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On translating the Greek Language used by the Writers of the New


THE author hath judged it necessary to make the following additions to Essay iv, for establishing more fully the translations which he hath given of the Greek particles, &c. as used by the writers of the New Testament, because, as he hath more than once remarked already, by rightly translating the Greek particles, most important alterations have been made in the sense of many passages of the apostolical epistles, whereby the meaning of these passages hath been placed in a more clear, unambiguous, and beautiful light, than formerly Wherefore, if the, reader is of opinion, that the meaning of any Greek word, mentioned in Ess. iv, is not sufficiently established by the examples there produced, he is desired to consult this supplement.

N. B. The paragraphs of Ess. 4. being all numbered, the figures prefixed to the following additions, point out the paragraphs of that Essay to which they belong.

No. 1. Active verbs express the agent's attempt or intention, &c. John i. 9. That was the true light which lighteth, which is designed to light, every man that cometh into the world.-Rom. ii. 4. Not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth, is designed to lead, thee to repentance.—1 John i. 10. If we say we have not sinned, we make, we attempt to make, him a liar.-Rev. xii. 9. Called the Devil and Satan, who deceiveth, who endeavours to deceive, thewhole world.

4. Active verbs express, not the doing, but the permission of a thing. 2 Sam. xxiv. 1. The anger of the Lord was moved against Israel, and he moved David, that is, permitted David to be moved by Satan against Israel: as is plain from 1 Chron. xxi. 1. And Sa tan stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number Israel.

9.-1. The subjunctive mode put for the indicative. 2 Cor. xiij. 9. We are glad (όταν ήμεις ασθενωμεν, ὑμεῖς δε δυνατοι ητε) when tue are weak, and ye are strong.

2. The infinitive with the article prefixed, is put for the subjunctive. Philip. iii. 10. To yvavar, That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection.*

3. Also for the corresponding substantive noun. Philip. iii. 21. Κατα την ενεργειαν τε δύνασθαι αυτον. According to that strong working whereby he is able even to subdue all things.

10.-1. Buxtorff, in his Thesaur. p. 91. observes, that among the Hebrews," Frequentissima est temporum commutatio et ❝enallage, ut preteriti pro futuro, et futuri pro preterito: et in "continuata sententia sequens tempus trahitur plerumque in naturam precedentis."

2. The preterite used for the future. Col. ii. 13. You being dead through the sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, (vvWOTO) he hath, he will make alive together with him; with Christ. Jude ver. II. (Kas awλhorro,) And (have perished) shall perish in the rebellion of Korah.

12.-1. The present tense put for the preterite. 1 John iii. 8. The devil sinneth (hath sinned) from the beginning.

2. Also for the future. 1 Cor. xi. 24. This is my body (To UTED μA NAWμLEVov) which is broken, (which shall be broken; or, which is about to be broken) for you.


16.-1. The Greek participles have sometimes an adversative Heb. xi. 13. All these died in faith (un aborres) though they did not receive the things promised. For, seeing them afar off, &c.-Jude ver. 5. I will therefore put you in remembrance, (Eidores) though ye once knew this, &c.*

2. The participle is put for the present of the indicative. Rom. ix. 5. O av, Who is God over all.* Rev. i. 8. I am Alpha and Omega, (o wv) which is, and which was.


3. Beza, in his note on 2 John ver. 7. saith, the participle of the imperfect of the indicative, is used in innumerable places for the aorist. See 2 John ver. 7. note 1.

18.-1. When one substantive governs another, the latter must be translated as an explication of the former. Iliad A. line 350. Ποιον σε επος φευγεν έρκος οδόντων, What kind of speech hath escaped the guard of your teeth? That is, your teeth which are a guard, namely to your tongue.

19.-1. Two substantives joined by a copulative particle, must be translated in regimen. Philip. i. 25. ES TAY Uμav AgoNOTEY και χαραν της πίσεως. For your furtherance and joy of faith.* For the advancement of the joy of your faith.

