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Epimenides of Crete, and Pherecides. He here passes a Judgment upon several Letters which have been published to the World under the Names of these Philosophers, and pronounces them altogether spurious. Pherecides was a Person of very great Abilities, and a most indefatigable Student. It redounds vastly to his Honour, that he was the first who introduced the Belief of the Soul's Immortality into Greece: We have here a Detail of the Opinions entertained by the Greeks, the Romans, and the Egyptians concerning it. Towards the Close of the Chapter we have some very curtous Reflections on the Incertitude of the Ancients with respect to this weighty and momentous Point. Our Author then lays down four Propositions, which must necessarily be premised to the Proof of it: these, he says, were never perfectly explained till Descartes set forth his Meditations j and they have, since that Time, been further illustrated by several of his Disciples. Before that Philosopher reflected an unparallel'd Light upon this abstruse Subject, even those who had recourse to Revelation had no just Conception of the Distinction between an extended and a thinking Substance: for want of which they were easily liable to great Errors and Deceptions. The Ecclesiastical Writers of the fourth Century are represented by St. Jerom as entertaining a Variety of false and absurd Ideas of the Soul's Spirituality. He speaks of them in a Letter which he wrote about the Year 411, and therein he mentions a Tenet which was espoused by a great Part of the Western Church, and which was in vogue till the Time of the Lateran Council: This was that of the Traduction of Souls; the Defenders of which pretended thereby to account for original Sin, and answer the Objection of those, who demanded how a Spirit, created of Gcd pure and immaculate, in order to animate a Body, could immediately, upon its Conjunction with Flesh, become criminal. With the Difficulties about the Origin of the Soul, owing to an Ignorance of its Nature, others, our Author
fays, fays, were connected about the Manner of its acting. He has given us the Sentiments of Plato with regard to this Question, and has pointed out their Foible: He then brings into View an opposite Hypothesis > and at the Conclusion of all (hews us the Perplexities with which that also is embarassed: " Either God is ** the Cause of human Actions, in which Case there *' can be no such thing as Liberty; or the future Vo"litions of a Will not under an immediate divine In"fluence cannot possibly be foreknown; and in this "Case Man is a free Agent, but the divine Prescience "is destroyed." Reason is at a Non plus on both Sides, and encounters Thorns and Briars that are unsurmountable, till Faith comes to its Assistance; and then, as he will have it, all Opposition gives place, and it obtains an easy and compleat Victory.
ART I C L E XXXVII.
Some farther Queries relating to the controversy between Dr. Pemberton and Philalethes Cantabrigiensis.
By a Friend to Truth and Plain-dealing.
Query i.TTCTHether the second and fourth suppoV Y sitions in the interpretation of Sir Isaac Newton's Lemma given by Philalethes Cantabrigiensis, in the Republick of Letters for November 173s, pag. 371, were not expressed in the following words?
2. During some finite time, that either happens to be determined in any particular cafe, or else may be proposed and assumed at pleasure,
4. Before the end of That finite time. .: :.
Query 2. Whether these two suppositions, in the example brought by Philalethes, Ibid. pag. 371, to illustrate his interpretation, were not expressed as follows? A a a 2. Dus
z. During an Hour,
4. Before the end of The Hour.
Query 5. Whether ic be not plain, that the time intended by Philalethes in the fourth supposition, is the very fame with the time intended in the second supposition?
Query 4. Whether the words, (but not in a finite time, as it ought to do by the fourth supposition.) Ibid pag. ijf. Un. 24. have not manifestly the fame meaning, as if ic had been said, but not in a finite time, that either happens to be determined in any particular cafe, or else may be proposed and assumed at pleasure?
Query 5*. Whether there be any false proposition contained in the following words of Philalethes? Iar gree it will do so; but not in a finite time, as it ought to do by the fourth supposition.
Query 6. What was Dr. Pemberton's inducement to quote the passage thus? I agree it will do so; bus not in a finite time.
Query 7. Was it not his design to impute a false proposition to Philalethes, in order afterwards to censure him for it?
