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man of our time does among Americans. the other hand, was the instrument of Germany, too, sent her quota of music the nobility; all noble children were teachers although the German seems taught to play on the harp. Thus the not to have been so popular as the king of Westnesse commands the harp French or Italians. There is a strange for the education of his son: "Teach story related of a German named Putta, him of the harp and of song; teach him "a simple-minded man in worldly and to tug o' the harp with his nails sharp." courch matters, but especially well Most famous knights of King Arthur skilled in song and music.” This Ger were taught "harping." And we know man was finally made bishop; but evi- that Alfred the Great put his knowldently his calling was that of a glee- edge of the harp to other than musical man; for shortly after consecration his purposes. It is also worth noting that church in Mercia burned down, and he St. Aldhelm and St. Dunstan were remade no effort to rebuild it, but wan nowned as harpers. In fact, a gentledered about the country in the charac man of Anglo-Saxon days was supposed ter of a strolling minstrel.
to be able to play the harp as a matter In the eighth century the Gregorian of course, just as an American or an system superseded all others in vogue English girl is supposed to play the among Anglo-Saxons. It was intro- piano. duced by the Archbishop of Canter A few specimens of very early Anglobury. As Dean Hook justly observes:- Saxon music remain; as, for example,
the music to the "Praise of Virginity" Gregory, following the example of Saint and to other poems by St. Aldhelm; but Ambrose, introduced into the Western
we cannot interpret their peculiar notaChurch the system of chanting which had tion—it is decidedly imperfect and misprevailed in Antioch so early as the year leading. F was represented by a red 107, improving what he had imported but venerating a style of music which had
line and C by a yellow line, and singing probably been inherited from the Jews. marks or nwmes were written between Gregory increased the number of the these lines, but the time is quite inecclesiastical tones, which somewhat re definite. As to harmony, considerable semble our modern keys, from four to progress must have been made, since eight. And the Gregorian chants, now the nation used the harp and organ, and harmonized according to the improve this implied some knowledge of conments of modern science, remain to the
cordant sounds. present hour the basis of church music in England.
It is claimed that Anglo-Saxon secular
music was plaintive. Doubtless this Strange to relate, Greece had a mo was the case, for melancholy played a nopoly of organ-making in those days; considerable part in their moods. Che for, according to Muratori, the first philosophy of Schopenhauer has a natorgan to be introduced into western ural basis in the Teutonic nature; and Europe was one sent to Pepin from among other rich deposits they possess Greece in 756. But there were already a strong vein of pessimism. It must in sacred use among Anglo-Saxons the have found expression in Saxon music, horn, trumpet, flute, harp and lyre. as it assuredly found expression in
For the laity the crowth, harp and Saxon poetry. pipe were favorite musical instruments. Yet the word "gleeman" seems to The tabor was used at Anglo-Saxon en change that conclusion somewhat, for tertainments, but it was not so popular this name, given to their bards, signias these three. Drums were occasion- fies “joy-man," or one who sung of joys. ally used to heighten the effect, but Doubtless the gleeman's “musical they, also, do not seem to have been in wood" rang through the scale of both high favor. While the pipe was a joy and sorrow. favorite instrument among the lower The gleeman was in earliest times not classes, such as bear-dancers and ex- only the master-musician, he was the hibitors of dancing-dogs, the harp, on philosopher, historian, prophet and poet
of his age; he could hold civil dignities jingles used by children were shown such as the government of a province or to have deep political and moral meanof an important city. But when Chris- ings; others, like the
counting-out tianity was introduced the gleemen games, were exposed as the remains were hated by the clergy, and looked of dark and
deadly incantations. upon as rebels. Their duty, later on, "The Cow that Jumped Over the was to sing the praise of their patron, Moon" is, we believe, asserted to be a to attend him and play whenever re- piece of gnosticism. “Ten Little Nigquired by the courtiers or by himself; ger Boys" is a charm probably against so that after a time the gleeman who the rheumatics. “Hickery Dickery stood next to the king in dignity became Dock,” though it sounds like nonsense, in the end an obsequious dependant, is composed in gipsy language,-a Roflatterer and parasite. Those who did many lyric. But these were mere afnot like the court, wandered about; fairs of outposts. Mr. Buckman, in these wandering bards were little better the May number of the Nineteenth Centhan mendicants playing from house tury, has had the hardihood to march to house for a night's lodging.
