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Sixth Series, Volume XV.

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No. 2773-August 28, 1897.

From Beginning,

Vol. CCXIV.

CONTENTS.

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I. THE SOUTH AFRICA BUBBLE. By
Quæsitor,

Contemporary Rerieu,
II. On CONVERSATION. By James Payn, · Nineteenth Century,
III. THE BUSHMAN'S FORTUNE. By H. A.
Bryden,

Longman's Magazine,
IV. THE RESTORATION OF PAINTINGS. By
Maltus Q. Holyoak”,

Chambers's Journal, .
V. GUSTAVE FLAUBERT. By Paul Pourget. Fortnightly Review,
VI. ENGLISH CLERGY IN FICtion. By C.
Fortescue Yonge,

Gentleman's Magazine,
VII. GOLF ; ITS PRESENT AND FUTURE. Blackwood's Magazine,
VIII. MORALITY IN THIRTY HOURS. By

Francisque Sarcey, Translated for the
Living Age,

Les Annales
IX. THE LATEST ELDORADO,

Saturday Review, X. ANIMALS IN FAMINE,

Spectator,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. FOR SIX DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, THE LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, cr by post-office money order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of The Living AGE CO.

Single copies of THE LIVING AGE, 15 cents.

THE CRICKET.

Let echoes of the heavenly praise Oh, to be a cricket,

Come still through earthly gladness; That's the thing!

The light that lies on lovelier ways To scurry in the grass

Be but half hid in sadness; And to have one's fling!

And of Thy grace the unseen power And it's oh, to be a cricket

Lift up with hope my passing hour. In the warm thistle-thicket

Good Words.

ROBERT KEMP. Where the sun-winds pass,

Winds a-wing,
And the bumble-bees hang humming,

HEART AND MIND.
Hum and swing,

If all the dead whom I have known alive And the honey-drops are coming!

Could rise unsheeted from their every It's to be a summer rover,

grave, That can see a sweet, and pick it

What is the question I would first contrive With the sting!

And which the friend whose answer I Never mind the sting!

would crave?

Not to the great philosopher or sage And it's oh, to be a cricket

My unreluctant tongue should be untied, In the clover!

Though in that hour I might believe an A gay summer rover

age In the warm thistle-thicket,

Of longing wonder could be satisfied; Where the honey-drops are coming, Not to the teacher of the ways divine, Where the bumble-bees hang humming, Nor preacher of the faith he held on That's the thing!

earthCHARLES G. D. ROBERTS,

These well might follow in an ordered

line As one by one the mind should give them

birthBut, searching for one face, the heart

would call, LUCEM SPERO.

"Dost thou remember me, my all in all?". The land I travel through is dark

John G. ROMANES, With fears, and cares, and shadows; No sun to wake the singing lark

Or fill with flowers the meadows; Myself, alas, my only light,

EQUATIONS. The sun by day, the stars at night. You so sure the world is full of laughter,

Not a place in it for any sorrow, O God eternal, Lord of love,

Sunshine with no shadow to come after,Whose power goes forth in pity,

Wait, О mad one, wait until to-morrow! To stir the sleeping fields and move The clouds from o'er the city,

You so sure the world is full of weeping,

Only gloom in all the colors seven, Breathe on my heart and let me know

Every wind across a new grave creeping,The gladness of the way I go.

Think, O sad one, yesterday was heaven!

O let me look on field and sky

In joy and endless wonder,
And love Thee for the lights on high

And flowers that blossom under,
And praise Thee for the fruits of earth
With cheerful toil and kindly mirth.

Young and strong I went along the high

way, Seeking Joy from happy sky to sky: I met Sorrow coming down a byway,

What had she to do with such as I?

Teach me to lose myself, and live

In peace with men, their neighbor;
To honor, help, endure, forgive,

And gladly rest and labor:
O touch my heart and string my will.
And all my life with Christ fulfil.

Sorrow with a slow detaining gesture

Waited for me on the widening way, Threw aside her shrouding veil and

vesture,Joy had turned to Sorrow's self that day,

HARRIET PRESCOTT SPOFFORD. From "In Titian's Garden."

its audacious simplicity, he became the From The Contemporary Review.

emperor of Charterland—the unquesTHE SOUTH AFRICA BUBBLE.

tioned master of the obedience of Doctor The collapse of the South Africa Jameson, who was the formal adminisCommittee is not only a fact of imperial trator, of Dr. Rutherford Harris, who importance, but is also a very curious was the company's secretary at Cape conundrum in contemporary history. Town, and of all the other employés, The historian of the reign will certainly such as Mr. Stevens, who acted in the want to know how it came about that absence of Doctor Harris. It happened a great investigation begun with such that, in his private capacity, Mr. protestations should have ended in a Rhodes also controlled other undertakridiculous fiasco.

