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storm-wind and the flood. an element of woman who sinned. Sometimes evaded, nature purifying while it devastates more often the sword fell. The screen the earth.

of easy lies which no one believes and Of character-drawing either in Ma- every one, for social convenience, acsuccio or his contemporaries there is cepts, was a shield the Italian husband little. The figures in their stories are of the Renaissance never suffered for a types rather than individuals. A single moment to stand between his outraged motive, a dominant passion, determines honor and his revenge, and for the the plot-love, revenge, malice. vanity, woman love's crimes were wrought unare the prominent agencies. A man der the very shadow of a relentless loves; forthwith he sacrifices honor, death. A sinister phantom, armed and friendship, affection, to attain the satis- pitiless, waited upon the threshold in faction of his wishes. He suffers in the veriest farce of commonplace injury; straightway he sets himself, iu trigue. similar guise, to inflict an equal hurt As the art of the novelist developed, upon his wronger. Vacillations born of however, a more definite individualizathe inner wavering of conflicting emo tion takes the place of the type. In the tions, complications rising from the sixteenth-century novels of Bandello contention of contrary instincts, are there is a clear attempt at characterizaignored. The result is a brilliant direct. tion. For buoyant freshness and the ness impossible to analysts to whom jubilant grace of April the child-figure the side issues of action are apparent. in the Venetian romance of “Gerardo Two types of women alternate. The and Elena" i stands out almost alone. woman who, astute or foolish, is solely The opening description, at its own actuated by a sordid love of gain and period, has few parallols. Elena, a pleasures, or a vulgar delight in in- motherless child, is provided by her trigue-who is herself, according to the father's solicitude with the feast-day exigency of plot, either dupe or de. companionship of four sisters. ceiver. Where her cunning fails she is

When together with Elena they played ridiculed; where it triumphs, applauded; for never more barefacedly has the suc.

many games; amongst others they played

forfeits, which was a game of ball. The cess of a crime been upheld as its

four being from seventeen to twenty-one apology. The converse type, be she years old were each in love, and often peasant or gentile donna, wedded or un. while playing, now one, now another, wedded, is gracious and loveworthy, would run out and look over the balconies "bella, honesta, costumata, savia.” at their lovers as they passed in gondolas The epithets are lavish. Where she below. But Elena, who was most simple, loves she is invariably faithful, whether grew much displeased at this and pulled the bond be legitimate or, as is more

them back by their gowns to make them

go on with the game. But they, to whom often the case, unlawful. Of faith

the sight of their lovers gave more joy towards any other tie she is mainly in

than the ball, cared little for Elena, but nocent. Her morals have been much

stood fast by the windows, sometimes and aften impagned, yet, it must be flinging flowers to their lovers as they allowed, she possesses to the full the went by. virtues of her sins. There is possibly

One day, when teased by Elena, one of little to urge in defence of her light

her playmates said, "Elena, if you could hearted ill-doings, but they have one

taste but a tithe of the pleasure we get in extenuating point: she incurs the penal. amusing ourselves at these windows, you ties of her weakness with uncalculat. but you are a simpleton, knowing nothing

would care nothing whatever for forfeits; ing courage, and endures them, when

as yet of such traffic." inevitable, with unflinching impenitence. She deviates from the narrow

So the story opens: with those four road, but it is to walk at the edge of girl faces looking down from the palace a precipice-for the menace of a swift

1 Bandello, Parte I., Novella, xxxxi. (The vengeance hung over the head of the third story in Mr. Pinkerton's translations.)

