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In the year 1959, Nicholas dinals obtained the sole right of II. by a
decree in the Late- electing the Pope before the conran council, took away the right clave was established by law. If of election from the clergy of the Pope died in Rome the CardiRome, and conferred it on the nals met every morning in the Cardinals alone. The Cardinals vatican, or St. John Lateran, until were to elect-the clergy and the election was completed. If he people to consent. In this decree died in any other town, then they there is a clause saving the respect
met in the cathedral of that town, due to the Emperor, which is not it being the law that if possible very clearly expressed, and has the Pope should be elected where been differently interpreted at dif- his predecessor died, according to ferent times.
the proverb. The Roman clergy and people “Ubi Papa, ibi Roma." attempted even by force of arms to Where the Pope is, there is Rome. recover their rights in the papal Clement IV. died at Viterbo in election; but after a century of 1268, and the Cardinals could not struggle the right was confirmed to
agree on his successor.
The comthe Cardinals alone, by a decree of mon story is, that after seventeen Alexander III. in the 3rd Lateran months had elapsed, the inhabitants Council, A. D. 1179, when it of Viterbo resolved to shut them was also fixed that in case of the
up in the Episcopal Palace to Cardinals not being unanimous, he accelerate the election. They reshould be legitimate Pope who mained shut up nearly sixteen should have two thirds of the months without coming to a decivotes of the Cardinals, and that no sion, until Ramiero Galti, who had one should consider himself elected been appointed guardian of the by a smaller number of votes, conclave adopted the scheme of under pain of excommunication- unroofing their apartment, which and this is still the law.
speedily forced them to elect The Cardinals are of three classes, Gregory X. after the see had been bishops, priests, and deacons ;
vacant two years, nine months, and they are in fact the priests of the two days. principal parishes in Rome and its One of the first cares of Gregory vicinity ; while the Pope is ex-offi- was to enact laws for the election cio priest of St. Giovanni in Late- of future Pontiffs. By this decretal
The number was originally it is ordered that the Cardinals small, and seems to have varied shall assemble in conclave (after until the pontificate of Sixtus V. waiting ten days for the absent) in who appointed the sacred college
the sacred college the palace where the Pope died, to consist of seventy members, but if possible, if not, in the nearest it is rarely full. One reason given adjacent town, which is not under for this number is, that Moses was an iņterdict, or in rebellion against assisted by seventy elders of Israel the Roman See. -and another is that the principal Each Cardinal is allowed one languages of the nations are seventy, attendant, or in case of great necesand it belongs to the Cardinals as sity, two-and all are to live counsellors and assistants of the together in common, in one room Pope to judge the causes of all or conclave, without any division nations and people. Their office either by walls or curtains. Only being to assist and advise the Pope one opening is to be left, by which in the affairs of the church, and the the food of the Cardinals may be name is derived from the Latin introduced, and the whole is to be word Cardo, a hinge.
placed under the care of the lord It was a century after the Car- or chief magistrate of the town
LETTERS FROM ROME,
297 to Jogir gloa out bondido PlBub Polodor Gol 9 gilt where the conclave was, held. If schedule in the presence of the the election was not completedothers, 989 that, they each see the within three days after their meetat others, write, but without seeing ing then, for the next five dayswhat is written A deputation is they were to be allowed to have sent to the cells of those who are) only one dish each for dinner and unwell, who fill up their schedules. ope for supperwolf these five days in the presence of the deputation also elapse without their making Each Cardinal, on having com an election then for the rest of the pleted, folded and sealed his scheri time they remain in conclave, they dule, carries it in view of all the are to be allowed only bread and rest, and deposits it in a large chau wine and water. The strictness of lice, placed on the altar of the these rules has been gradually chapel. When all the Cardinals relaxed. Clement VI. in 1351 have filled up and deposited their , allowed caeh Cardinal
, to have two schedules, three Cardinals chosen conclavists, and to have their beds. by lot, to act as scrutineers, prot, separated from each other by cur-, ceed to count them, and ascertain tainses They are now allowed to that the number corresponds with have separate apartments as ex
that of the Cardinals in the con. plained before, and there is no clave, restriction on the quantity or qua They then open each schedule lity of their food.
