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tribes. It is sad to think that Mr. highly-trained staff, shows how ready Horatio Hale, whose comprehensive are those concerned in its management grasp of the bearings of ethnological to undertake any duties that may conquestions, and whose unremitting duce to the welfare of the outlying labors have so materially conduced to parts of the British Empire; a fact of the success of the committee, should be which I believe that Canada is fully no longer among us. Although this re- aware. The Institute is therefore likely port is said to be final, it is to be hoped to develop, so far as its scientific dethat the committee may be able to indic partment is concerned, into a bureau of cate lines upon which future work in advice in all matters scientific and techthe direction 'of ethnological and ar- nical, and certainly a Bureau of Ethchæological research may be profitably nology, such as that suggested, would carried on in this part of her Majesty's not be out of place within its walls. dominions.

Wherever such an institution is to be It is, however, lamentable to notice established, the question of its existence how little is being, or has been, officially must of necessity rest with her Majdone towards preserving a full record of esty's government and treasury, inasthe habits, beliefs, arts, myths, lan- much as without funds, however modguages, and physical characteristics of erate, the undertaking cannot be carried the countless other tribes and nations on. I trust that in considering the ques. more or less uncivilized, which are com- tion it will always be borne in mind that prised within the limits of the British in the relations between civilized and Empire. At the meeting of this asso uncivilized nations and races it is of the ciation held last year at Liverpool, it first importance that the prejudices, and was resolved by the general committee especially the religious or semi-religious “that it is of urgent importance to press and caste prejudices, of the latter upon the government the necessity of should be thoroughly well known to the establishing a Bureau of Ethnology for for er. If but a single "little war". Greater Britain, which by collecting in- could be avoided in consequence of the formation with regard to the native knowledge acquired and stored up by races within and on the borders of the the Bureau of Ethnology preventing empire will prove of immense value to such a misunderstanding as might culscience and to the government itself.” minate in warfare, the cost of such an It has been suggested that such a institution would quickly be saved. bureau might with the greatest advan- Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D, tage and with the least outlay and permanent expense be connected either with the British Museum or with the Imperial Institute, and the project has already been submitted for the consideration of the trustees of the former

Translated for THE LIVING AGE. establishment.

CONTEMPORANEOUS PROBLEMS.1 The existence of an almost unrivalled ethnological collection in the museum,


WHAT THAT OF SPAIN SHOULD BE. and the presence there of officers already well versed in ethnological re I must congratulate the worthy memsearch, seem to afford an argument in bers of the Geographical Society of favor of the proposed bureau being con Madrid upon the fact that they have nected with it. On the other hand, the created an actual literary controversy. Imperial Institute was founded with an I also congratulate them upon the idea especial view to its being a centre and upon the manner in which this idea around which every interest connected has been carried out. Although my obwith the dependencies of the empire servation of this congress has been conmight gather for information and sup

1 This address was delivered by the late Senor port. The establishment within the

A. Canovas del Castillo, Prime Minister of Spain, last twelve months of a Scientific De- before the Geographical Society of Madrid, No partment within the Institute, with vember, 1883. Among Senor Canovas's published well-appointed laboratories and addresses none is more characteristic or forceful,



fined, until to-day's discussion, to what blies and congresses of this class are the press has sent to my chamber, I not for one time alone. I sincerely hope have been most gratefully surprised by that this congress, so brilliantly begun, one thing which does not generally dis- may be one more step in the pathway of tinguish this class of assemblies, and the expression and development of the that is the strong practical spirit which national ideal-an ideal which, although has illumined it.