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windows on the water street below, earlier she had desired companionship. with its throng of gondolas, its nier takes her stand at the window, and chants, its black-veiled women, and its with glad, ignorant eyes awaits her lingering groups of lovers. Then caine lover's salutation-though "on common a day, feast-day though it be, when the days she deemed it unmeet to play tbis girl faces are absent; Elena's playfel- game." Then Gerardo for very love lows have forsaken her, and, sad and falls sick, and the feasts come and go, lonely, the little maiden of thirteen or but his gondola is no more seen. Elena's fourteen summers takes her stand, not old nurse, whose fosterling he was, beat the great windows of the palace comes his confidant. He tells her all, frontage, but at the balcony overhang and of his love's strange nature, "seu ing a narrow sideway canal, and young ing that he knew not the name of his Gerardo, on some enterprise of love, so beloved;" nor knew anything save that fate will have it, passes below down the she is the fairest of five maidens who sequestered waterway. He sees the with gay faces look down from the palfair child's head decked with a red car ace balconies on festival moruings. nation in the setting of the old grcy And the old nurse is "sure it must be wall, and seeing, he looks again. Her one of Elena's companions, Elena being girl companions have taught Eleua innocent." Presently the old something, if but little; the word with- woman's eyes are opened. Watching out its meaning, the token without the Elena unseen, one day, the girl grew significance thereof. Elena "turneol to very joyous. And surely so, for once Gerardo a merry look, such as she had again Gerardo's gondola halts beneath often seen her playmates give to “their the walls of her father's house. With gallants.” Gerardo returns the silent childish gestures Elena shows him, all greeting of her eyes, “while slie, think- unashamed, her gladness. In her hand ing it was a game, repaid him with a she holds a nosegay of blossoms, doubtsmile.” When the poat passes onwards, less sweet as that first carnation, and but soon the gondola returns and goes merrily she throws them down. This very slowly beneath the house, and time she has not cherished her flowers Elena is still there, still looking down, in vain. Gerardo—her love-has come with it may be, her melancholy abated. back. This time it is Gerardo who smiles up Then, with semblance of great anger, at her, and lest the game should be !ri- the old nurse accuses her nurseling of complete or the picture lose one frac- her unabashed sins. First half with tion of its mute grace, leaning over the fear Elena listens, then her eyes tell edge of the stone she lets the crimson her the old face she loves so well is not flower fall from its resting-place "above really wrathful, and thus "she flung her ear" to seek the kisses of Gerardo's her arms about her neck, and kissing lips. “The scent of the flower and the her as a child would do, 'Nena'—it is fairness of the girl set his “heart on the pet name Venetian nurses bear fire." That other woman on whose 'sweetest of mothers, I humbly crave quest the youth was bound has long to your pardon if in the game you saw mu wait. But Elena "being very simple playing I erred, though myself I do not and not having as yet opened her breast think it.'” She tells all that has passed, to the darts of love, took no great heed the love-game she has played with of Gerardo, though it pleased her to roses and carnations, "and he with see him.” It was all to her but a pas whom I chose to play was the youth time of looks exchanged and flowers you saw. For my own part, I wish he cast down to kiss-a pastime which, like would often go by, and I know not why that ball play she had played before, you scold me; but if it be very wrong, she will learn to know is a game of for- I will refrain therefrom." With feits.

pathetic simplicity, strangely at variThe days go by. Each festival Elena. ance with Bandello's writings, the old who now seeks solitude as much as nurse teaches the child her first lesson





of womanhood. Delicately the wrin.

The speech in which, self accused kled hands draw the veil of love's in- (not as fearful and sorrowing, but “alcognito, and, though simple and pure legra e valorosa”) she confesses and in heart, the girl has a "ready wit and vindicates her deed before the judge wholly understands." Commonplace has a tragic pathos. Never does enough is the plot that follows; the un- forget that the man she has tortured likeness which set it apart merely con- and slain is the lover she, without limit, sists in the reiterated expression has loved. that unsullied innocence of soul. For

It is a masterpiece of dramatic vigor. never through all the griefs and joys and catastrophes of her wedded years

Signor vicere, you must know that more does Elena lose her springtime grace of

than a year ago Signor Didaco Centiglia, childhood. The divine flames—to quote seeing that by no other way he could have that most brazen of episcopal story. In the presence of my mother, my broth

my love, resolved to make me his wife. tellers-illuminate her heart and there

ers, and Pietro, his servant, he wedded me with open the eyes of her mind, but to

at my own home, and for more than fifteen the very end she retains the untainted months shared my couch as my lawful huspurity of her playtime.

band. Then he, regardless of the fact Nor is this a single example of Ban- that I was his lawful wife, only lately, as dello's latent powers of characteriza- all Valencia knows, espoused the daughter tion. Painted in colors more vivid, if of Signor Ramiro Vigliaracuta—though not more distinct, is his portrait of wife of his she is none, seeing that I was Spanish Violante. The story (partially first married to him. Nor did this suffice and inadequately reproduced in Beau- him. Yesterday, as if I had been a woman

of ill-life, impudently he visits me and mont and Fletcher's "Triumph of

pours a flood of lies into my ears, being at Death”) is a narrative of savage

pains to make me believe that what was venge taken by a woman tortured into

black was white. Hardly had he gone crime. Didaco Centiglia forsakes his when he sent Pietro-whom you see here low-born wife, Violante, and openly -to tell me he would spend the night weds another bride. For three days now past in my company. To this Violante is as one stunned; she had I agreed, for the way

seemed loved him with an illimitable love-she open for me to take such revenge upon him wept and wasted away in her misery.

