi. thor of the harvest, under which 19. emblem, perhaps, the destruction Chapter xvi. The seven vials of Babylon, and the gathering in are seven degrees of the fall of of the Jews, may be combined, as Babylon. The first vial is poured the symbol is capable of two inter- upon the earth or populace of the pretations.

· antichristian empire. It signifies Verse 17. This coincides with the first separation from Rome by chap. xix. 15. It is the utter de. the Waldenses, when they pro. štruction of antichrist at Arma- nounced Rome to be Babylon and geddon, which is the wine-press. the Pope to be antichrist. The extent of the wine-press co- The second vial was poured up. incides with that of the Holy Land, on the sea, or the extent of the as well as with that of the patri- Papal communion, when, at the inony of St. Peter.' The Hebrew Reformation, whole countries rè, word, Armageddon, favours the opj. nounced the church of Rome. ' nion that the Holy Land is intend The third vial is poured upon ed, as does also the notion of some the ministers and champions of of the Romanists, that the Pope at Rome, as, for instance, upon thể last will have his seat at Jerusalem, Jesuits in England, during the before the day of judgment. reign of Queen Elizabeth, and es,

Tlie gathering and pressing of pecially in the year 1588; and in the grapes are distinct events. The France in 1572. . angel and the saints cut off the The fourth vial is poured upon apostates, and so gather them to the sun. The heaven denotes the Armageddon; but our Lord him- supreme, universal power of the šelf, at his second advent, treads papacy; and, by analogy, the sun them under his feet. 2 Thess. ï. 8. may signify the house of Austria,

The harvest and the vintage are as the chief kingdom in the Papal both obtained by prayer. Audi territory. This house being rent igitur, O Christe Rex, et in memo. from the antichristian heaven, and riam revoca apud Patrem túum shining elsewhere, may affict the tot supplices tuorum pro regno tuó worshippers of the beast. . preces, tot afflictorum et interfec- The fifth vial will be poured on torám pro nomine tuo gemitus; et Rome itself, beyond all contro cum tempus, quod tibi opportu- versý. This judgment will coinnum videbitur, advenerit, surge, cide with the resurrection of the meta, et vindémia.

witnesses. The power, but not Chapter xv. The fall of anti- the name of Pope, will be extinchrist and the seven last vials, guished by this judgment; and à. whereby that fall is accomplished, higher degree of blasphemy, not are shortly described in the four repentance, will be the conso first verses of this chapter, and the quence,

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