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Q. 70. What is justification ?

A. Justification is an act of God's free grace unto sinners * in which he pardoneth all their sins, accepteth and accounteth their persons righteous in his sight'; not for any thing wrought in them, or done by them ?, but only for the perfect obedience and full satisfaction of Christ, by God imputed to them a, and received by faith alone b.

Q. 71. How is justification an act of God's free grace ?

A. Although Christ, by his obedience and death, did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to God's jus70. * Rom. iii

. 22. Even the righ- justified by faith without the deeds of teousness of God, which is by faith of the law. Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them 2 Tit. üi. 5. Not by works of righ. that believe ; for there is no differ- teousness which we have done, but acence. Ver. 24. Being justified freely cording to his mercy he saved us, by by his grace, through the redemption the washing of regeneration, and re. that is in Jesus Christ : Ver. 25. newing of the Holy Ghost. * Ver. 7. Whom God hath set forth to be a That being justified by his grace, we propitiation through faith in his blood, should be made heirs according to the to declare his righteousness for the re- hope of eternal life. Eph. i.7. In whom mission of sins that are past, through we have redemption through his blood, the forbearance of God. Rom. iv. 5. the forgiveness of sins, according to But to him that worketh not, but be the riches of his grace. lieveth on him that justifieth the un a * Rom. v. 17. For if by one man's godly, his faith is counted for righte. offence death reigned by one; much

more they which receive abundance y 2 Cor, v. 19. To wit, that God of grace, and of the gift of righteouswas in Christ reconciling the world ness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus unto himself, not imputing their tres Christ. Ver. 18. Therefore, as by the passes unto them; and hath commit- offence of one judgment came upon all ted unto us the word of reconciliation. men to condemnation ; even so, by the Ver. 21. For he hath made him to be righteousness of one, the free gift sin for us, who knew no sin ; that we came upon all men unto justification might be made the righteousness of of life. Ver. 19. For as by one man's God in him. Rom. iii. 22. Even the disobedience many were made sinners; righteousness of God, which is by faith so by the obedience of one shall many of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all be made righteous. Rom. iv. 6. Even them that believe ; for there is no dif. as David also describeth the blessedference. Ver. 24. Being justified free. ness of the man unto whom God im. ly by his grace, through the redemp- puteth righteousness without works, tion that is in Jesus Christ : Ver. 25. Ver. 7. Saying, Blessed are they whose Whom God hath set forth to be a pro- iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins pitiation through faith in his blood, 10 are covered. Ver. 8. Blessed is the declare his righteousness for the re. man to whom the Lord will not immission of sins that are past, through pute sin. the forbearance of God. Ver. 27. b Acts X. 43. To him give all the Where is boasting then? It is exclu- prophets witness, that through his ded.-By what law ? of works? Nay; name, whosoever believeth in him but by the law of faith. Ver. 28. shall receive remission of sins. Gal. ii. Therefore we conclude, that a man is 16. Knowing that a man is not justi

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tice, in the behalf of them that are justified e; yet in as much as God accepteth the satisfaction from a surety, which he might have demanded of them, and did provide this surety, his only Son", imputing his righteousness fied by the works of the law, but by prince that shall come shall destroy the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have the city and the sanctuary; and the believed in Jesus Christ, that we might end thereof shall be with a flood, and be justified by the faith of Christ, and unto the end of the war desolations not by the works of the law : for by are determined. Isa. liii. 4. Surely he the works of the law shall no flesh be hath borne our griefs, and carried our justified. Phil. iii. 9. And be found in sorrows: yet we did esteem him strickhim, not having mine own righteous. en, smitten of God, and aflicted. Ver. ness, which is of the law, but that 5. But he was wounded for our transwhich is through the faith of Christ, gressions, he was bruised for our inithe righteousness which is of God by quities : the chastisement of our peace faith.

was upon him; and with his stripes 71: c Rom. v. 8. But God commend. we are healed. Ver. 6. All we, like eth his love towards us, in that while sheep, have gone astray: we have we were yet sinners, Christ died for turned every one to his own way; and ús. Ver. 9. Much more then, being the Lord kath laid on him the iniqui. now justified by his blood, we shall be ty of us all. Ver. 10. Yet it pleased the saved from wrath through him. Ver. Lord to bruise him; he hath put him 10. For if, when we were enemies, to grief : wlien thou shalt make his we were reconciled to God by the soul an offering for sin, he shall see death of his Son; much more, being his seed, he shall prolong his days, and reconciled, we shall be saved by his the pleasure of the Lord sliall prosper life. Ver. 19. For as by one man's dis- in his hand. Ver. 11. He shall see of obedience many were made sinners; the travail of luis soul, and shall be saso by the obedience of one shall many tisfied: by his knowledge shall my be made righteous.

