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changes of centuries. Esau, in his them by Amaziah; his son Uzown person, did not serve Jacob. ziah deprived them of Elath ; and The younger, on the contrary, stood generally they appear to have been even in dread and awe of the elder. worsted in their contests with the A hasty and profane critic, might descendants of Jacob. therefore have questioned the char But there was a little hope held acter of the whole prophecy. But out to Esau.

It shall come to history has now confirmed it to pass when thou shalt have dominion, the very letter.

thou shalt break his yoke from off The sons of Esau, like Esau thy neck.This was fulfilled with himself, seemed for some years to equal exactness. In the reign of be the stronger and more powerful Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat, of the two. There were dukes and “ the Edomites revolted from under kings in Edom, (Gen. xxxvi. 31.) the dominion of Judah, and made before the Israelites knew

any

such themselves a king.” Jehoram made heads or leaders. The Edomites various efforts to reduce them to also were, to all appearance, like their former condition, but these their progenitors, a warlike and efforts were not successful. “ So hardy people. They refused the the Edomites revolted from under Israelites, when returning from the hand of Judah unto this day.” Egypt, so much as a passage

2 Chron, xxi. 8, 10. through their land, and they But the end of the race of Esau doubtless were prepared to resist was foretold in another prophecy, any attempt to force an entrance. at the date of which we have not

But “the Scripture must be ful arrived. Still, however, we must filled,” and fulfilled it was. Under briefly allude to it. Having fulthe reign of David, the Israelites filled one great end of their being, made an entire conquest of Edom, in accomplishing the word of the and completely subjugated that Lord to Rebekah and Isaac, and people. It was promised, or the having testified to the faithfulness elder shall serve the younger;

of God for several centuries, the and accordingly we read that Da race of the elder brother was now vid “ * put garrisons in Edom; to expire or vanish out of sight. throughout all Edom he put gar The prophet Obadiah was commisrisons, and all they of Edom be sioned to denounce sentence against came David's servants.” (2 Sam. Edom in these words,—" For thy viii. 14. And this subjugation is violence against thy brother Jacob, again alluded to, about a hundred shame shall cover thee, and thou and fifty years after, when, in the shalt be cut off for ever.And reign of Jehoshaphat, it is said again,

There shall not be any that “there was no king in Edom : remaining of the house of Esau, a deputy was king.” (1 Kings xxii. for the Lord hath spoken it.47.) This deputy was doubtless a Obad. x. 18. viceroy appointed by the king of Accordingly, after being severeJudah. And although, in the days ly handled by Judas Maccabeus of Jehoram, they revolted “and and Hyrcanus his son, who took made a king over themselves,” yet from them most of their cities, and they appear to have been fre- compelled them to embrace the quently worsted in various conflicts Jewish faith, the Edomites became with the children of Judah. Ama- gradually merged, partly amidst ziah “slew of Edom, in the valley the Jews, and partly amongst the of salt, ten thousand," 66 and other Nabathean Arabs, and the very ten thousand did the children of name became extinct and obsolete, Judah carry away captive,” &c. before the end of the first century Their city Şelah was taken from 'after Christ. .

4 7

THE PLACARDS OF 1534, OR THE COMMENCEMENT

OF THE REFORMATION IN FRANCE.*

The Reformation had commenced In many of the neighbouring vilin the city of Meaux, whose lages the same was done, so that then Bishop was William Bricon- the diocese of Meaux might afford net : filled with zeal for the new an idea of what the regenerate doctrines, he spared no pains, in church would be : numerous acts spite of the censures of the Sor of charity were performed; morals bonne, to propagate them in his went on reforming from day to day, diocese; not only did he preach and superstitions ceased. himself, which was not his usual One of the members of this custom, but he also invited to his flock, named John Leclerc, was assistance various learned and pious the first French martyr. He was men, and among others, William arrested in 1523, for having put up Farel, James Fabre, Martial and a placard against indulgences on Girard Ruffi. The Cordeliers of the wall of the cathedral, whipped Meaux excited a persecution against on three several days, and branded them; and Briconnet, alarmed at in the forehead with a hot iron. their menaces, and fearing to be His mother, who shared his faith, accused of heresy, assembled a was present at her son's punishsynod in 1523, in which he con ment, exhorting him to take coudemned the doctrines of Luther. rage, and glorifying the name of The learned men whom he had the Lord. This young man, having assembled, dispersed : some re retired to Metz, founded a church turned to the bosom of the Ro there; but the year after, he was mish church; others remained in

torn with pincers and burned alive. France, under the protection of In the midst of his torments, he Marguerite, sister of King Francis

sang some verses from the hundred I. and afterwards Queen of Na and fifteenth psalm. varre, or retired into Switzerland, Different executions took place where they disseminated the doc in the following years : in 1525, a trines of the reformation.