21.-1. Genders of nouns. The neuter is sometimes put for the masculine. Gal. iii. 22. But the scripture hath shut up to, gether (ra xuva, all things) all men under sin.-Ephes. i. 10. To gather together (va xavu) all men, Jews and Gentiles, under

Christ.-2 Thess. ii. 6. And ye know (тo xatεxo») what now restraineth; ye know the person who now restraineth.

22.-I. The sacred writers, to render their discourse of greater extent, sometimes put the relative in the plural number, not1 John withstanding its antecedent is in the singular number. v. 16. If any one see his brother sinning a sin not unto death, tet him ask God, and he will grant to him life for those, &c.

24.-2. Genitive case denoting possession. Rom. xv. 8. ExαyYedias πateρwy, Promises belonging to the fathers. Ephes. iii. 1. Paul (ò decuss T8 Xg18) a prisoner belonging to Christ Jesus.

3. Denoting the end for which a thing is done, or suffered. Philemon ver. 13. He might minister to me (EY TOIS SECμOIS TOU Evayy) in these bonds for the gospel.

27.-1. Comparison in the third degree, by a repetition of the word. Eph. ii. 4. Through his great love with which he loved us: that is, through his exceeding, great love.--James v. 17. Kai #goσivxḥ #goonvžaro. And (he prayed with prayer, that is,) he prayed earnestly. See also Ephes. vi. 18.

31.-1. All, signifies sometimes a considerable part only. John iv. 29. Come see a man who told me all things that ever I did.-Acts i. 1. All that Jesus began both to do and teach.1 Cor. ii. 15. The spiritual man examineth indeed all things.— 1 Cor. ix. 22. To all I have become all things.-Wherefore 1 Pet. iv. 7. The end of all things hath approached; signifies the end of the Jewish church and state only.

41.-1. Elect, elected, in the following passages may signify approved. Rom. xvi. 13. Rufus (exλexTov ev Kugiw) the approved by the Lord.-Col. iii. 12. Put on therefore (as EXλENTOI TY DE8) as persons approved of God, holy, and beloved, bowels of mercies.

59.-1. Walk. In scripture, one's moral conduct is denoted by the metaphor of walking, because as walking in a road ends in one's arrival at a place, so his moral conduct will at length end, either in happiness or in misery to him.

60.-1. Word, (yes) sometimes denotes eloquence. 2 Cor. viii. 7. Therefore as ye abound in faith (xas roy) and in elo quence.-Ephes. vi. 19. That (oyos) eloquence may be given me in the opening of my mouth.


2. Aoyos, a promise. Tit. i. 3. Hath manifested (Toy oyov avT8) his promise, by preaching with which I am intrusted. See note 1. on this verse.

3. Aoyos, a prayer. 1 Kings xvii. 1. Elijah said to Ahab, As the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall

not be dew nor rain these three years, but according to my word; my prayer. See James v. 17. note 2.

4. Aoyos, a doctrine. Tit. i. 9. Holding fast (TY TI58 XoY8) the true doctrine.

5. Aoyos, an history, a narration, a discourse. Acts i. 1. The former (yo) treatise or narration.-2 Pet. ii. 3. Will make merchandise of you (λrois Royors) by fictitious tales.

6. Aoyos, an appearance or shew of a thing. Col. ii. 23. Which things have indeed (yo) a shew of wisdom.*

63.—1. The relative pronouns refer to the remote antecedent. Luke xxiii. 14. I have found no fault in this man.-15. No nor yet Herod; for I sent you to him, and lo nothing worthy of death is done by him. Not Herod, who is last mentioned, but Jesus, who is mentioned ver. 14.-1 Cor. xv. 25. For he must reign till (avros) he (God, who is mentioned in the preceding verse) hath put all the enemies under his feet.

often used in the sense of a

65.-1. The pronoun avros is Aos, one another. 1 Cor. vi. 7. Ye go to law (μεθ' ἑαυτων) one with another.* See also Ephes. iv. 19. 32. v. 19.-Col. iii. 16.-1 Thess. v. 13.-Jude ver. 20.-John vii. 35.