it cannot be fully realized, is in certain It cannot be said of this assembly, full decisive moments of history, as I have of spontaneity, youth and life, not said before, the very soul of the counbound by any regulations or traditions try, the soul without which a nation —this assembly of Spaniards whose may be considered dead. minds are inspired by the heroic deeds Debates like those which have taken of the past and who might be easily car- place here arouse, naturally, a contraried away by illusions—that the de- diction of interests, more or less latent, a bates have been marked by rash enthu- diversity of ideas obvious to every one. siasm or excess. No, it is enough for From these interests and ideas, to-day me to have heard to-day's discussion to discordant, there will be born some day, know that there is in this congress that if not harmony,-for harmony is a diffitruly virile spirit which in unfortunate cult thing for humanity in general and circumstances, or at least in those less for nations in particular, and still more fortunate, will not be content with the difficult for individuals, because it consimple and perhaps youthful pleasures tradicts in itself the individual liberty of the imagination, but will know how of each thought,—therefore, I say, if not to look at adversity when it comes, face harmony, at least that co-ordination of to face, to struggle valiantly with it, to. interests and of ideas which finally resist it, to dominate it, to conquer it produces in nations, as in individuals, sooner or later, as I hope thaı, sooner or those systems of conduct without which later, the noble and glorious wpanish all action is half-hearted and ineffecnation will conquer all its misfortunes tual. and all its difficulties.

We have done, or rather, you have It often happens that among the great done well to consider, to demonstrate number of ideas which discussions here this afternoon, as you have often bring forth, only a few seem practical done here before, that there are interand timely, but in this congress, which ests in the heart of the Spanish nation is a completely free and spontaneous which seem contradictory, and which effusion of the national spirit, there is are irreducible. You have done well to no obligation nor necessity for any one lay bare different principles and systo accept what is said in its entirety. tems which are, in truth, more contraThe conclusions themselves, although dictory and more irreducible in themthey express the opinions of the major- selves. Each one has loyally defended ity, do not by any means carry the legal his own ideas. You have taken, in force which the usages of human so these discussions, the first step, or one ciety give to the majority in other of the first steps towards that fruitful places, and therefore the minority-the co-ordination which only the joint labor individuals who do not agree with some of human activity can bring to a perfect of the theories or conclusions-preserve end. their rights intact. They may leave Why should a nation like ours sit here declaring that although they have silent in these times of historical resympathized with the general spirit of membrance? Why, I say, should Spain the Congress, although they have ap- remain mute; the nation that discovplauded, although they may be satisfied ered and populated so great a part of in a great measure with the ideas and America; the nation that has spread conclusions which have been expressed, upon all seas and upon all continents so they still reserve their own personal much renown in her own tongue-the opinions. The Congress leaves us free sure evidence of an epoch of glory, alto speak, free to resolve. We go out though now the object of a singular and from here free, and we come back an- fitting melancholy. other day yet more free, because assem Ought such a nation to remain inert,



and not proclaim, at least by means of our neighbor France, I could extend this assembly, its views and thoughts, infinitely in speaking of great now that it no longer has wings to fly, rival on the seas, in times long past, of like stronger, and at this moment, fur- mighty England; but of her I need say ther advanced nations—that it may pre- still less because her colonial and comserve the ancient courage of its an mercial triumphs are more patent and cestors and link itself in humanity and less disputed. She has not only created history with all that is grand, with all the immense kingdom of India and that is glorious, with all that opens the taken possession of a great part of wide paths of the future? Must we see Oceanica, but she has covered with her France, our rival in our more prosper- ports of refuge and her advance posts ous days-to-day and always our neigh- every sea, and keeps more or less corbor-must we see her colonize for her- ertly, the two keys to the isthmus of self alone the neighboring part of Af- Suez, while she holds in her hands those rica so many times watered by Spanish of the gulf of Persia and studies the blood, although not always with good possibility of a new communication befortune? Must we see her, alone, plan- tween the Mediterranean and India buy ning to convert a great part of the des- way of the historic valley of the ert of Sahara into an inland sea that Euphrates. In every part of the globe will bring her ships to the barbarous her colonial and commercial power, Sanjachas tribes so well known in the firmly established by her incomparable history of Spain? Must we see her at maritime power, rises before us as a tack, at the same time, southern and lofty example of activity and strength equatorial Africa, threatening the which we must not envy, but which proCongo and establishing herself in .duces in us a deep feeling of melancholy Madagascar?