young man named James Paranes The sheep were not scattered was burned alive on the Place of abroad like the shepherds : the the Grève, (Strand,) and a man little flock which was formed at named the hermit of Livry, at the Meaux, and which consisted chiefly court before the church of Nôtre of wool-carders, manufacturers of Dame; the great bell was rung cloth, and other operatives, con during the execution, and the doctinued so stedfast, as to serve for tors informed the people, that it an example, through its admirable was a condemned person being carconstancy, to the churches which ried to the fire of hell. In 1528, were established in other parts of Denis de Rieux was burned at the kingdom. These pious artisans, Meaux; while he was drawing to animated with an ardent desire to the stake on a hurdle, he kept exknow the way of salvation, used to horting the people to praise God. converse together about the word These three martyrs had belonged of God, while they were working to the church of Meaux. The at their handicrafts. They passed year following, a gentleman named their sundays and festival days in Lewis de Berquin, who was rereading the Holy Scriptures, and puted very learned, and who had in seeking the will of the Lord. enjoyed the king's favour, was

strangled on the Place Maubert, 1 Translated from the French. and his body was afterwards burned.

on their

The doctor Merlin, who accompa were committed to prison, from nied him to his execution, exclaim-' whence however they were soon ed that for a hundred years, per

after released. haps there had not been a better The issue of this affair, which Christian than Berquin. In 1534 was much milder than that of the a surgeon named John Poinset, former accusations, seemed to anwho had been so courageous as

nounce that recourse would no to reproach the priests with more be had to violent means for their debaucheries, was burned at rooting out the Reformation. The Paris.

queen of Navarre employed all her While the Gospel had its mar influence with the mind of the tyrs at Paris, and in the neighbour- king, in disposing him to favour hood, it was making equal progress the protestants, and she had even in other parts of France. The obtained leave from him to bring blood of these faithful witnesses Philip Melancthon to Paris, to served, as was anciently said, to hear him set forth his doctrines. If dress the vineyard of the Lord, so the Protestants of Paris had but as to increase its fruit. A Cor had patience, it is probable that delier, who had been in Saxony, the king would have become their for the purpose of hearing Luther, protector; but some inconsiderate preached the truth at Annonay. steps having occurred Three towns possessing universities, part, in 1534, they drew a new Orleans, Bourges, and Toulouse, and more cruel persecution upon became so many fountains, from themselves. whence the waters were dispersed In the month of October in this all over the kingdom. Calvin, year, some of them, against the adwho studied the law in the two vice of Couraud and other discreet former, contributed above all to persons, who saw that this would kindle a desire there for knowing only tend to irritation, caused some the Gospel. In 1534 he came to placards against the mass

to be Paris, and there gave a powerful printed at Neuchâtel in Switzerland, impulse to the Reformation. which they posted up all over

The queen of Navarre, whom Paris, and in the principal cities of God had fayoured with some rays France. They even carried their of the light of the Gospel, did all audacity so far, as

to fix one in her power to propitiate the king against the door of the king's her brother; she even brought to chamber, who was then at Blois. Paris three excellent preachers, He fell into so great a passion in Girard Ruffi, of whom we have consequence, that, by the advice already spoken, and two monks of of the grand-master and the cardithe Augustine order, named Ber nal de Tournon, he ordered all perthaud and Couraud, who announced sons who were suspected of heresy the truth with boldness. Their to be arrested. The lieutenant of

were followed by the police, John Morin, a man as unfaithful, who found them a great friendly to religion as he was dissource of edification. But this solute in his conduct, displayed could not last long; the doctors great zeal for carrying this order of the Sorbonne exerted them into effect: with the assistance of selves so as to succeed in prevent a wretch, who being condemned to ing them from preaching, Ruffi the flames, had purchased his life and Couraud replaced their ser by promising to betray the secret mons by private assemblies, where prayer-meetings, he managed in a they explained the books of holy few days to fill the prisons with Scripture; but their assemblies a great number of men and woman were also forbidden, and they of all classes.

sermons

1

The king returned to Paris in him ; but the other coming near, January following, and ordered a said to him, Pour man, why do general procession for the 29th of you ridicule the passers-by ? Do that month, at which he attended

you not perceive that God has thus in person with his three children. bent your body on purpose to make He followed on foot, bareheaded, your soul straight ?' Milon was and with a taper in his band. He struck by this observation, and went afterwards to dine in the listened attentively to the man, grand hall of the bishop's palace, who gave him a New Testament where were assembled the ambas immediately, saying, “Look into sadors, a great number of the this book, and a few hours hence clergy and nobility, and all the tell me what you think of it.' parliament in scarlet robes. He Milon was pleased with what he exclaimed with anger, during the read; he applied himself to it day repast, that if he knew that any and night, and betook himself to one of his members was tainted teaching his father's household, with this doctrine, he would sever and such as came to see him. This it for fear of infecting the rest. great and sudden change astonished But if his fury was great, the con all who heard of it; those who stancy of the martyrs was greater used to visit Milon, to hear him still. Six of the prisoners arrested play music, (for he was a good by John Morin were burned alive, performer) wondered beyond while the procession was moving