as I was able. Therefore, O most just Then, "so that for the future it should signor, have I come here that you may

know all from my lips. With denials or be less easy for men to betray,” she set

entreaties I have nothing to do, deeming weeping aside. It chanced one day, it too great cowardice to fear punishment she, being at her window, saw her lost for an act done wilfully and of deliberalover ride by. He, though abashed and tion. That my honor is safe suffices me. with changed color, drew rein and Last night, my lord, spurred thereto by greeted her. “Good morrow,

the injury received, I took such vengeance donna,” is his light salutation. “How upon my husband as seemed meet for the goes it with you?" "You give me good wrong which out of all reason he did me. morrow with your lips," she answers,

With these hands I drove from his vile smiling, “but in truth you have given body his viler soul. Egli l' honore tolto

m'aveva, ed io a lui ho la vita levata. Ma me a very sad day, and how it goes

quanto più si debba l' honore che la vita with me you know as well I." A

apprezzare, è troppo manifesto. double traitor, that night he returns to Violante and perishes miserably—this

Judging Violante to be of greater soul honor alone she accords him-at


than belongs to womanhood, the judge hands: “Tu ti potrai almen gloriare, sentences her to death, and she dies,

“allegra e valorosa." che per mano d'una donna, che amasti, still as before, e ella te senza fine amava, sei morto."

Had the sentence been to life, possibly even her indomitable

courage might 1 Bandello, Parte I., Novella xlii. (Fourth story

have failed. of translations.)

It is self-evident that a gulf lies be





tween such heroines as Violante and not please God nor me--since your husElena and the puppets labelled good or band has done me such courtesy-that evil of earlier writers, Boccaccio him. I towards him do villany." So Galself not altogether excepted. Though gano left her. in his case, if his dramatis persone are Such episodes may be but Lreaks in puppets, the hand of a genius far other the chronicles of ignoble deeds and palthan Bandello's moved the marionettes. try crimes. Yet we need reminding

Of chivalry in either the earlier or the that such breaks are not so rare as we later novelle there is little trace. Italy have been led to imagine. The forbid-Dunlop is at pains to account for its den tree, the science of human nature, absence-was a land of merchants; the with the novellieri, as in Eden of old, soldier's life was held in low repute, was the Tree of the Knowledge of nor did a country split into small states Good as well as of Evil, and for them and warring factions afford a favorable it bore its Apples of Beauty as well as condition for the development of its “Apples of Wrath." For the rest-I tional traditions corresponding to the quote from Boccaccio's own words cycle of the "Cid" in Spain or the these stories will not run after any one Charlemagne legend of France. Never to make him read them, and for him theless they are by no means wholly "chi va tra queste deggendo, lasci star without records of magnanimous gen- quelle che pungono, e quelle che dileterosity and chivalrous instinct. Boc- tano, legga.” caccio himself inscribed the exquisite idyl, best known as Alfred de Musset re-rendered it, of Lisa, the apothecary's little daughter who lay dying for love of the young king, Re Pietro di Raona.

From The Nineteenth Century. Bandello recorded the story of Anselmo

CHANTILLY AND THE DUC D'AUMALE. and Angelica, where the two feudal en

The castle and estate of Chantilly, emies are at strife each to outdo the and the collection there, are celeother in "cortesia”-a plot which, while brated. The spot is a beautiful one. it faintly recalls the famous brother An immense forest forms thick and sister scene of "Measure for Meas- mantle covering the surrounding hills ure," 1 is a measure for

of and valleys. The castle rises amidst nobler fashion and unsullied import; the waters, majestic and picturesque. and, to cite no more, the first story of Memories of great people cling around Ser Giovanni's “Pecorone” has the true this noble dwelling: the names of the note of generous romance. “Madonna" Montmorencys, the Condés and the -Galgano, her long despised lover, Bourbons, recur to the mind the moquestions the wife of Messer Stricco— ment one's gaze rests upon those walls “greatly I marvel wherefore you have which have sheltered so many illusthis night sent for me more than at any trious personages. Recollections of the other time, seeing I have so long desired last possessor mingle therewith and and followed you who ever refused to shed a new and enduring splendor on see me or to hear;" and she answered the noble pile. him that the praise with which her hus

A description of Chantilly Castle band had so greatly lauded him had would fill a large volume, and each of moved her “di non t' esser più cruda.” the principal parts of the collections it Galgano said, “Is this thing true?” She contains would require at least three. answered, “In very deed, yes.” "And

This is precisely the number of volumes other reason you had none?" he de- to be devoted to the paintings by M. F. manded.

