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the odds were certainly not equal. The But pretty as Durban itself was, and population is of a very mixed descrip- interesting as was its labor problem, tion, and there is a distinct Oriental there was yet something outside the city touch about it that is pleasant and re that possessed stronger attractions for freshing. The ricksha is the favorite me. About sixteen miles from the town public conveyance; but instead of the was a Trappist monastery, and a day's small vehicle of Ceylon and Japan, that excursion to this home of silence reof Natal, although still light in struc mains in my mind as the most salient ture, is capable of carrying two persons. experience during my brief sojourn in Only a race of giants, such as the Basuto Natal. I believe that strictly speaking and his kindred tribes are, could man there is no longer any such congregation age a double-seated ricksha up the in as a Trappist brotherhood, since by a clines round about the city. In stature decree of the present Pope the order has and physique the Bantu tribes are prob- been amalgamated with the Carthuably the finest specimens of humanity sians; but it is simpler to adhere for on the globe. Certainly they are su- present purposes to the old appellation, perior to the Maori, although perhaps not in any measure as a rigid Protestthe latter is the bigger brained creature ant's dissent from a papal decree, but of the two. But strong as he is, the because the place and the order are so native of Natal is disinclined to work widely known under the old style. any more than is necessary for keeping About fourteen years ago some Trappist body and soul together. Consequently, brothers purchased twelve thousand although he is the common and con acres near the very small village of venient means of haulage, he is not the Pinetown, christening the property reprosentative working-man of the col- Marianhill, and here, unaided except by ony. Thousands of Hindus, chiefly the lay brothers, they began their stuMadrasis, have been imported under pendous work. They made their own government auspices, as servants and bricks, cut their own timber, and conlaborers; and with such satisfactory trived their own water supply, buying results that what

a thin nothing except galvanized iron and mastream of immigration has assumed the chinery, which were obviously beyond proportions of a tidal bore. So great in their powers of construction. Yet they deed is the increase that there is every have been able to make a system of reason to fear some serious complication roads through the property, build of the gravest question which the gov- bridges, erect a large brick church ernment of Natal has to deal with— capable of holding six hundred persons, namely, the native question. There are also a still larger building that comnow fifty thousand Indians in the col- prises the refectory and monks' cells; ony, that is to say, they equal the and finally, in addition to all this, they whites in number; whilst there are have constructed several substantial nearly five hundred thousand natives, houses, schools, and workshops. who, although averse to anything ap- Among the latter are to be seen an ironproaching continuous effort, are yet foundry, a tannery, a large carpenters' obliged to do some work in order to pay shop, bootmaking and tailoring estan)their annual hut-tax and provide the lishments, a bakery, a flour-mill, and, necessaries of life. A little larger in most surprising of all, a vast printing crease in the supply of Indian labor, and office, which includes not only the most the native will be shut out from all em modern printers' plant but also stereoployment. To be sure, the influx of typing and book-binding departments; Asiatics may inspire the native to less whilst attached to it is another building spasmodic work. That would be a re- where the monks found their own type. sult as splendid as it was unexpected; The produce of all these factories is not and then it would become the business of course limited to the needs of the of the government to hinder by a poll- brothers any more than is the liquor tax (as in California and Australia) or manufactured at either the Grande other preventive measure, the Asiatic Chartreuse or St. Elmo. From the tauinvasion.

nery, for instance, where the pelt is

was

once

treated in all its stages from the raw built men who had not only left father hide to the finished article in leather, and mother in some far land for His the monks send saddles, bags, and sake, but had denied themselves all the straps away even into the heart of comforts and solaces of this world, even Matabeleland or anywhere else where to the sweet sound of the human voice. there may be a demand. In the car. All, except the youthful novices (who penters' shop, wheels, doors, and win were still plump and rosy), bore traces, dow-sashes are manufactured for the in the pallid complexion and hollow contractors of Durban; whilst the print- cheek, of the austerity of their life; ing office, at the time of my visit, was most of them also wore spectacles. To busily employed on a government con- what purpose is this stern devotion tract.

