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I. RECENT SCIENCE. By Prince Kropotkin,
Neera. Translated for The Living Age
AN INDIAN FAMINE. Part II. By
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"My father led a sailor's life, Of all the little hearts in feather,
He was your joy," I cried;
“My mother was a sailor's wife;" Of all the little wights in fur,
Yet still she only sighed.
My wedding clothes with her I chose,
We fitted them with pride;
With heart's content to church I went, Not where the shining spaces of the mere I left it Donal's bride. Lie blue and clear,
No bluer, truer eyes than his,
Search Derry up and down.
Yet we were wed but three months' time, So, poised on dead and dying things,
But three months and a day, Not in the glare of being, but the sough
When Donal to a foreign clime Dim, tranquil umbrage of sequester'd
Should voyage far away. thought,
Ah, then too well I learned to tell
Why first my granny sighed -
An absent sailor's bride.
Our boy's first cry, and he not by The colors of the furrow and the sky
My pride and joy to share Remind me that at worst and best
Our boy's first walk and pretty talk,
And still no father there.
From half the world around,
Grown leaf by leaf a blistered sheaf
And is he coming home again
And will he be the same to me Withdrawn from human fellowship and
Although I so have changedspeech.
The same again, the same as when
Of old he courting came Hark! dry wood snaps. Who dares in. And looked me through with eyes so blue trude
Oh, will he be the same? Upon thy sea-green solitude?
I would have drest in all my best; (Hush! hush!) No human will shall do
He'd have me wear my worst, Thy spirit wrong: thou shalt be let
The faded gown of homespun brown alone.
In which he saw me first. Alas, one flash of blue
My woman's heart would have me smart, Heaven's color-tells that thou art
I'm but a woman still; flown.
But bide, gay gown; come, old one, down; Good Words.
VIDA BRISS. Let Donal have his will.
THE SAILOR'S BRIDE.
That I'd be Donal's bride,
Then turned away and sighed.
The Southern Star has fetched the bar,
She's signalled from the land.
Now on my shoulder stand.
He's waving to the shore!
ALFRED PERCEVAL GRAVES,
STRUCTURE – THE APPROACH OF
From The Nineteenth Century.
scribe as the conscious state of mind, RECENT SCIENCE.
was indicated. Now we have to analyze another group of epoch-making discoveries relative to the finer structure of the nerve-system, and to see
what may be learned from them about Not further than thirty or forty years a still higher sphere of mental activity, ago it was very generally maintained namely, the associations of ideas and and taught that the psychical activity mechanism of thought. of mind on the one side, and the chem The ambition of modern physiologists ical or physical changes which take will be best understood from some such place in the brain and the nerves on the illustration as he following. Suppose other side, belong to two quite distinct a flash of lightning strikes eyes, domains, separated by a wide gap and we see a thunderbolt striking a which can by no
be bridged tree in our neighborhood. Immediover. Our sensations, emotions, ately, and quite unconsciously, we may our thoughts, it was said, and the ma stop in our walk, turn pale, or lift our terial changes which may go on in the hand as if to protect our eyes. Next nervous system, are not only two dis
we may make some quite conscious tinct sets of facts—they are two quite movement-run, let us say, towards the separate worlds, "separate in exist. tree to ascertain whether a child which ence.” Consequently, if physiologists we saw a moment before in that direcshould ever succeed in tracing each tion has not been struck by the thunelectrical current and each chemical derbolt. Or the reminiscence of change produced in the brain and the friend who has had a narrow escape in nerves whilst a sensation is awakened a similar circumstance may be awakand thoughts besiege our mind, they ened all of a sudden. Or we may set nevertheless would add absolutely thinking about the rain which is comnothing to our knowledge of sensations ing, and is much wanted for the crops, and thoughts; still less to their inter or about electricity and the
of pretation. Facts of psychology can not lightning, or about the beauty of the be explained by facts of physics or suddenly illuminated landscape, and so chemistry.