ings of great wealth and influence, such The main points of that part of the as the Goldfields Company. history which is already public must be In the Transvaal Republic, the mixed shortly stated in order to make intelli- community of foreigners, for convengible what requires to be said as regards ience called the Uitlanders, had grown its more recent and hidden chapters. with the growth of the mining industry,

The concession of self-government to and by the summer of 1895 the mushthe Transvaal after the Majuba cam room city of Johannesburg contained a paign was gall and wormwood to the large and prosperous non-Dutch populawhole Tory party. It was part of a tion. policy with which the present colonial As early as 1892 they had discussed secretary was understood to agree. At their grievances against the Boer govthe time of the advent of the present ernment, and had formed an association government to power, there very known as the National Union, with the naturally arose a demand among their view of obtaining reforms by the usual followers for what may be roughly methods of constitutional agitation called a jingo policy in South Africa. from President Krüger and the Raad. Mr. Rhodes was the premier of the The grievances were real and the Boers Cape Colony, and had, on the whole, full were obstinate. Moreover, the Boers command of the ministry and the Par- were in no mind to be dispossessed of liament. A charter had been granted to the government of their own country the British South Africa Company, by by the votes of these immigrants, to which, in consideration of the supposed whom the Transvaal is merely a sort security for a sane and righteous of gambling-stand, and whom the Boers, policy, obtained, by adding to the Board rightly or wrongly, credited with as of the Company the Duke of Fife, the little public spirit and as little morals, Duke of Abercorn, and Earl Grey, commercial or otherwise, as a powers of government of the most ex- munity can well have. The leading tensive kind were placed in the hands spirit of the Union, in the time precedof what was not merely a commercial ing the summer of 1895, was one Mr. but actually a speculative ring of Charles Leonard, a lawyer, who was capitalists. The supposed securities, making a large income in Johannesburg on the faith of which that charter had by his profession, and no doubt inbeen granted by a previous administra- tended to make himself a home and a tion, had been rendered, in fact, nuga career in that country. He may be detory by the internal arrangements of scribed as the Gracchus of the little the Company.

revolution. He gave evidence before Mr. Rhodes had been delegated to con- the committee as to the grievances, and duct their business in South Africa, not he made it clear that before the incepmerely with the fullest power as a tion of what is now usually called the managing director, but actually with a Jameson Plan, in the middle of 1895, formal power of attorney which made the capitalists were not particularly inhim the absolute master of all the re terested in the Union. His words were sources, in men, money and influence, (on May 14, 1897): "Up to 1895, no capiwhich the Company could command in talist was ever seen on our platform; Africa. By this device, magnificent in indeed, that was one of our grievances.”

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He added that in 1893 the capitalists at the best, it was in essence a railway had actually supported President war between two rival systems, in one Krüger. The grievances, as he under- of which the Cape government was in. stood them, were not those of the capi- terested, while the other belonged to the talists: they concerned questions such Transvaal. With the view of forcing as the franchise, the alleged maladmin- the Cape railways into a tariff arrangeistration and corruption, the danger ment which was not in itself very unthat the Raad would overrule the high reasonable, the Transvaal government court, the press laws, and, as he put it, claimed the right to stop imports into "the conferring upon continental people their territory along certain routes. concessions and powers which gave This was alleged by the Cape lawyers to them almost complete control of our be a breach of the London convention. destinies."

Perhaps it was. There were, the Cape That these grievances were real, no attorney-general frankly admitted, one doubts; that they were exaggerated, lawyers of great eminence who took every one except fanatics will admit; equally strongly the opposite view. As but in any case, it is quite certain that the world now knows, one of the earliest they were not of a nature for which things Mr. Chamberlain did in his the Johannesburg population would tenure of office as colonial secretary, liave been willing to revolt with arms in was to make an arrangement with Mr. their hands; and Mr. Leonard does not Rhodes, as Cape premier, by which the appear to suggest that the National expenses of a war with the Transvaal Union was or was meant to be a revolu were to be shared between them; and tionary body until that eventful date, then to deliver to President Krüger a the summer of 1895. As regards the violent ultimatum, such as, it is safe to main point, which was the question of say, England would never have adthe franchise, it is evident that, al- dressed in the like circumstances to a though there were many ioreigners in power of her own size. Whether Mr. the country, they could not in any case Chamberlain meant this to result in receive the franchise without abandon- the submission of the Transvaal or in ing their nationality and adopting that a war of conquest, no one knows. In of the Dutch; and this it is quite certain any case the Transvaal submitted, and only a limited proportion of them were the war did not come off. prepared to do. After 1895, another set