mainly directed ? Simply to the end All these edifices and works are the that a few hundred black brethren may result of but fourteen years' labor, and be taught the knowledge of God and the at no time have the monks gone outside consolations of the Church. I am not a their own ranks for assistance. How Catholic, nor have I much sympathy has it been accomplished ? Monks, nov- with some of the practices and tenets of ices, and lay-brothers retire at eight and that church; but I should like to feel rise at midnight or one in the morning that the congregation to which I do beaccording to the season of the year; long could actively testify, as eloquently whilst the rest of the twenty-four hours, as the Trappist monastery of Marianhill except where the offices are being said does for the Catholic, how much selfand during the half-hours devoted to sacrifice and real suffering can be enmeals, they work at their several tasks. dured, how high an example can be set At all times unbooted and unbonneted, when one is thus securely "mailed in and, except in the schools, where the the perfect panoply of faith.” The nature of the vocation makes it impos- Roman may be wrong in his solutions of sible, in absolute silence, the monks go the deep problem of life and the still through their daily round of incessant deeper one of futurity. Such are mattoil. The Trappists are vegetarians of ters which we may not know with cerle strictest sort. I was present at the tainty; the most plausible solution is, principal meal of the day-dinner-and after all, a mere groping in the dark; partly partook of it. The menu con- but in the deeds that find words, in the sisted of a thick barley-broth without examples that move us on to nobler either fat or any extract of meat, and a ends, these white-robed brothers of St. mash made of turnips, carrots, pump- Bernard may teach Protestants not a kins, and beans, without condiment or few salutary lessons. seasoning of any kind, but there was It sometimes happens, of course, that plenty of beautifully-baked

brown

some fall under the burden; the cross is bread, and the whole was washed down too heavy and the habit is renounced. with a cup of tamarind wine, an agree. In this connection there was a curious able unfermented drink. The brethren and somewhat beautiful incident that ate the meal in silence, and the stillness came under my notice on that visit. In of the huge refectory was broken only our tour round the well-cared-for by the intermittent clink of a knife on grounds, the brother—there is always some tin plate and the droning voice of one who has a speaking part for the the brother whose turn it was, whilst sake of the visitors-told me that only the others dined, to read aloud some pas- the week before they had buried one of sage from the Vulgate. When the meal the monks who had grown gray in the was finished, each taking his plate and service of the order, and who had cup, handed them to the brother who planned and cultivated the grounds, in acted as cook; and, thanking him, not which he had always taken the deepest in words, but with a grateful smile and pride, but his part now, bowed head, passed out immediately to some appointed task. To me it was al

In all the pomp that fills together a touching sight. Here were The circuit of the summer hills, over one hundred and fifty strongly Is that his grave is green.

In telling this there was no note of sad- has published.” He had his desire ness in the monk's voice, but rather of granted and accompanied the Tramp happiness that one more of them had Abroad as far as the convent. The felbeen bound into the sheaf of kindred low had a magnificent laugh, such as souls. A little later on, however, when that of Herr Teufelsdröckh, a "laugh of in the carpenters' shop, seeing one evi- the whole man from head to heel.” dently of the outer world, for he wore This brother was the one worldly note neither habit nor clerical mark, I in- in those sad and silent surroundings, quired who he was. “Ah, poor fellow!” and his laugh appears almost incredible said the monk, "for nearly three years in the retrospect. Unlike the other he was a Trappist, and then sought per- monks whom we had seen, and who mission to retire. He left us; but he re were all foreigners, chiefly Austrians turned two months ago seeking help; so and Germans, this one was an Englishwe are teaching him a trade in which he man, and his bright address and cheery can surely earn a living in the world.” speech seemed to rouse us all out of a This confession of a failure was in a sad depression that had subdued our own key, and there was emotion in the eyes conversation almost to whispers. of the speaker. The dead brother was Amidst the brotherhood of pathetic and not lost to them, but merely separated grim-visaged ascetics it was very pleasand resting from his labors and happy. ant to meet this apostle of cheerful godThis man, on the contrary, who was liness; and I should like to think-what once in the ranks, had failed in strength might really be—that his hearty laugh and courage; and although the monks was mainly the result of long practice ungrudgingly assisted him, they were over the healthy pages of Mark Twain. sad in the belief that he was a strayed The convent was of most modest sheep and in peril.