up to the very edge of the cradle and Often the Saxon gleeman sung the to allege that when our child's first acfamous genealogy of his patron, the cents break they are not delicious nonfamily traditions
and connections. sense, sweet babblings of the tiny huAncer dinner, when there was "song man brook, but a highly organized sysand music together and the wood of joy tem of infantile Volapuk. Mr. Buckwas touched,” he sang these topics to man in all seriousness parades before the assembled feasters. The following the reader's astonished eyes the essennames applied to the Saxon gleeman tial words of the baby's vocabulary. will indicate how many rôles he could "Ma,” he tells us, is an urgent cry of play: poet, harper, pantominist, tum- attention. So we have ourselves gathbler, saucy jester, ribald player, juggler ered. “Ma," indeed, is so universal a and mimic. Here is variety enough and word that even the lambs use it. "The to spare. But in all these rôles he was, lamb, greatly excited to make itself first of all, a musician.
heard, says 'ma,' while the mother WILLIAM HENRY SHERAN. (sheep), not moved by such strong feel
ings, answers 'ba.'" What the human mother answers when “not moved by such strong feelings” as her infant, we
are not told by Mr. Buckman. We beFrom The Spectator. lieve, however, that when her feelings THE SPEECH OF CHILDREN.
match th of ner offspring she is not The men of science have begun to unknown to reach to the height of attack the cradle. For some time the such a phrase as “Drat the child, what nursery and the play-room have been does it want now?” But to continue, subject to their attentions, and now “Da, dadda" is the next item in the the very citadel of babyhood is to be universal language of babes. It is destormed. First came the folklorists, scribed as "a cry of recognition now and laid their sacrilegious hands upon applied to the father." True, but un“Puss-in-Boots" and the "Sleeping fortunately the recognition is
often Beauty," showing that these stories
very imperfect, and it is not unusual contained we know not what marvel- for a total stranger in an omnibus or lous indications as to the origin of railway carriage to be addressed over mankind and the universality of par- and over and
again as “Da, ticular beliefs. The next positions as- dadda,”-the imperfect and embarrasssaulted by science were the nursery- ing recognition being enforced by the rhymes and the games such as “Here placing of a much-sucked index finger we go round the Mulberry Bush” and or a sodden crust on the knee of the “Oranges and Lemons." Some of the stranger, “Ta, tatta,” we are told, is
"a sign of recognition now applied to inside it, or, to put it in another way, strangers.” Here, again, our experi- two words and two ideas are run toence supports Mr. Buckman. The gether, and a compound, which is also child will often apply it the instant a a new word, is produced. For stranger enters upon an afternoon call, ample, a girl of under three was lately waving a small hand to enforce its dis- told that she was going abroad, and missal of the intruder.
also that she was going to reach forBut we cannot follow Mr. Buck- eign parts by going on board ship. A man's vocabulary any further, or in mere grown-up
person would have quire how far "ach" or "ah" is or is plodded on, using the two phrases side not, “a general conversational word,” by side. But at two and three-quaror "kah" "a strong sign of displeasure ters the mind is too alert for these dull at anything nasty to the taste.” Again, ways, and a portmanteau word was “ba-ha” must remain undiscussed, nor soon produced. “When am I going can we debate the examples furnished abroadships?” became half-hourly of Isabel's talk at two and a half years question. How much more expressive old or at three and a half, of Ella's at and how much less long than "When three or of George's at four or five, ex am I going abroad on board ship?" cept to say that we have not of recent Both the new and important ideas of years met any children whose lan- foreign travel and sea-voyage are covguage was so simple and primitive. ered over by that “one narrow word,” What surprises one with children of "abroadships.” There is, of course, three or four nowadays, is to find a nothing the least remarkable in sucn young lady or gentleman who does not
a compound. Every nursery can furtalk with an entire plainness of utter- nish examples of new words which ance, and employ the syllogism with a often display far more euphony and complete mastery of its uses. We re also far better logic than the dreadful call how a small boy of four listened words produced by the men of science to the talk about a new house, and as labels for their new discoveries in when he thought that the night nurs the regions of applied chemistry. The ery had been omitted, struck in with, speech of children shows also a won"I must have a night nursery-the derful quickness and resource in the evenings will come to the new house matter of supplying the language with just the same." Every one must have direct phrases and forms of speech. met examples of the logical case often While the grown-ups are content to put against going to bed at a slightly walk round, the child takes a verbal different hour, or under slightly dif- shortcut. Children are