measure at hearing him talkin a through Paris. These were Bar different language. Six years be tholemew Milon, Nicholas Valeton, fore his death, his 'malady grew so receiver of Nantes, John Dubourg, severe, that he could no' more leave a merchant-tailor, and Henry his bed; however he knew how to Poille, a poor mason of a village occupy himself in various

ways, near Meaux; Stephen de la Forge, a teaching some young persons to rich tradesman who printed a num write, engraving on knife and sword ber of copies of the Holy Scrip blades, and executing difficult tures at his own expense, and dis pieces of work for goldsmiths. He tributed them

among

the
poor,

and devoted all his gains to maintaining a schoolmistress named Cadelle. poor families who were acquainted The history of one of these persons with the gospel. He was never is as follows.

weary of instructing such as came Bartholemew Milon, called the to see him, on account of the paralytic, was the son of a shoe curious pieces of work he executed; maker at Paris. He had been his room was a real school of piety, remarkable for his good constitu where the praises of God were tion, and for the natural sagacity celebrated from morning to evenwith which he was gifted, but had ing. He had been once imprisoned early given the rein to his licen already, on account of his faith, tious passions. Having one day but the Lord . delivered him, that broken several of his ribs, by over he might 'administer consolation to violent exercise, and not having the poor in these difficult times for recourse to the necessary remedies a while longer. The lieutenant of in time, the upper part of his body police, John Morin, did not forget became deformed, and the lower him in t

this new persecution: he parts were completely paralysed, entered, full of rage, into the chamso that he retained the use only of ber where the poor paralytic lay his arms and his tongue. Bartho- stretched, and exclaimed,"Come lomew Milon was accustomed to along, get up.? The sufferer reremain in his father's shop'; and see- plied without dismay, Alas, sir, ing a believer pass by, he ridiculed it requires one stronger than you

with

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to make me rise. He was imme count of the papers posted up in diately carried off by the serjeants;

Paris and other cities of France, but Morin did not retire, till he from which circumstance the name had stripped the chamber of all its was derived. moveables, as it was his practice to do. The presence of Milon In translating the above importstrengthened and consoled the ant narrative, which every protesother prisoners powerfully. He tant must feel interested in reading, shewed the greatest calmness both the object is not to excite enmity in prison and before the judges; against the Romanists, or to hold he endured the worst treatment up

the conduct of the French conwithout complaining, though for

verts for imitation in every partimerly pain had made him utter cular. While the Christian makes violent cries, when he was tended it his earnest care, not to deny his by persons who were not accus Master in word or deed, it also tomed to lift him up in his bed. becomes him not to let his good be He was condemned to be burned evil spoken of, through precipitaalive by a slow fire on the place tion or indiscretion, which is often of the Grève, and in taking him merely self acting under the name thither, he was made to pass by of religion.

of religion. But the constancy of his father's house. The enemies of these martyrs deserves our praise the truth were amazed at the con and emulation; and Protestants stancy with which this faithful will do well to beware, how they servant and witness of Jesus Christ put further influence into the hands was animated both in his life and of Romanists, without a full and in his death.

explicit disavowal of the sanguinThe year 1534, in which this ary deeds of former times, lest ere horrible persecution began, was long they fill up the measure of called the year of placards, on ac their fathers.

M

ON A FUTURE APOSTACY.

SIR-I have sometimes been at a chapels in this country, as affordloss to ascertain the foundation on ing a decided symptom of such which some very generally received revival. Others again imagine that opinions rest, and when I have infidelity is to prevail throughout ventured to inquire, have occa the world, and our attention is sionally met with a reply which called to the blasphemies of some at least appeared to insinuate that notorious characters amongst ourI was either very ignorant, or very selves, and the encouragement indisposed to submit to conviction. given to these blasphemies by some Will you, Sir, however, bear with who occupy public stations in our me if I venture to ask for some land, as affording strong reason to information on the subject of that conclude that the infidel will apostacy which many persons ap- shortly triumph, and subvert the prehend is certainly to take place faith of multitudes. Now, Sir, I before the introduction of the am not satisfied with the correctmillenial dispensation. Some emi ness of these interpretations; I am nent commentators have predicted not sure that either popery or infia revival of popery; and reference delity is really increasing in the is not unfrequently made to the empire, though the importation of scenes which are enacting in Irem Irish papists into Great Britain, land, and to the increase of popish and the encouragement given by

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