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had no hand in making it what it is. He is responsible for the use of it, and just in proportion to the viciousness of man's nature, is bis responsibility for its right exercise diminished. If this viciousness amount to “total and utter depravity in all its parts and affections,” particularly the will, then this defect of nature amounts to total disqualification for moral action, and moral inability becomes complete natural, physical inability, and a distinction is made where there is no difference. If in the unregenerate the will never acts right, in a single instance, then we have no evidence of its power to do so, and all possible evidence of the contrary. This appears moreover from the fact, as he states, that the first right exercise of this power is in consequence of the operation of the Holy Spirit. It appears, then, that the assertion of moral power previous to conversion, is made merely to get rid of the objection of man's irresponsibility, and not because it is consistent with the rest of the system.
On this rock must all the New-School men split, who attempt to make up a compound system of theology out of the contradictory elements of Calvinism and Pelagianism. Either of them is logically inconsistent, but they can never amalgamate. One of them is inconsistent with the Divine attributes, and the moral phenomena of human nature, the other is inconsistent with both.
We might go on to notice other incongruities in the theology of Mr. Barnes; such as his maintaining that justification is simply pardon, and passing over the doctrine of the imputation of Christ's righteousness in profound silence; and then turning round when he wishes to show the Orthodox side of his face, and talking about being saved through the merits of Christ.” But we forbear. We have already exceeded the reasonable limits of a review.
In concluding, we say, that there is abundant reason for congratulation to all the friends of truth and liberty, in the rise, the progress, and termination of this controversy in the Presbyterian Church. It shows that the age is not standing still. The mind is bursting its fetters, and vindicating its birthright. That it should arrive at once at trutlı was not to be expected. It is enough to know that it is in progress towards it.
It is a curious fact, that the same discussion is going on, simultaneously, among the Orthodox sects in England, entirely unconnected with that in America, with similar results. A reprint of a work by a Mr. Hinton, shows that the whole subject of Divine and human agency, in the work of salvation, is there undergoing a thorough examination, and, to apply our phraseology, a New School is forming on principles similar to those advanced and maintained in this country.
One good symptom in the present movement towards more rational views of religion is, that the people are with it. This has been indicated in many ways. It appears, we think, in the very discourse which led to all this disturbance. It bears on the face of it, though delivered in the midst of a revival, the marks of compromise and concession, a willingness to sacrifice some of the most obnoxious points of an obnoxious system to the reason of his hearers, for the sake of being allowed to retain the rest. Then again, the spirited manner in which his congregation rose as one man to defend him, and
their willingness to cut themselves loose from the Presbytery rather than give him up. We read the popular character of this movement, likewise, in the title which Dr. Junkin prefixes to his book, as given at the head of this article. A prosecutor must feel a very strong current setting against bim and his cause, before he entitles his attack, a Vindication. We conclude, therefore, as we began, by saying, that the cause of Liberal Christianity has received a powerful impulse from the late doings in the Presbyterian Church, and that the end is not yet.
G. W. B.
ART. V. - 1. Geschichtliche und statistische Nachrichten
über die Universitäten im preussischen Staate. Von WilHELM DIETERICI, Königl. Geh. Ober-Regierungs Rathe,
&c. Berlin. 1836. 8vo. pp. 188. 2. Index Lectionum, quæ Auspiciis Regis Augustissimi Fre
derici Guilelmi Tertii in Universitate litteraria Frederica
There is not a prouder nation on the face of the earth than the Prussian. We Americans are proud of our enterprise, of our commerce, of our free institutions, of liberty of thought and action, of our common schools, of our academies, colleges, universities, and above all and most justly, of the general intelligence and correct babits of thinking and acting among the people. We are eminently a practical nation. What is useful, what is serviceable to the individual and society, are with us the great questions. But these questions relate to immediate application, to the existing state of society and manners. Unquestionably there are men among us, who look beyond the spirit of the times, who rise above the demands of the age; – men who investigate principles, - who ask not so much what is popular, what is directly practicable, — as what is universally and permanently true and useful, what is suitable to man's nature, what must now and always promote well-being and happiness. Yet this is not our national character. A young and ardent nation, we direct all our energies, and concentrate all our affections upon the immediate interests and occupations of the present times and our own society. The best thinkers among us are educated more by the circumstances of their condition, by the direct influences and spirit of the community around them, than by their own reflections, and by study of the temper, character, and opinions of other people and past generations. Our schools, colleges, and universities are all planned and conducted with a direct and sole view to immediate effect. The kind and amount of instruction given, or intended to be given, the