There is little risk of error in the of “grievances” became prominent, the assertion that this and the whole of alleged "throttling” of the “mining in Mr. Chamberlain's subsequent policy dustry” by the Boer government. It

must be looked at in the light of his would be easy to show how little there peculiar personal and political posiis in it. Many of the mines have done tion. He had obtained from his politsplendidly, and, in any case, it is the right ical allies the high post of colonial of any government to take any share it secretary, and he had undoubtedly inthinks expedient in the profits of its sisted very strongly upon having his mines. The real "grievance" on this

own way. At the same time, he knew side of the matter is, that, the

put it charges stand, the low-grade mines will that his political allies, to not pay. If the charges could be

simply, hated him. He is an ambitious altered, money could be made in these

man, as all the world knows, and he if not for the shareholder, at least for resolved, not only to dominate, but to

the the promoter. But that is a wide ques- conciliate the Tory party. For tion, and it is not here in point.

latter purpose there could be no better It is necessary to add that there had game than to provide the jingoes with already arisen a certain friction between some revenge for what they called the government of the Transvaal and the shameful surrender after Majuba the authorities at Downing Street and Hill. at the Cape, which culminated in 1895, With the character of Mr. Cecil over what is called the Drifts question. Rhodes we are not for the moment so This question was a very petty matter; much concerned; in any case he is pos.

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sessed of an imperial imagination, and said, directors of the Chartered Com. his dream for years has been the ex pany. Mr. Beit was good enough tension of the empire, by fair means or tell the committee what their talk foul, into illimitable territories north- amounted to. The upshot was that “a wards from the Cape. His jingo rising in Johannesburg would take friends desire to believe that his ac place sooner or later, and he (Rhodes) tions have been influenced throughout then thought, as the Uitlanders were by a mere passion of patriotism. His not properly prepared, it might be wise enemies see in them nothing but a sort to have a force on the border to assist of splendid buccaneering. Probably the people of Johannesburg in case of both are wrong. But it matters little, necessity.” It was felt, he went on to for we are concerned not with his mo say, that a rebellion might take place tives but with his acts.

by the end of the year, and that in that The situation of the Chartered Com- event it would be advisable to send pany at the time in question was, to some assistance to Johannesburg, in say the least of it, critical. They had the shape of an armed force to be sent annexed Mashonaland, because there by the Chartered Company to invade was supposed to be gold there. Find the territory of the Transvaal. Out of ing none or next to none, they had this conversation grew up the whole gone on to seize Manicaland in the preposterous plan, and it is easy, readhope of finding it. There also there ing between the lines of Mr. Beit's eviwas no booty. Then they invaded dence in the light of subsequent Matabeleland under circumstances suf- events, to see what the plan was, and ficiently disgraceful. Bulawayo at to supplement the natural reticence last was to be the El Dorado, but this and equivocation of its authors. also turned out to be vain hope. From that moment the conspiracy Now there was nothing left to annex- developed with businesslike regularity. except the Transvaal itself. That The two arch-millionaires evidently there was gold there, and gold in abun- concluded that money would do any. dance, all the world knew. If by any thing, and they had resolved, with means and under any terms the Rand singular generosity, to find the money. could be annexed to Charterland, the Mr. Beit, whose confessions so far are British South Africa Company might much more frank than those of Mr. see its golden future after all. If this Rhodes, admits that his firm spent was not possible, it was, and still is, nearly two hundred thousand pounds!". extremely difficult to

how the Mr. Rhodes owns that he advanced enormous amount of capital which the out of Chartered funds, be it observed, public bave described to that extraor- by virtue of his power of attorney dinary institution is to earn a dividend. some sixty thousand pounds. If this That the price of the shares had been was all, it was frugal. When the raid inflated to a value altogether ridicu- failed, and the whole conspiracy was lous was an additional reason for unveiled, Mr. Rhodes paid up that coup." In this state of circum- money out of his private purse; but stances there came about a memorable there is not an atom of reason to beinterview at Cape Town. Some time lieve that he originally meant to do so. in May, 1895, Mr. Beit-a young Ger. If the plan had succeeded, and the man Jew-who is one of the chiefs of Chartered Company had come well out the great financial concern which spec- of it, the “New Concessions Account ulates in London as Wernher, Beit & would doubtless be open in the ComCo., and in Johannesburg as Eckstein pany's books to this day. & Co., visited Mr. Rhodes, with whom Why was all this money

wanted ? he had for years been associated in For two purposes. First, to get up many vast financial schemes. They and arm an artificial, in fact, a bogus had a confidential chat about the situ- revolution in the “Gold Reef City.” ation; they were both, it should be Next, to equip an invading force. The

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