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IN WHICH AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO EXPLAIN TIX
History and Antiquities
PRIMITIVE NATIONS OF THE WORLD,
PROPHECIES RELATING TO THEM,
TENDING TO REMOVE THE IMPERFECTION AND DISCORDANCE OF PRECEDING SYSTEMS.
THE REV. WILLIAM HALES, D. D.
RECTOR OF KILLESANDRA, IN ICELAND; AND FORMERLY PELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, AND PROFESSOR
or ORIENTAL LANGUAGES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN,
IN THREE VOLUMES.
PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR;
CADELL AND DAVIES, IN THE STRAND; T. PAYNE, PALL-MALL;
J. ASPERNE, CORNHILL; AND BY THE BOOKSELLERS IN
The publication of this volume, though printed upwards of a twelvemonth, has been delayed by the preparation of a various and copious GENERAL Index; which the Author was induced to undertake, by the advice of some judicious friends, and the recommendation of his respectable booksellers, seconding his own earnest desire to render the work as perfect, and convenient, as possible. How the task has been executed, others may, in some measure, anticipate, from the testimony of a most competent judge, to whom it was first communicated, the Rev. Lancelot Sharpe, in his letter, April 17, 1813.— “ I have no scruple in saying, that your Index is by far the completest that I have ever yet seen; and will greatly enhance the value of the work.”
During this tedious and laborious employment, but not less. useful to the Author, than to the Public; he carefully revised, compared, and scrutinized the whole, and the parts of the work. This enabled him to detect several literal errors, that had glided either into his manuscripts, or into the printing; to correct seve, ral ambiguities of expression, inconsequential reasonings, insufficiently guarded assertions, and some material mistakes of calculation, &c. quæ parum cavit Natura humana; aliquando dormitans opere in longo; and to recast entirely, or new model, some important articles, upon further lights and maturer consideration.
In this critical, and unsparing review, he was greatly assisted by the learned remarks and acute strictures of some kind and candid friends, on the foregoing volumes; especially the Rev. Archdeacon Churton, and the Rev. John Moore, Minor Canon of St. Paul's; and also, by some later publications of merit, particularly Doctor Magee's erudite and elaborate Dissertations on Atonement and Sacrifice, third, improved edition, 1812. This account, he trusts, will more than apologize for the unusual length of the AdditioNAL CORNECTIONS AND EVENDATIONS, which he now takes the earliest opportunity of offering, along with the last volume, to the Patrons and Subscribers of the Work, as in justice and gratitude bound; without waiting for the precarious demand of a second Edition, whichi, if called for, he may not live to publish.
In deference to the judgment, and even to the prejudices of some esteemed friends, he has readily retrenched some new renderings of the original Scriptures, to which they objected. Such as Oc05, “ A God,” for God; Agrw5w @ew, “the unknowable God,” for the unknown God; “ Legitimate Son,” for only Son ; “ only genuine,” for only begotten ; “became inspired,” for was in the spirit; el, “ Since,” when followed by an indicative inood, for If, &c.; because the old are sanctioned, and in some measure sanctified, by long prescription; and are warranted by the usual latitude of speech, though not perhaps so precise, or appropriate, as their substitutes; whose import they are generally understood to convey, in the foregoing instances, by the best informed. But Here are others, which lie cannot surrender, without injuring, in his settled opinion, the important and momentous cause of SACRED CRITICISM; the first step towards ihe improvement of which, upon scientific principles, is to acquire clear, distinct, and correct ideas of leading elementary and technical terms. Such as his adopted
and retained pronunciation and renderings of the primitive and awful names of the Deity, 1777', Juhoh, instead of Jchoval; 777774727, Dabar Jaloh, and ó noyau, “ the Oracle of the Lord,” and“the Oracle,” instead of the Ilord of the Lord, and the I Vord; 777877, Ha Adon, and 378, Adoni, “ the Regent,” and “Regent,” instead of the Lord, and Lord; 171799378, Adoni Jahoh, " Regent Lord,” instead of Lord God, &c.
Ile also regrets, that he cannot retract his partial censure of the Athanasiun Creed ; in which he is by no means singular, but countenanced and supported by several wise and good, conscientious, and moderate Churchmen, wishing to promote unanimity and harmony between the discordant and jarring sects of ProTESTANTS, as far as may be done, without giving up essentials. Nay, the Creed itself seems to support the chief ground of objection, in that sage caution, “ Neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing The SUBSTANCE”—of the ever-blessed, and adorable, but most “ incomprehensible Trinity IN UNITY.” A golden Canon indeed, sanctioned by the usage, and cautious distinctions of the early Fathers of the Church, Justin Martyr, Origen, &c. and by the Nicene Council, declaring the Son to be “True God, of TRUE God; of the same substance (okoso1@) with the FATHER.”
But while the Author, arailing himself of “ THE GLORIOUS LIBERTY OF THE GOSPEL,” in the genuine spirit of the Articles of the Church of England, vi, viii, xix, xx, thus freely maintains, and openly exercises, his Christian, and Protestant, and indefeasible right of private judgment; and thus ventures, occasionally and reluctantly, to differ from the most venerable, or the most learned auihorities, on some of the most abstruse and mysterious, but surely the most important and interesting topics of Sacred