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iners (a low estimate), and the result Interesting and not unhopeful, even next year should become appar whether from the standpoint of experirent, the more so since it should be pos- mental colonization or that of Armesible to utilize the help of

of nian aid, is the attempt to establish » them for itinerant instruction in the village of refugees upon the lands of villages. The government will, it is the ancient Armenian monastery of St. hoped, approve a measure to check the Maghar, an historic culture centre of import of diseased eggs, and to repeal this long-scattered people, hidden amid the old legislation, which is grotesquely the northern mountains, but with a dooppressive to silk-winding. A filature main-mostly rough land, but of some or winding factory is being established possibilities-stretching from the forat Larnaka by the help of the same est to the sea. On this spot, in fairly committee, whose important homes for hopeful conditions, and with leadership widows and orphans will thus be no of architect and farmer, a little group tax on Cyprus, but a help, and, like the of Armenian families will soon settle, Huguenot refugees of Spitalfields to serve, perhaps, as nucleus for their day, the means of introducing more. The needful initial capital of what is practically a new industry to £500 (for buildings, implements, seed the island. The propagation of the and keep till a crop comes in) has been mulberry also is being stimulated, and provided by Canon Rawnsley's Kessilk production may now be expected to wick Committee; the land has been increase proportionally.

granted rent-free for eight years by the For the Armenian immigrants, mostly convent trustees on condition of gradyoung men needing work, three fairly ual clearing and grafting; and thus belarge fruit and vegetable gardens have fore that time there should be some rebeen also taken, where at most thirty sults to show. to forty, at fewest ten, some skilled, Here, then, in this matter of Armesome unskilled, have been in employnian relief works-small though they ment under due superintendence, as yet are, and inadequate for thanks to the director of the silk tnan a tithe of the needs of he refuschool, and to our English companion, gees actually at present in Cyprus, with Mr. Lionel Fox-Pitt. The government regard to whom piteous appeals lie beexperimental garden, which was sud- fore us—are definite beginnings capable denly abandoned a good many years of further development. Recruits can ago by way of a treasury retrenchment, easily be accepted and drilled when the may, it is hoped, also be reclaimed; skilled officers and sergeants are ready while marsh-draining and other larger for them, and that is the case here. Artasks are in contemplation, as capital menian agricultural experts and foremay allow. A large farm, or small es- men are on the spot, and a list lies betate of about sixteen hundred acres, fore us of others to be procured at short was purchased-namely, that central notice, since they stand idle in the marpalm-oasis already mentioned-and ket-place, unhired; men whose scientific with wells, roads, tree-planting, and training would often do honor to any what not, already affords some work, agricultural college, and whose pracof which the Armenians will get a tical experience, capacity, and characshare; while another farm is under ne- ter would make them worthy stewards gotiation. A little capital has been of great estates. used on the principle of an agricultural We went out with no commission or bank, which grants small advances to grant to administer from any society skilled refugees and so enables them to save that donation towards the silk start in useful industries, sometimes school acknowledged above); but now even new to the island."

that we have seen something of the ac1 See Miss Cons' article on “Armenian Refu.

tual working of the too common paugees in Cyprus,” Contemporary Revieu, January, perizing methods of philanthropy on