dimensions compared with the monasWith delightful prescience, the Prior, tery; but from the many plain wooden concluding that the lenten entertain crosses in the acre alongside there was ment of the refectory might not be suf- ample evidence that in the short span ficient nourishment for his worldly of ten years many a sister had given her visitors, had arranged by telephone, life for the colored children of that rejust think of that for one moment, a gion. Here was just the same air of telephone in a Trappist monastery-for abstinence and incessant toil as preus to take luncheon at the convent, vailed among the brothers, but the inwhich was situate about a mile from dustry was naturally directed into apthe monastery. In our walk towards propriate channels, such as needlework, the convent we were met by a brother, laundry, and the manufacture of straw who, I was told, enjoyed quite a celeb- hats. The Superior was a Canadian; rity in the community-he was the en and it was noticeable that the law of gineering genius of the place, and in his silence was not insisted upon in the case, for a reason I could not ascertain, convent. This was perhaps a humane, the law of silence had been considerably not to say inevitable, concession to a relaxed, so we stopped to barter a few congregation of women. words. In the course of conversation, a By the time luncheon was prepared young journalist, who had conducted we were all quite famished, and I, for our party from Durban, happened to say one, still had the nauseous flavor of the that he was showing Mark Twain over monkish fare in my mouth. The meal, the monastery, explainly briefly who which was plain but satisfying, conMark Twain was, and ended by asking sisted of

exceptionally tough the brother if he had ever heard of the chicken, over a portion of which I spent author of "The Innocents Abroad." a considerable amount of unavailing "What! Mark Twain ?" exclaimed the labor-vegetarians, however, cannot be monk; "the real Mark Twain? Where regarded as experts in the choice of even is he? which is he? I must speak to a fowl; a peculiar salad made with oil him;" and then in a whisper, as if he extracted from monkey-nuts and vinewere confessing some horrible sin, "I've gar manufactured from pineapple; read all his books. Yes, everything he great square, thick slices of bread, some

an

pasties, and sweet beer. Our neat worth. Even the poem written when handed Phyllis was a nun of the red Yarrow was yet unvisited adds to the habit, whom, the luncheon finished, we sheaf. Many of us have to be satisfied thanked in the limited vocabulary of with the thought:French that we enjoyed in common. But we were not to leave Marianhill

Enough if in our hearts we know

There's such a place as Yarrow. without a little theatrical incident. A priest who had come out with us from The poet has transferred his own vision Durban had mounted into the vehicle

to us. We defer completer knowledge with the precedence commonly accorded

until we, too, stand in Wordsworth's to the cloth. He had scarcely seated

company, as it were, eleven years later, himself when a shrill pathetic voice when he first saw the Yarrow. The lit. cried out: "Hélas! mon père, mon père, tle company, including, according to vous ne m'avez pas bénie," and like a

Professor Veitch, Hogg, William Laidflash a red habit brushed past us and law, and Dr. Anderson, found their way prostrated itself in the dust alongside to the stream through “one of the greenthe trap. It was Phyllis; and the priest est, purest, most pathetic glens in the had dismount to confer the omitted Borderland.” We can imagine that the benediction-I thought in a rather per

charm of the lonely scenery, the fulfillfunctory manner-receiving in return a

ment of more youthful suggestions and grateful “Merci, bien merci, mon père.” anticipations, the flood of memories, hisCARLYLE SMYTHE. torical and traditional, filled the poet at

first with that emotion, that “pensive recollection” which is akin to sadness:-

But thou, that didst appear so fair

To fond imagination,
From The Spectator.

Dost rival in the light of day
BORDER ESSAYS,1

Her delicate creation; Lovers of Scotch and English poetry alike will find much to interest them in Meek loveliness is round thee spread. these gathered-up essays of the late Pro

A softness still and holy; fessor Veitch. We say lovers of poetry

The grace of forest charms decayed, advisedly, for though the notes on "The

And pastoral melancholy. Vale of Manor and the Black Dwarf” Scott is probably responsible for the exrange over another field of literature, pression, "pastoral melancholy.”