so far as to see the name of the) The, Cardinals proceed to the person voted for, which they pro business of election on the morning claim aloud, so that each cardinal after they are enclosed. There are may mark the votes, and when three modes of election equally they have gone over the whole,
1st. By acclamation, the number of votes for each is as is said to have been the case in declared. If any one have obtainas the election of St. Fabian, in A. D. ed two thirds of the votes, which 238, on whose head a dove des completes the election, then i the cended, and he was immediately
immediately schedules are opened and examined, acclaimed Pope by the clergy and to see that there be no error. If people, o 1o 7.stas
there be not two thirds of the votes The second mode of election is for any ope, they proceed immer by compromise, j. e. when the Car-. diately to a second vete by acces+ dinals cannot agree, they may sion. This is done by means of depute their right of election to one, printed schedules, in the same two, or more of their number, and manner as the former 3 : but in this the person qominated by the depu; case, the Cardinals can accede only ties is lawful Pope. Thus Gregory to one, who was voted for in the
X. was elected in 1271. The preceding scrutiny; and they are third mode of election is by scruri not obliged to accede to any one. tiny, and is that which has been The votes by accession are exantes invariably practised in later times. ined and published by the scruti
Printed schedules are prepared, neers as before, and if two thirds ori folded beforehand in a particular more of the votes fall upon any manner, with blanks to be filled individual, then the election is fine, up by each Cardinal with his own, ished, provided the revisors, who name, and that of the person for are elected by lot after the sorusu whom he yotes. All the Cardinals, tiny, do not find that any error opd who are able to attend their publie fraud has been committed, either meetings, assemble in the chapeli in filling up, signing, or counting of the serutiny, where ten, small, the schedules. Thissérutinày usually tables are prepared for them, and takes place twice a days and the there fill up the blanks in the last part of the process is to burn AUGUST 1833,
the whole of the schedules in the Here is stationed a party of the presence of the cardinals. The guardians of the conclave, both smoke made by burning the sche- ecclesiastical and military. The dules, escapes by a tin chimney room on one side opens to the court mentioned in my first letter. This of the palace, and on the other is watched with great impatience
communicates with the conclave by the populace, being the only by means of the ruote.* external mark of what is going on
In the middle of the room is a in the conclave. The smoke usually long, table, on which the servants appears about eleven A. M. and place the various dishes contained four P. M. and as soon as it is seen, in the basket. The guardians of the crowd disperses, satisfied that the conclave examine each dish the Pope is not yet elected. separately, and finding in it nothing
In fact the schedules are burned but food, it is placed in one of the when the Pope is elected, as well routes, which is then turned round, as when he is not; but when the and the dishes taken out by the election has taken place, much attendants on the other side, and more time is consumed in verifying conveyed to their respective the votes, and obtaining the consent of the Pope, so that before I was repeatedly present at this the schedules are burned, the guns
ceremony; the examination is no of St. Angelo give notice of the farce, for every dish was carefully election.
inspected, though I never saw any The longer the conclave lasted, actually cut in pieces, as it is said the greater crowds collected at the to be sometimes done. hour, and the more impatient did
While the Roman Catholics they become, when the smoke was have no visible head to their a few minutes longer than usual church, they flatter themselves that of appearing. This conclave sat they have certain knowledge of until the 31st day of March, the what sort of person is to fill the See being vacant forty-nine days. vacant chair of St. Peter. This
While the conclave sat, I went they obtain from the prophecies of repeatedly to see the dinners con- St. Malachy. I first heard this veyed to the cardinals. This takes from the head of a college in place every day about noon. Each Rome, who, after the Pope's cardinal's dinner is attended by death, informed me that the church eight or ten servants, and two or was quite easy as to the election three carriages. First come two
of his successor,
as they knew servants bearing maces, then two from the prophecies of Malachy he carrying the dinner in a wicker would be a good man. basket, suspended betwixt two then ignorant of the existence of poles, like å sedan chair. The any other prophet of that name, basket is covered with cloth, which than the one whose clear and has the Cardinal's arms emblazoned on it. Two or three ser
* This is composed of two upright
cylinders. The outer is fixed and built into vants sometimes follow on foot,
the wall, forming part of it, having an and then come the carriages con- opening to each side. The inner revolves taining the Dapiferus and his attend- within it, nearly filling it, and has only ants, with two or more servants
one opening, extending from top to botbehind each.
tom, perhaps one eighth part of its cir
cumference in width; so that by placing Each party on arriving, enters any thing on the shelves of the inner the court of the palace, the Dapi- cylinder, and turning it round, it is conferus and his attendants alight, and
veyed to those on the other side of the the dinner is carried forward to a
wall, without the possibility of either
party seeing or having any intercourse room prepared for the purpose. with the other,
solemn communications of the com- lic wanderer, which applied toleing of the Son of man conclude the rably to the misfortunes of the canon of the Old Testament; and latter part of his reign.
Pius VII. as I could remember nothing in is entitled Aquila rapax, that ra that book which pointed out the pacious eagle ; which is said to be successor of Leo. XII. I asked fulfilled by the injuries which the for some explanation of his mean- Papal dominions suffered from the ing. He told me he did not allude French Eagle during part of his to the prophecies of the Malachy reign. Innocent XI. was foretold of the Bible, but to those of an as Bellua insatiabilis, an insatiable Irish Monk of the same name, beast, and this they have found who had predicted all the Popes correct, because his family arms who were to be from his time to bore an eagle and a lion, both the end of the world. I did not voracious animals. rest till I procured a book, whose There remain yet twelve more contents promised to be so curious. popes who are to reign according My copy is of the sixth edition, to this book before the world printed at Florence in 1823. This comes to an end, the last of whom Malachy was born at Armagh in is to be Peter II. And by a care1094, and became Archbishop in ful calculation, it is found that the 1127, resigned in 1135, and after end of the world is to take place on performing many miracles, died in the first day of March, A. D. 1947, 1148. He was the friend of St. being the year of the world 6000. Bernard, and I believe the first The following extract will show person who was regularly canon- you the importance in which this ized by the Church of Rome. puerile stuff is held by the Church
The prophecies predict ninety- of Rome. six Popes from the time of Inno- • Another mark of heavenly cent II. 1130, down to Peter II. prophecies, is, that they do not under whom the world is to come contain vain and useless things, to an end. Each Pope is predic- and this strikingly occurs in the ted in a few words, and those present case, because it is most applied to the successor of Leo. useful and most important to the XII. are simply · Vir pius,' a Church of God, that the sacred pious man, and from them my principality instituted by heaven friend derived his comfort.