66.-1. The relative pronoun sometimes differs in gender from its antecedent, regarding its meaning rather than its form. Matth. xxviii. 19. Teach (avra тα edvn BaπTIČovtes avt85) all nations baptizing them.-John xv. 26. To пvevμα-EXEIVOS uxgTugntal, The Spirit-he shall testify.-Rom. ix. 23, 24. Exeun eλe85-85 nai exudeσev.—Gal. iv. 19. Texviμs.—Philem. ver. 10. I beseech thee (GI TY EμY TENVY Óv) for my son whom I begut in my bonds.

2. The relative pronoun sometimes differs in number from its antecedent. Philip. iii 20. Our conversation is (ev &guvors ež où) for heaven, from whence also we look for the Saviour.

67.-1. The relative pronoun (¿5) is sometimes put for the demonstrative (OUTOS). 1 Cor. ii. 9. A opdaaμes & Eide. Those things eye hath not seen, &c. So 'A must be translated, because in the end of the sentence there is another 'A, signifying which. -2 Cor. ii. 16. 'OIS ME; To these indeed it is the savour of death ending in death, (15 de) but to those, &c.

81.-1. Αλλά, However. 1 Tim. i. 16. Aλλx dia T&Tо. Howbeit for this cause I obtained mercy. *

86.-1. Azo, in. Luke xii. 57. Τι δε και αφ' ἑαυτων 8 κρινετες And why also in yourselves do ye not judge what is right?— xxi. 3. Ye see and know («' izvτwv) in yourselves, that the summer is now nigh.-Luke xix. 30. And some of the Phari

sees (¤ÃO THOXλ) in the crowd said.-Wherefore, Philip. iv. 15. may be thus translated; when I went forth (año) in Macedonia. See the note on that passage.

2. Año, By, By means of. Matt. vii. 16. Az Twv xagπwv avBy their fruits ye shall know them.


3. A denotes sometimes the efficient cause.

Mark viii. 31. And be rejected (αжо TWY πрSTOUTεpov) by the elders.-James i. 27. Unspotted (año 78 zooμs) by the world.

90.-1. Tap, often hath a causal signification. So our translators thought. Rom. iv. 15. Ὁ γαρ νόμος οργην κατεργάζεται· Because the law worketh wrath.*-Heb. vii. 11. If indeed perfection were through the Levitical priesthood, (¿ dass yap ez' avın) because on account of it the people received the lazo.

92.-1. Tap, is used to introduce a reason for something in the writer's mind, which he hath not expressed. Thus Rom. iv 2. Ει γαρ Αβρααμ εξ έργων εδικαιώθη, For if Abraham were justified by works, he might boast. Here the proposition suppressed which this is produced to prove, is, Abraham did not obtain justification by the flesh. For if Abraham were justified by the work of circumcision, which he performed on his flesh, he might have boasted.

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97.-1. Tap, Now. Ephes. v. 9. O yap napños, Now the fruit of the Spirit.

98.-1. Fap has the adversative sense of de, But, yet, although. Rom. xv. 4. Ora yap, But whatever things were before written, were written for our instruction.-Philip. iii. 20. Huwv yap to TOMITEVμZ, But our conversation is in heaven.-2 Pet. i. 9. 2 gap un rap:51 Tavra, But he that lacketh these things is blind.*

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101.-2. AE, Also. John viii. 17. Kat ev To YoμE း τῷ ὑμετέρῳ, And in your law also it is written, that the testimony of two men is true.* See Parkh. Dictionary.

104.-1. Af, Besides, Farther. 2 Pet. i. 5. Και αν τοτετο δε σπεδην πάσαν. And besides this, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue.*

114.-1. Aia, To, Forward. Acts iii. 16. Yea the faith which is, (di avτy) toward him; that is, which hath him for its object. -Rom. iv. 25. Was raised again (die tro dixaiativ nμwv) to our justification: ad justificationem, nempe, ad testificandam justificationem nostri. This is Pasor's translation. See his Lexicon, in

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