when we consider that there have been Must we see her from the sand banks times, even centuries, when England of the mouth of the Senegal, follow the herself, with all the skill of her sailors course of the river and in a few years and all the power of her ships, with all reach, by way of the Niger, the very the practical spirit that animates her, walls of Timbuctoo itself, to make this with all her science, with all her imvast and unknown part of Africa tribu- mense patriotism which I profoundly tary to her commerce, if not to her respect above everything else--with all authority ? Must we see her reach the this, I say, there have been times when coast of Indo-China, rival of Hindoo- she has not gone ahead of us, nor of our stan, and extend her power through the Spanish flag, upon the continents, islTonkin, which is also watered by pre- ands and the vast seas. cious Spanish blood,—the blood of mar But to think of these things, to feel tyrs,-and from there begin the naviga- profoundly the sadness of these comtion of the largest river in Asia, to parisons, is not the same as to assert penetrate, later, the heart of that im- that fortune will soon turn in our favor, mense kingdom and dispute with every that we can hurry her, or that we cans other nation the commerce and riches even feel sure of the swift resurrection of these vast and scarcely explored of our ancient and lost greatness. regions? Must we look on like imbe. The most important thing to do in ciles, without feeling the least curiosity, Spain, considering how much other nawithout showing the slightest interest, tions achieve and how little we achieve, without proclaiming that our courage --the most important thing to be done. I and heart still live? No, we cannot be say, is to facilitate the outward move. indifferent to the glories of umani ment by means of this Congress and nor to the triumphs of ancient these discussions, and by the daily rivals, whose prosperity we do not envy, press. The influence of the Congress is but with whom we wish, sooner or late, already felt throughout the entire nain the height of our strength, not to tion, and it is arousing an interest in a compete, but to co-operate.

class of affairs, very important from What I have said, in the rapid and in- the material point of view and much complete picture which I have just more so from the moral and national traced, of the actual undertakings of point of view.


It is very clear, aside from all chimer- other directions for natural resources ical plans of conquest, and merely for with which to develop our national inthe sake of developing foreign trade, dustries, we do not hasten to avail ourthat if we wish to increase our traffic selves of those which we already have? with the old and new colonies, the ini: Is not the difference clearly to be seen portant thing is to develop our home between our needs and those of nation's industries, to have products with which which, in addition to their own natural to meet the necessities of other coun- resources, have accumulated by imtries and so

promote the commerce mense industrial enterprise the prodwhich the state never creates, but ucts of many foreign countries? which is established by the spontane Our own natural resources are yet, in ous activity of nations and more espe- great measure, to be discovered and cially by individuals themselves. developed. What has been done hithTherefore, gentlemen, we must keep erto_sad to relate-has been done one fact in mind: that this eager desire largely by foreign enterprise. Con. of Europe for foreign territory, this sider, gentlemen, that it is within our general tendency of the civilized world own heart, within the country itselt, toward regions still inhabited by unciv- that we must first look for the fountains ilized men, this movement which I cou- of our wealth, the true fountains of sider providential and divine-a move commerce from which presently our ment purely cosmic for those who mercantile development will spring, choose to look at it in that way, but a and which will make, later, our terrimovement and a spiritual or cosmic torial aggrandizement prosperous and force as powerful as any in the universe legitimate. -that this movement simply follows It is not my mission to-day to defend out its own natural impulse like that the Spanish state, under any of the other immense movement of the fourth forms and manifestations which it has century, which, in those days when civ- take during its history. I

ve anilization languished for lack of blood, other object before me at this time. for lack of material strength, attempted But, after this declaration, and without to sustain and regenerate it by the inva- entering into the historical antecedents sion of lands till then uncultivated and which have brought the Spanish state barbarous. This movement of the to its present feeble condition, permit present day clearly follows a similar me to say, gentlemen, be the causes law, at once spontaneously and by irre- what they may, there is no reason to sistible necessity-the necessity that think that a nation that does not guard European enterprise should take posses- its ports, a nation that leaves its coasts sion of the natural forces going to waste and frontiers exposed on every side to in those uncultivated and almost un- foreign attack, a nation all of whose known regions, because the natural industries are shut up within its own forces in those countries in which en- scantily-defended territory—there is no ergy has been organized, increased and reason, I say, to think that a nation multiplied without limit by means of under such circumstances can pour science and machinery, are, if not ex forth upon the world its activity and its hausted, yet visibly diminished, and in- slender means. To attempt it would be sufficient for the enormous machine to repeat the errors of other centuries, production of our day. If this then is so justly condemned in our own day. the real niotive of so profound an under All this may come in time, naturally, taking, if this is the economic law that opportunely and legitimately, but it directs the movement, if what France, must begin at the beginning. And, as especially, is seeking, if what England the activity of the Spanish nation must and the other nations are seeking in first be aroused by the noble sentiments these remote regions is the material on of which we have been speaking, so, which to expend their redundant en- before everything else, must the Spanergy, what is our own attitude toward ish state be organized, reinforced, anil all this? How can we most effectively reinvigorated by that virile and robust - promote this movement? What posj. strength which is necessary to give a tion shall we be in if, before looking in firm and secure basis for the mercan