on. Now, our sensations in this case, Current ideas, however, are rapidly and our subsequent emotions, conscious changing upon this point. It lies actions, and thoughts may, of course, beyond contest that from mass be described and studied by the psyof psycho-physiological investigations chologist; in fact nearly all the domain which have been made within the last of psychology can be strolled over in thirty years, something new has con- this simple case. But then the physitinually been learned about man's ologist steps in. He wants to know, in psychical life-something that could not his turn, what changes, chemical be learned from
psychological physical, took place in the retina of our self-observation. And gradually, even eye as it was struck by light; what the strictest psychologists have grown nerves were irritated next, and to what accustomed to the idea that in the re- parts of the brain and the spinal cord searches of physiologists they will find, the nerve-current was transmitted; in to say the least, a most precious aid for which way these or those muscles of their own investigations. One group of the arm, or such blood-vessels of the such researches-into the gradual evo- face, were contracted; what took place lution of senses in the animal world, in the cells of the brain, and in which was analyzed last year in this Review; way the conscious run towards the tree and the new light that was thrown by was originated; by what mechanism these researches upon the complicated the old, dormant reminiscences of nature of our own sensations, as well friend, or the familiar associations of as upon the evolution of what we de. lightning with rain, with electricity, or
with the beauty of a landscape, were composed not of thick hair, but of milawakened; in which spots of the brain lions of finest microscopical fibres ramiwere these associations stored, and fying in all directions, and try to follow how was it that once more they came
in it each separate fibre! Various to consciousness?
roundabout methods were tried, and The problem is immense, and is im- the most astounding was that certain bued with the deepest interest. It anatomists (especially His) succeeded matters little what are one's particular to some extent in disentangling that views upon “matter” and “mind.” network, at least for the white bundle Once it is admitted that for each sensa of nerves. But the grey substance of tion, emotion, or thought there is an
the brain and the spinal cord defied all equivalent process which goes on in the their efforts. brain and the nerves—and that much Then came, in 1885, the welcome is now admitted all sides—both news that the Italian professor, Golgi, processes must be known in full. They had discovered a new method of stain. may be described as simply "parallel," ing microscopical preparations, which but "separate in existence," and not in enabled him to trace separate the least independent—that would be fibres in the grey tissue as well. The the dualist's view; or they may be method soon was tested, slightly ini: considered, by the monist, as the two proved upon, and in the hands of such aspects, inner and outer, of the very anatomists as His, Lenhossék. van same process; or the psychical process Gehuchten, Retzius, Sala, and espemay be considered as a result of what cially the Spanish anatomist, S. Ramón took place in the brain and the nerves y Cajal, and the veteran histologist -such would be the materialist's view; Kölliker, it soon yielded quite but all three-the dualist, the monist, pected results. 'n less than ten yours and the materialist-are equally inter- the felt was disentangled; and the intiested in knowing both processes in all mate structure of the brain and tires their details. This is, in fact, what sci- spinal cord—their grey ard white subence aims at at the present time. stances alike—the nerve-gangliil, an
The task is, however, beset with al- the nerve-system altogether, appeared most incredible difficulties, and one of under a quite new aspect. the chief among them was for a very It is firmly established now that the long time the impossibility of making different parts of the nerve-system conout the finer structure of nerve-tissues. sist of millions of microscopical nerveIn all sciences dealing with life has units, which are all built upon the same been lately found out that a grosso fundamental plan. The modo study of the organs is utterly iu neurons has been proposed for these sufficient; that in order to understand units, and is now pretty generally ac. nutrition and growth, reproduction and cepted. Like all other cells, the nerve. heredity-life in word-attention cells consist of protoplasm, and have a must be turned to the wonderful phe nucleus and a still smaller nucleolus; nomena which go on in the tiny micro. while they vary, of course, very much scopical cells. The same became nec. in size, and their shape may be round essary in psycho-physiology: the tiny or stellar, or roughly triangular. A nerve-cells, each of which leads its own typical nerve-cell differs, however, from life, while all are thoroughly connected all other cells in that it has, as a rule, together, had to be studied. Not fur- two sorts of outgrowths. On the one ther back than ten years ago that study side it gives origin to short ramificamet with almost insuperable obstacles. tions of naked grey protoplasm, which The nerve-cells were found to be sur may be covered with protoplasm granrounded with such an inextricable tis- ules or send out short side branches, so sue of finest nerve-fibres that it seemed that they resemble a microscopic moss; almost hopeless to disentangle the tis- these ramifications have received the sue. Imagine a thick felt, which is name of dendrons. From the other side