habits of thinking and acting formed and strengthened by them, are precisely those, and those only, which we apprehend to be necessary or useful for our probable or certain situations and duties in life. We are educated to live, and to live in our own narrow spheres, and within the compass of a contracted worldly existence, instead of living to be educated in all our capacities, and for the free, harmonious, continual developement of all our powers and affections. We are prepared for enterprise and action in the spirit and temper of the times; but are not peculiarly qualified to watch over, reflect upon, and correct, modify or conciliate, the spirit and tendencies that exist. We are educated to act with the age, but not upon it; to answer the demands actually made upon us, but not to create a new character in the people, - not to give a higher tone or different direction to the pursuits, inquiries, and affections of the community. We are educated, we say, to meet the demands actually made upon us, but not to tell what those de
mands should be ; — not to supply real, though perhaps as yet unfelt, defects. Our professions, — what
- what are they? Practical, eminently practical. Our young men study their professions to practise them. It is to meet and satisfy the wants of the professions, that our young men enter upon and are trained up in the professions. It is action, practice, direct influence in society, and upon society, which constitutes the great single aim and object of professional study. No man among us thinks of devoting himself to a profession for the sake of the profession itself. It is not a science which he cultivates, which he seeks to improve, ennoble, and perfect. He does not apply himself to it, as the sole great end. He does not search into its methods, principles, and truths, with the enthusiasm of a devotee, whose being is bound up in love of his profession, as a study and science, worthy of the warmest interest and entire energies of the
And of course the consequence is, that with us neither Law, nor Theology, nor Medicine can boast of thorough schol
Each one of these professions numbers eminent men, men equal, possibly superior, to men of other ages and nations, in particular branches or departments of their professions; but where can we find one man, or many men among us, who understand their professions thoroughly in all their branches, or who have done much towards raising, or perfecting them as sciences. If there be such, they have done what they have done in opposition to the spirit of our country, and despite the lack of encouragement and assistance, which they ought to have received. The greater therefore their merit ; the greater be their praise. We, as a nation, are practical ; not scientific, not learned, not philosophical. What we want is,
men who shall devote themselves earnestly and exclusively to the several professions as sciences, who shall labor continually and eagerly to improve, ennoble, perfect them. Men enough there are to practise them, as now understood and taught among us; but let us have some men, to apply to them their full free energies, as sciences, capable of being more severely studied, more thoroughly understood, more correctly taught and practised.
Let us have some men to teach our teachers, to reëxamine, again and again, our conclusions, our principles, and doctrines, with the entire, exclusive devotedness of their whole lives.
This is the want which Germany has felt, and which Germany has done more than any other nation to meet and satisfy.
In every civilized community, there are men who are led by a natural bias of their minds, to a quiet, contemplative life, in preference to the enterprise of business, and the duties and anxieties of a profession. They are men of studious habits. They avoid the theatre of public action, and more or less exclude themselves from the sympathies of social existence, and in doing this, they follow the peculiar bent of their minds. Nature made them for a recluse life; she inspired them with love of retirement, meditation, study, reflection. Disgust drives them back from the world whenever they enter it, until at last a secluded, contemplative, studious life becomes settled habit and character. Yet these men need sympathy, the sympathy of congenial minds. They welcome encouragement, impulse, counsel, and assistance, in their favorite pursuits. And a University is, or should be, the assembling-place and chosen residence of these kindred spirits ; - a place where they may meet to instruct, encourage, excite, and sympathize with one another, where they may kindle and feed a pure flame, where they may meditate, and commune, upon the highest good, religion, morality, and science, - where they may discourse largely, and with common interest, and common benefit, upon their dearest pursuits, strengthen, in form, animate, and ennoble individual minds, and their own little circle. Our universities should meet and satisfy the wants of this class. They are and ought to be, designed chiefly to serve the public interests ; but not singly, nor alone directly. They ought also to satisfy the wants, to elevate the character, to inform the mind, to cheer, encourage, and enlarge the heart of the individual.
Our universities are preparatory schools for the practice of the professions. Few men are educated in them who are not designed for some one of the professions, and no man stays in them, or by them, after he has got his profession. Is learning, then, and science, to be a mere instrument and tool, to be used only, and not to be enjoyed, and in some measure rested in, as a satisfying good? And are knowledge, information, discipline, which our universities give, or might give, necessary and useful to professional men only? Are not our engineers, our astronomers, our navigators, our mechanics, and our merchants in need of knowledge and mental discipline? And where can