She replied, "None." A. Gruyer, to whom the late Duc “Truly," then Galgano said, “it shall d'Aumale confided the task of compil

ing a catalogue with comments and en1 The original story is in Cinthio's “Hecatom- gravings. Another scholar, M. Léopold miti,” Decade 8, Novel 5.

Deslisle, was chosen to enumerate the




riches of the library, which was added de Boutellier on account of the office to constantly and with the best taste of royal cup-bearer with which it was by a book-loving prince, himself the invested. author of an historical work, ably writ In the fourteenth century the estate ten and enriched with valuable docu- passed into the hands nf Guy de Laval, ments. The other collections abound who sold it to Pierre d'Orgemont, chanin works of art and in arms of all sorts cellor of France. Marguerite, an heir and all periods. Each one was to be ess of this Pierre d'Orgemont, brought the subject of monograph, with it back to the family from which she plates and figures supplementing the had sprung by her marriage with Jean descriptions. The work has already II, de Montmorency. Here the history been commenced, and will probably be commences to be piquant. The two continued by the Institut de France, to sons whom Jean had had by his first which the Duc d'Aumale has be- wife fell out with their step-mother queathed (by will dated 1887) the estate and seized the occasion to oppose the and all that it contains, reserving only king, Louis the Eleventh, by joining the usufruct. The noble duke was a the Duke of Burgundy's party. This member of three sections of that emi- enraged their father, who, in his judinent body-the Académie Française, cial capacity, summoned one of them, the Académie des Beaux-Arts, and the Jean, lord of Nivelle, in Flanders, to Académie des Sciences morales et po- appear before him and hear himself litiques. The other two divisions, the condemned to return to his feudal duty. Académie des Sciences and the Acad. This summons was made known by the émie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, sound of trumpets and the voices of might also have enrolled him, for there heralds-at-arms. But Nivelle was disare few branches of knowledge to tant; Jean turned a deaf ear, and failed which the duke was a stranger.

to put in an appearance. The call was Although the Chantilly estate has a repeated again and again, but still reconsiderable past and a feudal origin mined unanswered. Montmorency's dating pretty far back, the name is not fury then became ungovernable; he disancient. It comes from clump of inherited his son and spoke of him as a lime trees (campus tiliæ), the remains of "felon” and a “chien." His impotent which, it is said, are still to be seen in rage excited no doubt the caustic wit one of the avenues. There is good rea- of the clerks of his household, for they son to believe, however, that the origi- humorously said, "ce chien de Jean de nal trees have disappeared and given Nivelle, il s'enfuit quand on l'appelle." place to others. What is more certain This has passed into a proverb, and is that a fortress existed there in the when a man will not hear, or runs offe Middle Ages, built by the first owners when called, it is commonly said that of the land in the midst of swamps, “il ressemble à ce chien de Jean de Niwhere it was beyond the reach of the velle qui fuit quand on l'appelle." missiles employed before the invention Jean II., remaining loyal to Louis the of cannon. On the site occupied by Eleventh, kept to his resolution to disthis fortress was erected what has since inherit his son, who remained in Flan. been called "the old castle.” This ders. The Comte de Horn, who was ancient stronghold, like many others beheaded with the Comte d'Egmont, antecedent to the twelfth century, was Jean de Nivelle's grandson. These formed, owing to the shape of the things are somewhat apart from our ground, an irregular pentagon, with a subject, but there is a connecting link projecting tower at each angle. The in the fact that Jean II, had, by Marlittle that is known of its history only guerite d'Orgemont, a son, named Guilreveals that in the tenth century it be- laume, who was the father of the falonged to the Count de Senlis, and that mous high constable, Anne de Montit afterwards passed to the branch of morency, the real founder of Chantilly that house which received the name of Castle. The old castle had become too


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