the one hand, and tested the powers of

more on

897. 1

Armenian agricultural leadership that of apprenticeship among sympathe other, it may be permitted to saythetic and skilful kinsmen, with daily and say strongly, to each and all of the share in regular ordinary work, would many Armenian committees and sym- quickly develop, and thus your daily pathizers a single word. Your natural dole would fall steadily from mishuman sympathies for the refugees chievous maximum to reasonable minihave gone first, of course, to the help- mum, your capital correspondingly inless orphans, next to the widows, next crease for widening usefulness. But to the unskilled and unemployed and what if all this did not pay? you ask. starving fugitives, next to the skilled Probably it would pay; in existing workman or peasant, and last, or not practice we hope in reasonable measure at all, to the few educated chiefs of ag- to find it so; but even when it does not, riculture, architecture, manufactures, and only £90 comes back from your commerce, industry, since these are £100, it is, at any rate £90 more than strong men, who may find employment would have come back from doles; so for themselves, as no doubt they grad- call it a new subscription, and begin ually do. Granted at once this order again; even though you lose once more, of sympathies; yet in practical effort at you still will get back £80 or so. Even relief the exactly reverse order is what in the least profitable industries you you should have followed, what you may thus surely employ your capital should still, as far as possible, follow, four or five times over in wages before if your dole-fund is not to be wholly ex- you lose it all, and that is surely many hausted before half the orphans are of times better than doles even for your your hands; for public interest has own satisfaction, and many times betpassed to India, to Crete, to Greece, ter for the people you sought to relieve. and will soon be elsewhere, and with it Try it then at worst; though better, of goes public generosity well. In course, entrust your capital where you stopping a rout, not sympathy, but can see it employed in the reverse of a strategy claims the first place; rally losing game; for it is time to be rid of first a few officers; let them rally such the common superstition that philanfew under-officers and men as they can thropy is necessarily anti-business, and depend on; they in turn will gather business anti-philanthropy. round them the fugitives, and it will Or pass now from unhappy Armesoon be better for the widows and or- nians to the unhappy Cretans; for the phans than before. Hence, while you general idea urged here is not of racial have still some funds, invest them sympathy but of agricultural and wisely, productively, safely-not with economic practice. For weeks and your London banker, but boldly out in months we have read almost daily of the East, in rallying here in Cyprus, the chief want of Crete being a genthere in Bulgaria, and so on, the ablest darmerie, for which no doubt the imand best of these captains of industry poverished people will be asked to pay. and chiefs of agriculture. Set them to This will, in the usual way, pick out choose the best foremen still available; half their manliest youths for policethey will soon find the good men among men, and employ the less manly for the unemployed. These started produc- tax-collectors to pay them (and themtively, your investments begin to pay selves), and so indirectly squeeze the and to extend; then you are reauy to re, other manliest into sheep-stealing, and cruit and work up into efficiency the worse. For in these Eastern countries weaker and unskilled unemployed; especially, the legal idea then, too, your widows would be nat- creasingly to polarize mankind into pourally, in not a

few cases, finding licemen and criminals, just as that of homes afresh, with corresponding light- the administrative bureaucracy is to ening of your orphanage as well. The labor for their complete conversion into technical school for the orphans, and, functionaries and functionary-payers. after all, the best of technical schools, The peasant is of course simply the







raw material of all these activities for work, even in that unhappy isle of exhis good, and the steady reduction of asperation and feud. For peasants, as his proportional numbers and quality well as we, are quite able to learn how

apparently regarded from the much better than any amount of mustandpoint of town and government as tual blood-letting is a little rest and “Progress,” which in a certain direc- better feeding, and this for all the tion it undeniably is. But for Crete, patients concerned. Il faut cultiver son surely we must begin to see that the jardin. difficulty is fundamentally, not racial, not religious, but economic, agricul- War we understand, in terms and tural. Surely it is time to admit that images concrete enough, from the fate in every discontented village on earth, of nations down to individual deed and be it in Crete or Tipperary, in Suffolk suffering, life and death. But

of or in Michigan, in Sicily or Bengai, the Peace, though each of us pretends to villagers' paramount concern is their himself that he desires it, how many own personal and local agricultural have more than a mere abstract idea, prosperity. Their political agitation or a mere whiff of rhetoric, a mere colorturmoil, their rebellion or battle is but less negative-of Not-War, and that the outward symptom and audible ex- only wbile political conventions last? pression of some disturbance or arrest Who has not heard of Kriegspiel? of that: their whole wrestling and How many have heard or thought striving, here in prayer or there in en- of Friedenspiel? Do not need mity, is with the desire to reduce that to understand peace