in the person of Peter, and transOn making some inquiry into mitted through the Roman Ponthis strange subject, I soon got a tifs, should be authorised in every clew to unravel the mystery. The way, having to subdue schismatics whole is the invention of the par- and heretics, who would deny and tisans of Cardinal Simoncelli, impugn this fundamental basis of brought forward by them in the the Christian religion; and thereconclave of 1590, in which he was fore the Lord God, besides the elected Pope Gregory XIV. and authority of the Holy Fathers, there is a very clear proof of this, who unanimously confirm the truth, from the fact that the predictions has willed to authorise it by this of this pope, and all his predecess- admirable prophecy of more than ors are strictly correct, and most 669 years, and 96 popes, made by distinct, while those of most of Saint Malachy, it being of the his successors require much dex- greatest incitement to believe the terity to get them to apply at all prophetic prediction, wherefore although the description be tole- St. Peter says in his second Episrably general.
tle, 6. We have a more sure word Thus Pius VI. was predicted as of prophecy, whereunto ye do well Peregrinus Apostolicus, or aposto- that ye
SIR-I have recently been present devised different modes of declarat a Contirmation in one of our ing such adherence, but upon the provincial towns, and from what I whole I am not aware of
betthen witnessed have been led to ter plan than that adopted amongst some observations concerning the ourselves, where after suitable nature of that ordinance, and the instruction and examination by the manner of conducting it, with which parochial ministers, a considerable I shall now take the liberty of number of young persons from troubling you.
neighbouring parishes are assemI think the scriptural ground for bled together in the house of God, Confirmation is by no
and in the presence of their minisstrong ; it seems however gene ters, parents, and each other, rally conceded that when persons solemnly declare in answer to the have been baptized in their infancy, inquiry of the Bishop, that they they ought in some solemn and do ratify and confirm in their own public manner to avow their adhe persons their baptismal vow; but rence to baptismal engagements at the same time the circumstances prior to their being received into attending the administration of this full communion at the Lord's ordinance are such in many in
Different churches have stances as loudly to call for cor* The following historical observations Eccl. Ant. b. 11. C. 8. s.3.) Hence he on confirmation, are extracted from an concludes, the church is bound to mainAmerican work.
tain baptized children, who, in the course * The primitive church considered her of providence should be deprived of supself as the common mother of all bap
port. That this principle was in fact tized children, and exercised a corres avowed by the primitive church in her ponding care over them, that they might practice, though not in words in her conbe trained up as a generation to serve the fession, appears from the design of the rite Lord. She did not indeed, in so many of confirmation; the attention which was words, in her public confessions adopted paid to the instruction of baptized chiland enlarged from time to time to meet dren, and the discipline actually inflicted prevailing errors, avow the principle : upon them in case of improper conduct. nor was it necessary, for the principle was It appears that a rite called confirmarecognized in the requirement of 'a pro tion, was administered by the imposition mise or vow from the baptized person, of the hand of the minister, or bishop, or that he would live according to the rules elder, together with prayer on baptized of Christianity.' (Justin's Apology. Bing children at a certain age. Both Calvin ham's Ecc. Ant. vol. 4. b. ll. ch, 7. s. 6. (in his Institutions,) and Owen (in his p. 288.) As this vow could not be made Commentary on the Hebrews, acknowby infants, it was required from those who ledge that this practice existed at a very presented them. These persons, whether early period in the church. The latter parents or others, besides receiving them thus states its design : When they, (that selves, as members of the church, the is, the children of believers, baptized in seal of baptism, became responsible not their infancy) were established in the only for the instruction, but for the ad knowledge of these necessary truths, (of monition, and rebuke if necessary, of the which he makes mention before,) and had children baptized, (Bing. Eccl. Ant. vol. 4. resolved on personal obedience unto the b. 11. ch. 8. s. 5) Individuals of emi gospel, they were offered unto the fellownence in the primitive church, incidentally ship of the faithful : and here, on giving avow the principle, and draw conclusions the same account of their faith and refrom it suitable to the circumstances pentance, which others had done before which led them to avow the principle. they were baptized, they were admitted Thus Augustine, in his 23d Epist. to Bon into the communion of the church ; the iface, says, 'Children were presented to elders thereof laying their hands on them, baptism, not so much by those in whose in token of their acceptation, and praying hands they were brought, (though by for their confirmation in the faith.' This them too if they were good faithful men) rite which originally was confined to those as by the whole society of saints. The who were baptized in their infancy, was whule church was their mother.' (Bing. afterwards administered to adults, imme.