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OF

THE WORLD.

AN HISTORICAL RETROSPECT.

BY HENRY WIKOFFY

AUTHOR OF “A VISIT TO PRINCE LOUIS NAPOLEON AT NAM," "POLITICAL ESSAYS,"

ETC., ETC.

THIRD EDITION,

London:
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, LOW, & SEARLE,
CROWN BUILDINGS, 188, FLEET STREET.

1875.
[All rights reserved.]

9572

Ca
li

TO NI" YOK PUBLIC LIBRARY

1342284 ASTOR, LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

R

1924

TO MY ENGLISH READERS.

This volume was not meant as a mere epitome of historical facts. Its chief aim was to trace the rise of what is usually denominated Modern Civilization; or, as I have called it, the Fourth Civilization. Both these terms have reference to what is familiarly known as the popular or democratic element. Before seeking to indicate its first appearance in the world, I thought it judicious to glance cursorily at the earlier civilizations in Asia, Africa, and Europe, in order to show that under their sway mankind was divided into two classes, the upper and the lower, and that to the former was assigned the privilege of government, whilst on the latter was enjoined the duty of obedience. In none of these anterior civilizations can be traced any vestige of the popular element. In common with many profound thinkers, I date its origin to the doctrines of the Christian religion. Certain it is that as Christianity spread, the masses awoke from the lethargy of ages. In the course of centuries the consciousness of their oppression took root; other centuries witnessed their

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