in the internecine struggle for existence crete, to follow it also from indi. which their religion and their politics vidual lives and labors up to its but overlie. While the powers play national and human resultants ? The their admirals, the Greeks their inquiry is a long one, as long and colonel, and the Turk his pasha, and broad as history, yet we shall have beeverybody accordingly, more than ever, gun if we grasp again its concrete cries for the gendarme, let any one symbol, the living olive-branch of old. who calls himself Phil Hellene and Peace is not fundamentally a question who really desires to do a good turn of high concert, conference, or arbitrafor the Cretan Greeks-or conversely tion, good though all these may be; it for the Cretan Mohammedans, as the is fundamentally a question of indusTurcophile doubtless is willing to do, try, and this mainly of the main indusor still better, let any one who cares try, agriculture; this mainly again in for both as man for man in trouble, its intensive forms, irrigation, treesend them something better than a planting, and the rest. gendarme, better even than the urban For social health, as for individual relief of physician, and nurse, and health, must not the essential matter dole, urgent though these may soon be hygiene? Il faut cultiver son jardin. be. Send them a young mining geolo- That is the Hygiene of Peace. gist to ride from village to village who can employ and thus teach its men to Here, then, are some outlines towards clear their own well, to open out their a theory of the historic and cosmic springs; send them agriculturist genesis of the Eastern question in the with a consignment of fresh seed (they past; some elements also of a project have very possibly had none since the of its possible gradual and pacific soluVenetians left) and a box of grafting tion. The constructive and critical knives; send them next year a silk ex- treatment of these two sides of the pert and so on. Every one of these is question must, of course, appeal from available, even among the Armenian party standpoints to social-geographic refugees at hand. And we shall soon study and to social-economic experisee what wonders a little increase of ment. Not, then, for the sake of auwell-being, nay a little hope of it, will thority or of associations, but for that



of briefer and clearer statement, alike even to imagine. Perhaps the Civil theoretic and practical, geographic and War, being a luminous landmark, agricultural, a final summary of this might with sufficient accuracy be de. view of the Eastern question and its scribed as the beginning of a more re. essential answer may be best given spectable and sane attitude towards in Eastern words-conveniently, too, as manly sports. It is not indeed so very showing there is no novelty in one's long since the larger portion of comviews. Of such statements there is no mercial and manufacturing America lack, but one may suffice; one tradi- regarded the individual who shot ducks tionally credited to a long and full life or caught trout for amusement as a spent in its vortex, a life rich in ob- fool at the very best, and probably servation and deep in feeling, and something worse. If this unwholesome whose experience of action ranged superstition had been due in the main from shepherd to cultivator, from vic- to honest Puritanism one might entor to fugitive, from servant to king. deavor to temper one's disgust with Hear, then, the antithesis of paradise some measure of respect. Most of us, lost and paradise regained.

at some period of our lives, have been brought in contact with people on

whose grim creed every form of diverHe turneth rivers into a wilderness and sion jars; and their point of view we

the water springs into dry ground, can at least understand, though we A fruitful land into barrenness, for the may not hanker after their company. wickedness of them that dwell therein. But the Puritan tradition was the II.

smaller ingredient of the old-fashioned He turneth the wilderness into a standing Yankee's aversion to games and field

water, and dry ground into water sports, the true root of which lay in a springs,

contempt for men who would divert And there he maketh the hungry to dwell, one single hour from the righteous

that they may prepare a city for duty of amassing dollars. These sentihabitation;

ments, to be sure, would have been And sow the fields, and plant vineyards, decently clothed in moral platitudes, which may yield fruits of increase. which must have had an odd flavor, PATRICK GEDDES. coming from a class who set no par

ticular limit to its cocktails, and not much more to its commercial conscience.

