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of God who has not experienced the love of God in his heart; this experience can only be realized by 'having the love of God shed abroad in his heart by the Holy Ghost given unto him.' We can only truly know God when we know what love is, and this knowledge of love is as certainly a matter of thought and intellectual apprehension as is the knowledge of any other fact in the common experience of human life. It is only when men and women thus truly know the love of God, and thereby realize in themselves the 'fulness of Him that filleth all in all,' that they rise to the full stature of their personality, or, as Paul says, 'come to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.' One of the saddest facts of this age of our boasted Christian civilization is that so few have attained to a real knowledge of the meaning of personality ; thus we have the glaring injustice of the denial of the full civil, political and religious rights to women as persons; and other hideous injustices are rampant.

In dealing with Newton's Mathematical proof of his theory of Universal Gravitation, Hegel might appear to anyone unacquainted with his philosophy to be attacking Newton's theory, but in reality he is doing no such thing. In his paper on Whewell and Hegel, Dr. Hutchison Stirling shows clearly that Hegel never in the slightest degree wished to detract from Newton's greatness as a mathematician. Hegel is not so much concerned with the physics and mathematics of Newton; it is Newton's metaphysics alone with which he is dissatisfied and which he wished to replace with his own metaphysical doctrine of the notion. When the mathematico-physicists who believed that Newton was the greatest philosopher of his time thought that Hegel wished to cast

doubt on the greatness of Newton's achievement, they declared that Hegel was not sufficiently versed in mathematics to be able to criticize Newton, failing to see that Hegel's Philosophy aimed at establishing the spiritual nature of gravitation. They began to pour contempt on his system of philosophy. This was especially the case with Dr. Whewell, Professor Tait and Robertson Smith, who did their utmost to misrepresent a philosophy, the aim and nature of which they never properly understood. Their furious denunciation tended to produce a widespread prejudice against Hegel's system. Robertson Smith's second reply in his counter-attack on Hegel and Stirling can only be dismissed as vulgar abuse, and was treated by Stirling as unworthy of notice. As Dr. Stirling says: 'Hegel is merely busied on metaphysical explanation and accepts physical facts and mathematical demonstrations towards it.' • What Hegel seeks is the necessary demonstration of reason,

' and this he finds in his doctrine of the Notion or the Ego. By the notion Hegel meant the nature of God, which neither Newton nor Kant included directly in his system of nature.

No mathematical operation is adequate to discovery of a wholly new qualitative fact' (Whewell and Hegel, p. 90). Calculations based on mathematical analysis can in no sense explain the nature of gravitation, and this is what a science of truth requires. After Dr. Stirling's reply to Whewell's attack on Hegel it might be considered unnecessary to defend Hegel's position with regard to Newton, yet quite recently Dr. Peake remarks that Dr. Robertson Smith fully showed that Hegel and Dr. Stirling were both unable from a mathematical standpoint to criticize or even to understand Newton. No one at all acquainted with the works of Hegel and Dr. Stirling can doubt for a moment that both of

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them were as great mathematicians as, if not greater than, Dr. R. Smith. The latter thought he could reply on the mathematical point, as he says, without understanding Hegel's Philosophy; this lack of comprehension, however, puts him entirely out of the field, as he was quite unable to see the bearing of Hegel's philosophy on Newton's mathematical proof. Hegel only wished to vindicate the glory of Kepler as the discoverer of the laws of free motion of the heavenly bodies, and this vindication Whewell turned into an attack on Newton's mathematics. The following quotation from Dr. Hutchison Stirling's Whewell and Hegel makes Hegel's position very clear: “Now, really, Hegel has nothing at heart but his metaphysic here; he has not the slightest idea of calling the physics or the mathematics as such bad, but only the metaphysic they involve. He admits that “Newton's form has not only its convenience, but also its necessity for the method of analysis " ; but he observes, “this is a mere difference of mathematical formula," meaning thereby that the reason which he sees in the celestial motions is untouched by the mathematical processes, let them be what they may. It is only in reference to the single rational notion present in the phenomena that he demurs to the splitting up of that unity for mere mathematical purposes into lines this way for centripetal forces, and lines that way for centrifugal forces. Such fictions lie not in the notion, he intimates, and are mere conveniences for the mathematical operations which, in their own way, are certainly correct' (p. 93).

Both Newton and Kant in their systems tended to rest satisfied with the merely physical as an explanation of the construction of the universe. Hegel held that no system of nature was rationally complete which did not include a knowledge of God as its substantial basis. With Newton and Kant God occupied too much a position outside of Nature as an external governor or regulator; with Hegel, on the contrary, God as Spirit constitutes the substantial essence of nature. No science of nature, God and thought that fails to recognize and explain the active power and essential freedom of thought or spirit is a complete science of logic or a science of truth. Freedom implies activity and denotes power in the manifestation. It is the unity of actual and potential energy of rational thought, and so denotes process. The process is the free power of thought, and as such it is the seat and spring of all natural and spiritual life. This, then, is the immanent dialectic of the Ego, or the movement, process and development of thought in notion, judgment and syllogism. Such a process contains in itself the principle of creation. There is no known object either in heaven or earth that is not full of thought-on one side finite and on the other infinite-external and internal; every object is a category of thought, and so a middle term in an absolute syllogism ; for God as Infinite Thought is All in All. Even the materialist can have no scruples in speaking of universal gravitation as All in All, though he knows not what the force of gravitation is. The only force known in self-consciousness is the power of thought; all physical force is in its essence spiritual, and is essentially one with God as the self-consciousness of the universe. Just as human thought is essentially divine, so a philosophy of nature and of truth is utterly impossible apart from the logical philosophy of Thought or Spirit.

CHAPTER II

THE MEANING AND SCOPE OF PHILOSOPHY

BUT
UT what is philosophy ? Considering the general

employment of the word, it may appear superfluous to ask its meaning. The loose use of the term, however, by the pulpit and press at the present time shows the need for a fuller and more definite explication of its scientific import and scope.

It is often said, philosophy cannot do this, and philosophy cannot do that, in a way which shows only a dim conception of the real meaning of the term. Its etymological meaning is generally known, and is, so far, good— Philosophy is the love of wisdom '—but just as Christianity requires us not only to love but to know God, so philosophy requires us not only to love but to know wisdom. Wisdom and love are, in principle one, without which no man is a man in the true sense of manhood, just as without wisdom and love God would be no God. True wisdom contains true love, and true love contains true wisdom, but neither love nor wisdom can exist independently : they are both necessary parts of thought, while, in turn, thought is impossible apart from personality, the personality of God, the personality of man, or of a being made in the image of God. Personality is the deepest, most essential and vital element of man's likeness to God; wisdom and love are two most important attributes of God's

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