righteous servant justify many; for d1 Tim. ii. 5. For there is one God, he shall bear their iniquities. Ver. 12. and one Mediator between God and Therefore will I divide him a portion men, the man Christ Jesus ; Ver. 6. with the great, and he shall divide the Who gave himself a ransom for all, spoil with the strong; because he hath to be testified in due time. Heb. x. 10. poured out his soul unto death; and By the which will we are sanctified, he was numbered with the transgresthrough the offering of the body of sors; and he bare the sin of many, Jesus Christ once for all, Mat. xx. 28. and made intercession for the transEven as the Son of man came not to gressors. Heb. vii.22. By so much was be ministered unto, but to minister, and Jesus made a surety of a better testa10 give his life a ransom for many. ment. Rom. viii. 32. He that spared Dan. ix. 24. Seventy weeks are de not his own Son, but delivered him termined upon thy people, and upon up for us all, how shall he not with thy holy city, to finish the transgres- him also freely give us all things ? 1 sion, and to make an end of sins, and Pet. i. 18. Forasmuch as ye know that to make reconciliation for iniquity, ye were not redeemed with corruptiand to bring in everlasting righteous. ble things, as silver and gold, from ness, and to seal up the vision and pro- your vain conversation received by phecy, and to anoint the most holy. tradition from your fathers; Ver. 19. Ver. 26. And after threescore and two But with the precious blood of Christ, weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but as of a lamb without blemish and not for himself: and the people of the without spot.

to theme, and requiring nothing of them for their justification but faith', which also is his gifts, their justification is to them of free grace.

Q. 72. What is justifying faith ?

A. Justifying faith is a saving grace', wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spiritk and word of God', whereby he, being convinced of his sin and misery, and of the disability in himself and all other creatures to recover him out of his lost condition m, not only assenteth to the truth of the promise of the gospel, but receiveth and resteth upon Christ and his righteousness, therein held forth, for pardon of sino, and for the accepting and accounting

e 2 Cor. v. 21. For he hath made ward who believe, according to the him to be sin for us, who knew no working of his mighty power. sin : that we might be made the righ I Rom. x. 14. How then shall they teousness of God in him.

call on him in whom they have not f Rom. iji. 24. Being justified free. believed ? and how shall they believe ly by his grace, through the redemp. in him of whom they have not heard ? tion that is in Jesus Christ; Ver. 25. and how shall they hear without 2 Whom God hath set forth to be a pro- preacher ? . Ver. 17. So then faith pitiation through faith in his blood, to cometh by hearing, and hearing by the declare his righteousness for the re word of God. mission of sins that are past, through

m Acts ii. 37. Now when they the forbearance of God.

heard this, they were pricked in their 8 Eph. ii. 8. For by grace are ye heart, and said unto Peter and to the saved, through faith ; and that not of rest of the apostles, Men and bre. yourselves : it is the gift of God. thren, what shall we do? Acts xvi. 30. b Eph. i. 7. In whom we have re And brought them out, and said, Sirs

, demption through his blood, the for. what must I do to be saved ? John giveness of sins, according to the rich- xvi. 8 And when he is come, he will es of his grace.

reprove the world of sin, and of righ. 72. i Heb. x. 39. But we are not of teousness, and of judgment: Ver 9. them who draw back unto perdition; Of sin, because they believe not in me. but of them that believe, to the saving Rom. v. 6. For when we were ve of the soul.

without strength, in due time Christ k 2 Cor. iv. 13. We having the died for the ungodly. Eph. ii. 1. And same spirit of faith, according as it is you hath he quickened, who were written, I believed, and therefore have dead in trespasses and sins. Acts

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, I spoken : we also believe, and there. 12. Neither is there salvation in any fore speak. Eph. i. 17. That the God other: for there is none other name un. of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father der heaven given among men, whereby of glory, may give unfo you the Spirit we must be saved. of wisdom and revelation in the know

in Eph. i. 13. In whom ye also trust: ledge of him: Ver. 18. The eyes of ed, after that ye heard the word of your understanding being enlighten. truth, the gospel of your salvation : in ed, that ye may know what is the whom also, after that ye believed, ye hope of his calling, and what the rich. were sealed with that Holy Spirit of es of the glory of his inheritance in the promise. saints, Ver. 19. And what is the ex o John i. 12. But as many as réceeding greatness of his power to us. ceived him, to them gave he power to

of his person righteous in the sight of God for salvation P.

Q. 73. How doth faith justify a sinner in the sight of God?

A. Faith justifies a sinner in the sight of God, not because of those other graces which do always accompany it, or of good works that are the fruits of itę, nor as if the grace of faith, or any act thereof, were imputed to him for his justification"; but only as it is an instrument by which he receiveth and applieth Christ and his righteousness.