very seldom ferent conditions. “Nurse always content with such round-about devices comes to fetch me to go to bed. Nurse as “Had not I better” do this or that. hasn't come to fetch me. I won't go "Bettern't I” is the much more direct to bed." The baby who assumes this and much
expressive form kind of attitude and enforces it in per- adopted in almost all nurseries. fectly clear and well-cut sentences, is Take, again, the word “whobody" to apparently unknown to Mr. Buckman. match with "anybody” and "someAnother category of infant speech is body.” When the facetious parent reas little known to him. He mentions marks, “Somebody's been walking on the child's habit of decapitating and this flower-bed,” he may, if his offdecaudating its words—“'have" for spring is inclined to ingenuities of lanbehave, or "pram” for perambulator, guage, be answered by the interrogabut he says comparatively little about tion "Whobody?” These portmanteau the power shown by children to make words and short-cut phrases show that what the author of "Alice in Wonder if children could only be induced to land" so happily calls portmanteau keep up the verbal habits prevalent words. A portmanteau word is from two to five our language might word which has another word packed be indefinitely enriched. Unfortu
nately after five or six the language of lowed to butter the slices of cake and children is apt to become pedantically then had whole-strawberry jam on the conventional and correct. The child top." If the speech of children of ten of ten, indeed, seems often to be train is restricted in the matter of commening himself for a fauteuil in Mr. datory adjectives, it is equally Stead's proposed academy. He stops stricted in the way of adjectival dewhat he considers a new or unauthor- nunciation. Every one a boy dislikes ized word like a suspected person. or does not understand is "quite mad." Every phrase is challenged and in Of course things in general of a disspected, and the parent or uncle who agreeable kind are always "beastly" or makes a slip in grammar or pronunci “vile;" and why he should not be alation, or steps outside the conventional lowed to use these epithets where rut, is pounced upon and corrected they are clearly applicable passes his with all the primness of a pedagogue. comprehension. Obviously the lanThe boy of ten, no doubt, has the com guage of the schoolboy is not a fleximand of a certain amount of slang, ble instrument. Gestures and low but it is of a limited and defined kind. whistles and clicks and winks may A special vocabulary is in use at his stimulate it into a certain vividness school, but outside this vocabulary the and picturesqueness, but per se the schoolboy does not think it good form language of the schoolroom is not half to travel. The language of children at as full of imagination and resource as this stage is, indeed, exceedingly the language of the nursery. Literary amusing on account of its cast-iron gentlemen on the lookout for new colstrictness. For months, nay, years, to ors for the verbal palette may
get gether one word of commendation is some startling effects out of the baby, considered sufficient for all needs. but from Master Jack they will learn Ask a boy of ten to describe his chief little or nothing. Meantime, we adfriend to you,—to tell you, that is, vise the men of science to be careful what kind of a boy he is. Almost cer how they build their theories on the tainly you will get as your answer, “mas," "bas,” and “das” of knee-high "He's a very decent chap.” There is infants. We have a strong belief ourno idea of depreciation. It merely selves that baby language is a purely happens that “decent” is the word of artificial product of the nurses and the hour for expressing all good mothers,-a tradition handed down by things. Asked what he would like his them, and not by the babies. If this friends to think of him, Jack will re is so, the nurses and mothers could ply, “A decent chap, of course, father.” change it if they would, and nothing In the same way Jack brings you his is more likely than that they would do favorite book and asks, “Don't you so if they saw the prattle of the cradle think, father, that this is an awfully set forth in printed books. They decent story?-all about fighting would never believe that it was
all sharks under water with those rotten done for science, but would conclude rays or whatever they are, and a boy- that they and their precious charges pirate who ran off with a torpedo-boat were being laughed at by rude men and caught two archbishops; only its who know nothing about children. sickening rot at the end, all about his Just to prove these rude men wrong being in love with a little fool of a they would invent a new vocabulary, Greek girl, called Hydrant, or Haidee, and turn the laugh against the books or something." A new pistol is "a by making them obviously incorrect. frightfully decent one, don't you The nurses would only have to put think ?” because it fires eight peas at their heads together to make "tatta" once; and the tea at a tea-party was mean "good morning" everywhere "very decent," because "we were al- from Chicago to Aberdeen.
I. CURRENT FRENCH LITERATURE. By
WOMEN. Translated for The Living
Age from the French of G. Valbert, Revue des Deux Mondes,
CHILDHOOD AND MARRIAGE. By Jane
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