Whatever motives and whatever secFrom Macmillan's Magazine. tion of society formed public opinion AMERICANS AT PLAY.

in the Eastern cities, thirty or forty Time was, and that not so long ago, years ago, it is quite certain that it when the American sportsman, in his looked askance at manly sports, and own country occupied an almost des- regarded them, not only as a waste of picable position, while the athlete had time, but as being first cousins to practically no existence at all. We do drunkenness and dissipation. The not, of course, include in this statement celebrated Anglo-American sportsman the professional sportsman, who was and author, Mr. Herbert (Frank outside public opinion, but refer only Forester), spent the last twenty years to the amateur of the North and East, of his life, so tragically ended by his who would fain have spent his leisure own hand in 1858, in vehemently comin field-sports, or in manly pastimes of bating this monstrous and unwholea kindred nature. It would be impos- some prejudice. And it is partly this, sible to fix with any precision the date no doubt, that makes the memory of of his emancipation from that half that remarkable man so exceedingly Puritan, half bourgeois thraldom, dear to American sportsmen, who now which is not easy for an Englishman fish and shoot with impunity, and even with repute. All is now changed in which has so much added to the brightdeed. A certain distrust of leisure and ness of life beyond the Atlantic, has a distorted notion of the chief aim of shown itself most powerfully among lile are still, we all know, conspicuous the genuine Americans, and the blood traits beyond the Atlantic, but at any of the genuine American is chiefly rate they no longer control public British. The ill-conditioned and halfopinion. There were exceptions, how- educated provincial, who just now preever, even in the dreary period we dominates in the Senate Chamber, is speak of. Harvard, and possibly one precisely the type of man who will or two other universities, rowed in look with jaundiced eye on this wholedesultory fashion; the small cricketing sale importation of healthy customs coterie at Philadelphia, of which we from that island which, effete though shall have more to say, went on with it may be according to his foolish jarits cricket; baseball was played to some gon, seems, in fact, to haunt his very extent; while even then there were dreams with its threatening spectre. brazen individuals in the Eastern A few years ago the American press, cities whose love for gun and rod was with an eye, no doubt, to street popustronger than their fear of the narrow- larity, used to ridicule people who folminded bigotry which would hold them lowed the hounds or played tennis, or cheaper upon that account. Society dressed in tweed suits, as Anglohas of course long ago flung the super- maniacs; and some rustic papers do so stitions of its fathers to the four winds. stiil. Now, however, these doings are What indeed those departed worthies, chronicled in more serious and respect. with their sombre broadcloth and ex- ful fashion, for not only society, but pansive shirt-fronts, would think if the most of the well-to-do class are bethey could see the doings of those who ing converted to wholesome ways. have inherited their fortunes and in- Hunting, coaching, and polo for the creased them, we dare not conjecture. more wealthy, lawn-tennis, golf, footThe ways of the ancients, who looked ball, and hockey for all, have taken askance at a Joe Manton and a pointer, firm root upon the soil, while shooting and even blinked a little at the innoc- and fishing among the Eastern States

weapons of old Izaak, have developed to an extent that has changed indeed. How disheartening, brought the question of game and its too, must the change be to certain preservation to an acute phase. But critics, who are forever dilating on we must leave field-sports alone, as the emancipation of Americans from being somewhat alien to the purpose European influence, and as if to antici- of this paper, as well as too wide a pate this millennium record their sen- subject for its limits. In connection, timents in emancipated English. however, with the taste for country

Distressing beyond a doubt, to a cer- life that has developed among Ameritain type of American patriot, are all cans, the evolution of the Country these packs of foxhounds, these stables Club must not be passed over. These of hunters and polo ponies, these excellent institutions originated, matches at football and at golf, these fancy, with the establishment of sometournaments at lawn-tennis, that are thing like a social headquarters at the now becoming part of the life of every kennels of the various packs of hounds well-to-do American in the older States in the countries they hunted. Now, and are rapidly spreading Westward. however, they have increased and mulHe may perhaps, after all, have to tiplied exceedingly, and are to be found form his “ideal American" out of the within reach of most of the large cities, Germans and Irish, whose recreations though chiefly prevailing, as is natural, seldom run far beyond the beer-garden in the East. These societies have for and the whiskey-saloon. It is quite their quarters luxurious and commocertain that this recent awakening to dious mansions, usually situated in the value of field-sports and games, neighborhoods where scenery and sport




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