Topographical Surveying: Including Geographic, Exploratory, and Military Mapping, with Hints on Camping, Emergency Surgery, and Photography

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J. Wiley & sons, 1900 - 910 páginas
 

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Contenido

Geological Survey Method of Topographic Surveying
20
Organization of Field Survey
22
Surveying Open Country
23
Sketching Open Country
28
Surveying Woodland or Plains
33
Sketching Woodland or Plains
35
Control from Public Land Lines
36
Sketching Over Public Land Lines
37
Cost of Topographic Surveys
40
The Art of Topographic Sketching
43
Optical Illusions in Sketching Topography
44
SURVEYING FOR DETAILED OR SPECIAL MAPS ART PAGE
47
Detailed Topographic Surveys for Railway Location
49
Topographic Survey for Canal Location
52
Surveys for Reservoirs
57
Survey of Dam Site
58
City Surveys
62
Cadastral and Topographic City Survey
64
Cost of Largescale Topographic Surveys
67
CHAPTER IV
68
Instrumental Methods Employed in Geographic Surveys
69
Geographic Maps
70
Features Shown on Geographic Maps
72
Geographic Reports
73
Scale and Cost of Governmental Geographic Surveys 35 Exploratory Surveys
74
Scale Cost and Relief of Government Geographic Maps
75
Exploratory and Geographic Surveys Compared
77
Methods and Examples of Exploratory Surveys
82
CHAPTER V
92
Military Reconnaissance with Guide Map 40 Military Reconnaissance without Guide Map 41 Detailed Military
95
Military Siege Maps
101
Military Memoirs 44 Cadastral Surveys 100 101
102
Scale and Cost of Cadastral Surveys
107
TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS 45 Relations of Geology to Topography
108
Origin and Development of Topographic Forms
109
Physiographic Processes
110
Classification of Physiographic Processes
112
Target Levelingrods
132
Speakingrods
133
Turning points
134
Benchmarks
135
Method of Running Single Lines of Levels
136
Instructions for Leveling
137
Notebooks
138
Platting Profiles
139
PART II
146
Varieties of Planetables
152
Adjustments of Telescopic Alidade
159
CHAPTER VIII
167
Preparation of Field Sheets
175
Error in Horizontal Angle due to Inclination of Plane table Board
181
Location by Intersection
182
CHAPTER X
195
Intersection from Traverse
202
Platting Transit Notes with Protractor and Scale
210
Logarithms of Trigonometric Functions
217
315
218
Magnetic Declination
221
Distances by Time
226
Measuring Distance with Linen Tape
233
Tachymetry
240
Stadia Formula with Inclined Sight
246
Determining Horizontal Distances from Inclined Stadia Meas
249
Determining Elevations by Stadia
258
Diagram for Reducing Inclined Stadia Distances to Horizontal
264
CHAPTER XIII
272
Natural Sines and Cosines
275
Natural Tangents and Cotangents
277
WagnerFennel Tachymeter
280
Weldon Rangefinder
286
CHAPTER XIV
292
Camera and Plates
298
PART III
305
Time by a Single Observed Altitude of a Star
306
Approximate Time from
307
Time by Meridian Transits
308
PAGE
321
CHAPTER XVI
325
Geodetic Leveling
326
Precise Spiritlevel
327
Sequence in Simultaneous Doublerodded Leveling
329
Methods of Running 145 Precise Rods
332
Manipulation of Instrument
336
Length of Sight
337
Sources of Error
339
Divergence of Duplicate Level Lines
343
Limit of Precision
344
Adjustment of Group of Level Circuits
345
Refraction and Curvature
347
Speed in Leveling 154 Cost of Leveling
349
Cost of Leveling per Mile in Various States
350
Cost and Speed of Government Precise Leveling
351
Longdistance Precise Leveling
352
Handlevels
355
Using the Locke Handlevel
356
Abney Clinometer Level
357
Tent Ditching and Flooring
362
Camp Stoves Cots and Tables
363
339
364
Vertical Angulation
366
Vertical Angulation Computation 162 Vertical Angulation in Sketching 163 Vertical Angulation from Traverse
367
Trigonometric Leveling Computation
368
Logarithms of Radius of Curvature R in Meters
369
Errors in Vertical Triangulation
370
Refraction and Curvature
371
Leveling with Gradienter
372
Barometric Leveling
374
Methods and Accuracy of Barometric Leveling 170 Mercurial Barometer
375
Barometric Notes and Computation
378
Example of Barometric Computation
381
Guyots Barometric Tables
383
Reduction of Barometric Readings to Feet
384
Correction for Differences of Temperature
392
Correction for Differences of Gravity at Various Latitudes
393
Correction for Decrease of Gravity on a Vertical
394
Aneroid Barometer 175 Errors of Aneroid
395
Using the Aneroid
396
Thermometric Leveling 383 395 395 300
402
Altitude by Boilingpoint of Water
403
PART IV
404
405
405
Kinds of Projections 181 Perspective Projections
406
Cylinder Projections
410
Conical Projections
412
Constructing a Polyconic Projection
416
Projection of Maps upon a Polyconic Development
