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4 a Man.——There is also another Kind of Fitness,
* called Expediency:- Means are expedient with re
* spect to the Ends for which they serve:- Instru
* ments, with regard to all Workmanship; and Ma4 serials to every Structure. There is a Fitness of 4 Season and Opportunity. Thus, the Night is fit for 4 Rest, and the Day for Action. And the nicking of 4 Time, as we call ir, hath in every one's Experience 'a great Stroke in all the Affairs of Lise, and condu
* ces greatly to the Success of any Business or Design.
* . Between some things there is a mutual Fitness
4 and Accommodation: as in Friends complying with 4 one another's Humours, and promoting each other's
* Interests. And in general, between all things that 4 have a mutual Dependance; as in the gable Ends of 4 a House, where two opposite Timbers, by meeting 4 together, and leaning against one another at the
* Top, (which is their mutual Accommodation) do 4 sustain and support each other; and in the Parts of 4 an Arch, which are so fitted to one another, that if 4 any be taken away, the rest will fall; but being all 4 connected, they continue in Strength and Firmness.'
To give one Sample more: Of Pulchritude (which is one of those rational Notions that denote the Persections or Excellencies of things) he fays, * By Pul4 chritude is, in general, understood the Excellence of
* Form: When consummate, as we here suppose it to 'be, there are two Qualities inseparable from it, 4 namely, Amiableness and Admirablenesss which to4 gether do plainly exhibit its true Character, and di4 stinguiih it from other Persections. Excellence of 4 Form being in a peculiar and especial manner appli4 cable to Beauty, it may suffice here to speak only of 4 this in particular.
4 That Beauty is amiable needs not be faid j and
* that it is admirable, must likewise be contested. — 4 But unless these two Qualities do meet together, 4 they will not be Properties of Beauty, or of any 4 other Sort of Pulchritude. For there are some things 4 we admire, and yet do not love; as Prodigies, and
2- 4 the 'the extraordinary Phænomena of Nature: and there 'are others we love, without admiring; as delightful 'Sensations. But when that which is amiable is
* also admirable, every one must then allow it to be
* beautiful.- There is a twofold Beauty: one in
'ternalf or of the Mind in which, when it is per
* sect, all the Virtues do conspire: The other is ex
* ternal, or of the Body. This last does not wholly
* consist in a Symmetry of Parts, and an agreeable Co'lour, tho'these are proper and requisite Ingredients: 'but it consists chiefly and principally in such nMein 'and Air, as indicates any of those excellent Quali1 ties which command our Affection, and makes us
* conclude it is produc'd by the Virtues of the nobler
* Part of our Composition. That mental and cor
'poreal Beauty but rarely meet together in the fame
* Person, ought to be no Rule of judging in the Case: c For 'tis certain that the Face, which is the Index
* of the Mind, is the true and proper Seat of Beau'ty: and Painters can draw Features that shall express 'such and such a Virtue, and Pourtraits of this Kind.
* are always painted beautiful j and when rightly de1 signed, are universally approved.——Whereas, on 'the other hand, Vices are always painted ugly and 'deformed, with Looks that create Abhorrence and
* Detestation. Poetry and Musick, when exqui
* site, do, as well as Beauty, charm the Mind, and 'fill it with Admiration j and therefore may come
* under the general Denomination of Pulchritude? By these Specimens (allowing for some Abatement
in the Stile, from the Elegancy of which I was obliged to detract for the fake of Brevity) the Reader will form an Idea of those rational Notions which are treated on in this Volume: the Uses, and indeed the Necessity of them in all our Ratiocinations, Discourses, and Judgments of things, are clearly set forth in the seventh and thirteenth Chapters: whether they do together, as our Author has explained them, form a compleat System, or are all that the Mind makes use of in the Exercise of its Reason, is more, as he fays,
T 1 than than he will presume to determine: But if, as can hardly be doubted, they are the chief and principal, they will be sufficient to justify this Conclusion, viz. That by rational Notions the Mind is fully qualified and enabled to know and understand, in the most satisfactory manner, whatever is possible to be known or understood. —Nor is there, as he adds, any other Way of knowing or apprehending what is reasonable, in any Case or Instance whatsoever, but by the Instrumentality of them j for to know the Reasonableness of any thing, and to have a rational Notion of it, signify alike. And seeing that these Notions, which are the proper Acts and Operations, or the immediate Dictates of Reason, are applicable to every Object of Thought, the Cause of our Ignorance of some things, which we can never hope thoroughly to understand, is not any Defect or Incapacity of our Reason, but the Want of fitting Means and Opportunity to makf use of it. Thus, for Instance, as he remarks, * 'Tis impossible for us to know, after 'what manner the several Properties and Powers of
* corporeal Substances do subsist j because our Senses
* are not acute enough to discern the internal Forms 'and Constitutions of Bodies whereon they depend,
* and whereby they are produced: but had we more 'penetrating Organs or Faculties, there is no doubt 'but we might as easily apprehend it, as we do the 'Powers and Forces of any artificial Machine of 4 which we know the Contrivance and Mechanism.'