Query 8. Is it not an easy matter to find false propositions in Euclid, by the fame method as the Dotlor has here taken with Philalethes?
Query 9. How came he to think the words, as it ought to do by the fourth supposition, to be no part of Philalethes^ proposition?
Query 10. How was it possible for so judicious a person as Dr. Pemberton to imagine, that in those words, as it ought to do by the fourth supposition, is any application of the proposition to the point there discussed, more than in the words that went before?
Query 11. If Dr. Pemberton did really look upon the word Some as being properly Philalethes'/ translation of ouovis, how came he to give himself the trouble of answering so great a Dunce?
Query 11. If he looked upon the other words as subjoined by way of interpretation to the word Some, what
was was his design in leaving out those other words, and quoting the word Some naked and alone?
Query 15. Is not the reason given by Dr. Pemberton for leaving out those other words, viz. that he looked upon them as subjoined by way of interpretation, is not this, I fay, the very reason, why he ought to have put them in?
Query 14. When may we hope for the true sense of the expression, tempore quovis finito, which Philalethes so widely mistakes?
Query 1 f. Will it not be convenient to leave out the word Illius, whenever Dr. Pemberton shall be pleased to explain Sir Isaac Newton's Lemma?
Whereas in advertising the History of the Works of the Learned for the Month of September, in the publick News-papers, we put the name of Philalethes Cantabrigiensis to certain Queries, we now declare it was done by mistake, and not by any direction from that Gentleman.
IHave now before me a Work, lately printed at Dublin,^ which is an Answer to Dr. Tindal's Christianity as old as the Creation. It is divided into two Parts. In the first, Dr. 'Tindal's Account of the Law of Nature is considered, and his Scheme is shewn to be inconsistent with Reason and with itself, and destructive of the Interests of Virtue, and the Good of Mankind. In the second, the Authority and Usefulness of the Revelation contained in the sacred Writings of the Old and New Testaments is asserted and vindicated, against the Objections and Misrepresentations of that Writer. The Author is Mr. John Leland, a Clergyman in the above-mentioned
A a 3 City.
+ In two Volumes Oftavo: the first containing 48s?, the second 584 Pages: Sold by Mr. Uett, at the BHIt in the Poultry.
City. Throughout the whole Treatise we see evidenc Signatures of considerable Learning, sound Judgment, aud a singular Piety: and indeed, as I am well assured by one who long intimately knew him, these are, in an eminent Degree, the Qualities of that Reverend and truly excellent Person to whom we owe it. He is, if I mistake not, a Native of the West Part of England, from whence he was carried very young to the Country where he now resides. His Parents were of no great Station in this Lise, but of good Repute, esteemed for their Simplicity of Hearr, and Sanctity of Behaviour; and were far better pleas'd with the Hopes of a Treasure in Heaven, than desirous of the Emoluments of this inconstant, perishing World. This Son was their Glory and their Joy, and the Admiration of all that were acquainted with him in his Childhood and Youth. He discovered a most serious Frame of Mind, a great Capacity for Learning, a most eager Thirst after Knowledge, and was indefatigable in the Pursuit of it. His Application was so intense, that it needed not the Retirement of a Study, his Meditations could not be disturb'd, nor his Thoughts interrupted by the Converfation of those about him, or by those domestickOccurrences which would have confus'd the Ideas, and marr'd the Studies of most others. He was so far from having the least Inclination to the Amusements usually relished by those of his Years, that it was with great Difficulty he was ever prevailed on to admit of such Diversions, as were judg'd absolutely necessary for the preventing the Ruin of his Constitution by a too studious and sedentary Course of Lise. One may easily imagine to what a Height of Science these Talents, and so indefatigable anEmployment of them, would raise him; and accordingly, tho' his extraordinary Capacity had not the noble Aids of either of our Universities, the Nurture of Oxford or Cambridge, his Proficiency in Letters was surprising; his Genius and Industry supplied the Want os those happy Opportunities, and elevated him to a Pitch of Erudition,