tile and colonial undertakings of na illusions that remain, not trusting in tions. Understand that this class of any optimistic solution of the future, movement, whatever may be the in- but at the same time, maintain a colternal law that governs it, whether stant and unswerving patriotism, a divine or purely cosmic, must not be patriotism that shall dominate all your compared with the mystic movement of sentiments and ideas, and that may the Crusades. This is not a disinter overcome all your differences. ested and pacific movement among March on with inexorable patriotism, Christian nations against common and you will gain, if not to-day;-beenemy; it is a movement in which indi cause great undertakings, and, above vidual interests will jar and jostle each all, an undertaking as great as the reother terribly. A thousand discords establishment of our lost national will break out to retard the travellers glory, are not to be carried out in on their journey. Consider, also, that months or even years—your just an probably in the very heart of Europe, - reasonable aspirations; going slowly already sufficiently disturbed by her and without undoing what has been former wars and by the latent causes of done. On the other hand, do not tarry strife still buried in her bosom,-there on the road. March patiently, but conare hidden to-day the most grave and stantly and steadily, toward the realizatremendous questions of colonial pol- tion of your ideal. To this end we need, icy, and that there are many reasons for if not complete harmony, at least a sufdisputing her claims in the regions ficient co-ordination of interests and of which she has professed to gain for individual opinions to give the national civilization. The longed-for booty and initiative true force and efficiency. I spoils are great, and as they increase must warn you also that, in the special they will be more eagerly sought after, sphere of the state and in the political until the last word of the law of com- sphere, there must be a great move. merce in the colonies, as everywhere ment toward national concentration, else, no matter how strong may be the and that all private aspirations, interreason behind it—this last word, I say, ests and beliefs even, however worthy will be pronounced by the sword. God they may be, must be set aside for the does not give law, however holy it may immediate and supreme interest-the be in itself: law is united to strength of inexorable exigencies of our country. body and of soul: law has for guarantee It is not my place, nor would it be in the heart, but for messenger force good taste, for me to speak at this time force, which engendered by noble senti- against political parties, which-lauded ments and enlightened by truth, is or vituperated as they may be—are still in a war where international rights necessary instruments of progress. are at stake perhaps the most magnifi- They exist everywhere and will exist cent and sublime of human manifes- wherever there is public life. They are tations.

the variations which within unity itself Be distrustful, then, if any one here bring into action all spiritual things and cherishes this error-be distrustful of fertilize all material things. But these the optimists, even if your own enter- very differences of parties and of opinprises, when they are great and remote, ions, in the interests and intellectual seem to open auspiciously. Be distrust- life of a country, must be summed up, ful of any addition to your territory, if it is to become great, in a grand synhowever much you may desire it, if you thesis within which all variations will are not ready at any hour to defend it disappear, and this union or synthesis with the sword. Distrust excessive ex must be the immediate welfare of the pansions, especially of colonial con- country. quest, which will cost you more than For no other cause than to promote a they are worth in themselves, or more vigorous union and a grand and powerthan your actual

afford. ful concentration of spirit, did the SpanConfine yourselves to what may be done ish nation have the immense strength to-day, prepare what may be possible that was represented by our deeds and for to-morrow; advance slowly and with reflected in our conquests and disgreat prudence. Cure yourselves of the played in our extraordinary colonial es



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