Q. 74. What is adoption ?

A. Adoption is an act of the free grace of God, in and for his only Son Jesus Christ“, whereby all those that are justified are received into the number of his children, have his name put upon thems, the Spirit of his Son

become the sons of God, even to them become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name. Acts xvi. that believe on his name. Phil. iii. 9. 31. And they said, believe on the And be found in him, not having mine Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be own righteousness, which is of the saved, and thy house. Acts x, 43. law, but that which is through the To him give all the prophets witness, faith of Christ, the righteousness that through his name, whosoever be- which is of God by faith. Gal. ii. 16. lieveth in him thall receive remission Knowing that a man is not justified of sins.

by the works of the law, but by the p Phil. iii. 9. And be found in him, faith of Jesus Christ, even we have not having mine own righteousness, believed in Jesus Christ, that we which is of the law, but that which might be justified by the faith of is through the faith of Christ, the Christ, and not by the works of the righteousness which is of God by faith. law : for by the works of the law shall Acts xy. 11. But we believe that, no flesh be justified. through the grace of the Lord Jesus 74. t1 John. iii. 1. Behold what Christ, we shall be saved, even as manner of love the Father hath bethey.

stowed upon us, that we should be 73. q Gal. iii. 11. But that no man called the sons of God! is justified by the law in the sight of u Eph. i. 5. Having predestinated God, it is evident: for, The just shall us to the adoption of children by Jelive by faith. Rom. iii. 28. Therefore sus Christ to himself, according to we conclude that a man is justified by the good pleasure of his will. Gal. faith without the deeds of the law. iy. 4. But when the fulness of the

q Rom. iv. 5. But to him that time was come, God sent forth his worketh not, but believeth on him that Son, made of a woman, made under justifieth the ungodly, his faith is the law, Ver. To redeem them counted for righteousness. Compared that were under the law, that we with Rom. x. 10. For with the heart might receive the adoption of sons. man believeth unto righteousness, and w John i. 12. But as many as rewith the mouth confession is made ceived him, to them gave he power to unto salvation.

become the sons of God, even to them s John i. 12. But as many as re

that believe on his name. ceived him, to them gave he power to x 2 Cor. vi. 18. And will be a Fa

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given to themy, are under his fatherly care and dispensations ?, admitted to all the liberties and privileges of the sons of God, made heirs of all the promises, and fellowheirs with Christ in glory. a.

Q. 75. What is sanctification ?

Ā. Sanctification is a work of God's grace, whereby they whom God hath, before the foundation of the world, chosen to be holy, are in time, through the powerful operation of his Spiritb applying the death and resurrection of Christ unto them, renewed in their whole man after the image of Godd; having the seeds of repentance unto life, and all other saving graces, put into their hearts e, and those graces so stirred up, increased, and strengthenther unto you, and ye shall be my son's some of you : but ye are washed, bat and daughters, saith the Lord Almigh- ye are sanctified, but ye are justified ty. Rev. iii. 12. Him that overcom. in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by erh will I make a pillar in the temple the Spirit of our God. 2 Thess. ii. 13. of my God, and he shall go no more But we are bound to give thanks to out : and I will write upon him the God alway for you, brethren, beloved name of my God, and the name of the of the Lord, because God hath from city of my God, which is new Jerusa- the beginning chosen you to salvation, lem, which cometh down out of hea- through sanctification of the Spirit, ven from my God: and I will write and belief of the truth. upon him my new name.

c Rom. vi. 4. Therefore we are by. y Gal. iv. 6. And because ye are ried with him by baptism into death: sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit that like as Christ was raised up from of his Son into your hearts, crying, the dead by the glory of the Father, Abba, Father.

even so we also should walk in new. * Psal. ciii. 13. Like as a father ness of life. Ver. 5. For it we have pitieth his children ; so the Lord piti. been planted together in the likeness eth them that fear him. Prov. xiv. of his death, we shall be also in the 26. In the fear of the Lord is strong likeness of his resurrection : Ver. 6. confidence; and his children shall Knowing this, that our old man is have a place of refuge. Mat. vi. 32. crucified with him, that the body of For your heavenly Father knoweth sin might be destroyed, that hencethat ye have need of all these things. forth we should not serve sin.

a Heb. vi. 12. That ye be not sloth d Eph. iv. 23. And be renewed in ful, but followers of them, who the spirit of your mind; Ver. 24. And through faith and patience inherit the that ye put on the new man, which promises. Rom. viii. 17: And if chil. after God is created in righteousness dren, then heirs; heirs of God, and and true holiness. joint-heirs with Christ: if so be that e Acts xi. 18. When they heard we suffer with him, that we may be these things, they held their peace, and also glorified together.

glorified God, saying, Then hath God 75. 6 Eph. i. 4. According as he also to the Gentiles granted repentance hath chosen us in him before the foun- unto life. 1 John iii. 9. Whosoever is dation of the world, that we should be born of God doth not commit sin; for hely, and without blame before him his seed remaineth in him; and he can. in love. 1 Cor. vi. 11. And such were 110t sin, because he is born of God..

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