418
Coordinates for Projection of Maps
419
700
429
702
431
Use of Projection Tables
435
Areas of Quadrilaterals of Earths Surface 188 Platting Triangulation Stations on Projection
436
Scale Equivalents
437
Lengths of Degrees of Meridian and Parallel XXV Arcs of the Parallel 4 38
438
Meridional Arcs Coordinates of Curvature 139
439
418
440
PART V
495
Accuracy of Base Measurement
498
Base Measurement with Steel Tapes 205 Steel Tapes
500
Tapestretchers
501
Laying out the Base
505
Measuring the Base 209 Compensated Base Bars
507
Contactslide Base Apparatus
508
Icedbar Apparatus
511
Repsold Base Apparatus
513
Cost Speed and Accuracy 501 501 505 507
515
SII 514
516
CHAPTER XXII
517
Record of Base Measurement
518
Correction for Inclination of Base
519
Correction for
521
Reduction of Base to Sealevel
522
Summary of Measures of Sections
523
Transfer of Ends of Base to Triangulation Signals
524
Other Corrections to Base Measurements 225 To Reduce Broken Base to Straight Line 523 524
526
FIELDWORK OF PRIMARY TRAVERSE 226 Traverse for Primary Control
527
Errors in Primary Traverse
528
Instruments Used in Primary Traverse
529
Method of Running Primary Traverse
531
Record and Reduction of Primary Traverse
532
Instructions for Primary Traverse
533
Cost Speed and Accuracy of Primary Traverse
536
CHAPTER XXIV
538
Correction for Observed Check Azimuths
539
Computation of Latitudes and Longitudes
540
Corrected Latitudes and Longitudes 539 540
542
CHAPTER XXV
545
Reconnaissance for Primary Triangulation
546
449
549
Accuracy of Triangulation 241 Instruments
553
Micrometer Microscope
556
Triangulation Signals
559
Tripod and Quadripod Signals
561
Observing Scaffolds
565
Heliotrope
566
Night Signals
573
Station and Witnessmarks
575
CHAPTER XXVI
577
Observers Errors and their Correction
578
Record of Triangulation Observations
588
CHAPTER XXVII
594
Threepoint Problem
600
Probable Error of Arithmetic Mean
607
Formation of Table of Correlates
614
Solution of Angle and Side Equations
625
Substitution in Normal Equations
632
Formulas for Computing Geodetic Coordinates
638
Knowing Latitudes and Longitudes of Two Points to Compute
646
633
667
577
670
CHAPTER XXX
672
PART VI
678
Fundamental Astronomic Formulas
684
CHAPTER XXXII
695
578
696
CHAPTER XXXIII
707
Approximate Solar Azimuth
708
Azimuths of Secondary Accuracy
712
Primary Azimuths
719
Reduction of Azimuth Observations
720
Azimuth at Elongation
721
CHAPTER XXXIV
723
Approximate Solar Latitude
724
Latitude from an Observed Altitude
725
Astronomic Transit and Zenith Telescope
726
Latitude by Differences of Zenith Distances of Two Stars
728
Errors and Precision of Latitude Determinations
729
Fieldwork of Observing Latitude
730
Determination of Level and Micrometer Constants
732
Corrections to Observations for Latitude by Talcotts Method
738
Reduction of Latitude Observations 743
743
CHAPTER XXXV
744
Longitude by Chronometers
745
Longitude by Lunar Distances
746
Longitude by Chronograph
748
Observing for Time
751
Reduction of Time Observations
752
Record of Time Observations
754
Longitude Computation
757
Comparison of Time
774
CHAPTER XXXVI
777
ART PAGE 337 Adjustment of Sextant
778
Using the Sextant 3 39 Solar Attachment
780
Burt Solar Attachment
781
Adjustment of Burt Solar Attachment
782
Smith Meridian Attachment
785
Adjustment of Smith Meridian Attachment
786
Determination of Azimuth and Latitude with Solar Attachment
789
Solar Attachment to Telescopic Alidade
791
CHAPTER XXXVII
793
The Camera and its Adjustments
794
Measurement of the Plate 707
797
Computation of the Plate
801
Sources of Error
804
Precision of Resulting Longitude
808
REFERENCE Works on Geodesy
809
PART VII
811
Subsistence and Transportation of Party in Field
813
Selecting and Preparing the Camp Ground
814
Tents
817
Specifications for Army Wall Tents
820
Specifications for Army Walltent Flies
821
Specifications for Army Walltent Poles 359 Specifications for Army Shelter Tents Halves 360 Specifications for Army Shelter Tents Poles
822
Erecting the Tent
825
How to Build Campfires 366 Cookingfire for a Small Camp 367 Camp Equipment
830
Provisions
833
CHAPTER XXXIX
836
Pack Animals and Saddles
837
Throwing the Diamond Hitch
841
Packmen
847
Transportation Repairs
848
Veterinary Surgery D C D C
849
CHAPTER XL
850
Care of Health
853
Drinkingwater
854
Medical Hints
856
Diarrhea and Dysentery
857
Drowning and Suffocation
858
Serpent and Insectbites 383 Surgical Advice
860
Medicinechest
861
CHAPTER XLI
864
Cameras
865
Lenses and their Accessories
867
Dry Plates and Films
869
Exposures
872
Developing
875
Fixing
878
Printing and Toning
880
Blue Prints and Black Prints
883
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