The Proof of a God, which is annexed to this Essay, is the Result of the Demonstration of the following Propositions: I. There is aSelf-existent Being. II. A Being which is not self-existent, was created by that which exists of itself. III. A Self-existent Being can have but one Sort of Nature: and it must be precisely, in all respects, that very thing which it is. IV. There is but one Self-existent Being. V. The Self-existent Being is eternal. VI. The Self-existent Being is immutable. VII. A Being which is mutable in any respect, was created by that which is Self-existent. VIII. The World was created by the Seif... £ existent existent Being. IX. The Sels-existent Being is Omnipotent, Infinite, Omnipresent, and a Spirit or incorporeal Substance. X. The Self-existent Being is absolutely persect; and consequently is Omniscient, All-wise, infinitely Good, and infinitely Happy.
An Enquiry into the Morals of the Ancients. By the Reverend Mr. George England. London: Printedfor A. Bettesworth slWC.Hitch, at the RedLion /»Pater-noster-Row; G.Hawkins, at Milton's Head between the Two Temple-Gates, Fleetstreet; and J. Leake, Bookseller atBath. 1737. Quarto. Pag. 369.
THE Subject of this Work is of a most illustrious Nature j it is, as our Author himself observes, very difficult to be treated of; however, I think he has handled it not unworthily. His Design in it is, fairly and candidly to manisest the transcendent Excellency of the Christian System, both as to Religion and Morality; and consequently, to promote the following and practising it in a much better manner than it is at present observed amongst Mankind. Pursuant therefore to this Intention, he makes a strict Enquiry into the Reasons whyv the ancient Heathens, who were certainly inserior to us in their Religion and moral Systems, were notwithstanding (in their best Times) much superior in the Practice, to Christians in general, ever since that these latter began to degenerate from the primitive apostolical Purity.——In the Prosecution of this Point, he evinces that some of the noblest Effects of some of the fublimest moral Virtues were frequently found in Men ignorant of the true and only Sources from whence they can derive real Merit or true Glory; he stiews,
T 3 how how much these Virtues are neglected by those who know, and may be thoroughly convinced from whence they can alone arise justly to deserve those Epithets which are given them when practised with proper Views and Purposes; he accounts for the surprizing Disparity between Pagans and Christians in this matter; and demonstrates, that how much soever the former might exceed in great and heroic Sentiments and Actions, 'there never can be a constant uniform 'Course of moral Virtue to be expected from any
* but those who are thoroughly persuaded of the 'Truth of the Christian Revelation, wherein future
* Rewards and Punishments are ascertained to the 'Practice of Virtue or Vice."
The Virtues which were most conspicuous amongst the ancient Heathens, and which gave Rife to all their grand Atchievements, may be reckoned, their Justice, their Love of their Country and publick Spirits their Magnanimity, their Courage and Fortitude; their strong Regard to the Religion of their Country, and to the Notions of Morality settled amongst them; their noble and almost inimitable Ideas of Friendship frequently put in Practice} their Simplicity of Life, Neglecl of Ease, and Dislike of Luxury; their Contempt of Money, and their perfect disinterested Conduct where
* ever a View of Lucre could possibly have influenced: all these together, and separately, prevailed amongst them, and were almost all subservient to the Love of their Country, which was their most predominant Passion, the Spring of almost all their other good Qualities and Deeds. Humility, Patience under Sufferings, and an universal Benevolence zn&Love to Mankind, were what they were Strangers to} their immoderate Affection for their Country considerably impaired the latter} and nothing but the Christian Religion can produce the two former in their full Purity.
Amongst all the Ancients, the Greeks and Romans are those who, as our Author fays, deservedly hold the first Rank, as to all the Virtues and Accomplifliments which adorn Mankind: it is to these two People