It is and other papers refer more particularly a reminiscence of the ballad of the to historical events, still the main inter- "Dowie Dens,” dowie meaning melanest, we think, is centred in “The Yar- choly, and the various versions of the row of Wordsworth and Scott,” and the “Braes of Yarrow” were obviously discussion on the old ballad named "The

equally familiar to Wordsworth. He Dowie Dens of Yarrow." Speaking of

has woven the essence of the old bal“Yarrow stream," Professor Veitch

lads into the substance of his poems. says: “Around this stream—this valley with its hills, it ruined towers, its The "genuine image” that he has seen storied

will dwell with him in after days, the names—there has grown, through the last three centuries at least, memory will not be wholly melancholy, a fulness of stirring associations and of the sunshine that played on the "everimaginative feeling, a wealth of romantic youthful waters” will cast its rays on ballad and pathetic song, such as is not his fancy. Professor Veitch tells us paralleled in Scotland.” It seems as if that, all the old associations, the memories

There few valleys . . . whose linked with that quiet valley and the

scenery is capable of greater contrasts at Border stream, had been gathered up, a

different times, and under different atmosrich harvest of poetic fancy, by Words- pheric conditions. It can smile and cheer

in sunshine; it can softly soothe in its 1 “Border Essays." By John Veitch, M. A.

green pastoral calm; or when the stream London: W. Blackwood and Sons.

steals through the misty haughs, it can

are

sadden, even depress, by suggestions of hear their echoes, even dimly, stir some awe, gloom, and indefiniteness. On the chord that thrills in response; the posame day even, the stream is in the sunny etic nature must be doubly impressionnoon clear and sparkling; in the gloaming able, even more keenly alive and reit wears a wan, pathetic look. A sudden mountain shower will shroud it in gloom; sponsive to such thrilling. It exclaims to be followed by a sudden outburst of

with Shelley:sunshine, which renders its green sloping braes at once golden and glad.

We look before and after,

And pine for what is not:
For the last time Wordsworth and Our sincerest laughter
Scott visited the stream they have both

With some pain is fraught; immortalized seventeen years later,

Our sweetest songs are those that tell of when Wordsworth and his daughter

saddest thought. Dora were staying at Abbotsford. It To quote once more from Professor was late in September, and autumnal Veitch: “The introduction to the secdays were gathering round the two, ond canto of "Marmion" lays bare the outwardly and inwardly:

whole inner heart of Scott. It is de

voted almost wholly to the Yarrow. It Grave thoughts ruled wide on that sweet

is the lifelong feeling of the man,day, Their dignity installing

deep, loving, passionate. Regret for the In gentle bosoms, while sere leaves

past, vivid imagining of it, old memWere on the bough, or falling.

ories strong as if they were present per

ceptions, the softening and subduing The landscape and the stream were

power of old story,-all this we find.” still the same, still lighted by gleams of

The ballad mentioned above, “The sunshine, the visitors alone were

Dowie Dens of Yarrow," is the well"changed and changing.” Natural

known one compiled by Sir Walter shadows were spreading over the head Scott from several versions, and inof the Minstrel of the Border; it was

cluded in his “Minstrelsy." Professor Scott's last sight of his beloved Yar

Veitch claims to have discovered an row. The old traditions preserved in earlier ballad of the Yarrow than either ballad and story, the raids and combats "Willy's Drowned in Yarrow” or the and feuds, so intimately connected with "Dowie Dens.” He traces its gene“the Forest,” the district of the Yarrow alogy back to the early part of the last and the Ettrick, had filled his fancy and century, a copy having been preserved fired his imagination. Professor Veitch in the family of the late “William thinks that a deep undercurrent of sad- Welsh, Peebleshire cottar and poet," ness “tinges his descriptions of scenery, and handed down through several gen-especially of the Border district.” He

erations. William Welsh recited the thinks this "background of pathos” is ballad when he was an old man to Propartly due to the brooding over a stir- fessor Veitch, and wrote it out for him, ring but irrevocable past, and partly to

"stating very explicitly that it was the colorless monotony of the moors

from the recitation of his mother and and glens, the long winter, the dead grandmother.” The professor is an aubracken, the dark stretches of heather. thority on Scotch border poetry, and he A vivid imagination must always feel concludes that this version of “The emotion in gazing on any scene rich in Dowie Dens" is older than the earliest memories of past days, and such emo- printed fragment by Herd, and probtion will be felt in the deeper side of ably as early as “Rare Willy's drowned man's nature; he will recall with pas- in Yarrow,” first printed by Allan Ramsionate sadness that

say in 1724. He thinks that this early There hath past away a glory from the

version clears up the incongruities that earth.

have puzzled various ballad editors,

and that it is probably the fountainHeroism, loyalty, endurance, when we head of both these Yarrow ballads, and

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