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our sins to be his, that he might make his righteousness.to be ours ; ᾧ τῆς γλυκείας ἀνταλλαγῆς ; Ο sweet commutation and change! And Chrysostom, to the same purpose, on those words of the apostle, That we might be made the righteousness of God in him.’ Ποῖος ταῦτα λόγος, ποῖος ταῦτα παραστῆσας δυνήσεται νοῦς ; τὸν γὰρ δίκαιον, φησὶν, ἐποίησεν ἁμαρτωλὸν, ἵνα τοὺς ἁμαρτωλοὺς ποιήσῃ δικαίους. μᾶλλον δή οὐδὲ οὕτως εἶπεν· ἀλλὰ δ πολλῷ μεῖζον ἦν· οὐ γὰρ ἕξιν ἔθηκεν, ἀλλ ̓ αὐτὴν τὴν ποιότητα· οὐ γὰρ εἶπεν, ἐποίησεν ἁμαρτωλὸν, ἀλλ ̓ ἀμαρτίαν' ἀυχὶ τὸν μὴ ἁμαρτάνοντα μόνον, ἀλλὰ τὸν μηδὲ γνόντα ἁμαρτίαν. ἵνα καὶ ἡμεῖς γενώμεθα, οὐκ εἶπε, δίκαιοι, ἀλλὰ δικαιοσύνη, καὶ θεοῦ δικαιοσύνη. θεοῦ γὰρ ἔστιν αὕτη, ὅ ταν μὴ ἐξ ἔργων (ὅταν καὶ κηλίδα ἀνάγκη τίνα μὴ ἑυρηθῆναι) ἀλλ ̓ ἀπὸ χάριτος δικαιωθῶμεν, ἔνθα πᾶσα ἁμαρτία ἐφανίσται. in 2 Epist. ad Corinth. cap. 5. Hom. 11. What word, what speech is this, what mind can comprehend or express it; for he saith, he made him who was righteous to be made a sinner, that he might make sinners righteous; nor yet doth he say so neither, but that which is far more sublime and excellent. For he speaks not of an inclination or affection, but expresseth the quality itself. For he says not, he made him a sinner but sin, that we might be made not merely righteous, but righteousness, and that the righteousness of God, when we are justified not by works (for if we should, there must be no spot found in them) but by grace, whereby all sin is blotted out. So Bernard also, Epist. 190. ad Innocent. 'Homo qui debuit, homo qui solvit. Nam si unus, inquit, pro omnibus mortuus est, ergo omnes mortui sunt; ut videlicet satisfactio unius omnibus imputetur, sicut omnium peccata unus ille portavit. Nec alter jam inveniatur, qui foras fecit, alter qui satisfecit; quia caput et corpus unus est Christus.' And many more speak unto the same purpose. Hence Luther, before he engaged in the work of reformation, in an epistle to one George Spenlein, a monk, was not afraid to write after this manner; 'Mi dulcis frater, disce Christum et hunc crucifixum, disce ei cantare, et de teipso desperans dicere ei; tu Domine Jesu es justitia mea, ego autem sum peccatum tuum; tu assumpsisti meum, et dedisti mihi tuum; assumpsisti quod non eras, et dedisti mihi quod non eram. Ipse suscepit te et peccata tua fecit sua, et suam justitiam fecit tuam; maledictus qui hæc non credit. Epist. an. 1516. tom. i.
If those who shew themselves now so quarrelsome almost about every word that is spoken concerning Christ and his righteousness, had ever been harassed in their consciences about the guilt of sin, as this man was, they would think it no strange matter to speak and write as he did. Yea, some there are who have lived and died in the communion of the church of Rome itself, that have given their testimony unto this truth. So speaks Taulerus; Meditat. vitæ Christ. cap. 7. 'Christus omnia mundi peccata in se recepit, tantumque ; pro illis ultro sibi assumpsit dolorem cordis, ac si ipse ea perpetrasset.' 'Christ took upon him all the sins of the world, and willingly underwent that grief of heart for them, as if he himself had committed them.' And again, speaking in the person of Christ. Quandoquidem peccatum Adæ multum abire non potest, obsecro te Pater cœlestis, ut ipsum in me vindices. Ego enim omnia illius peccata in me recipio. Si hæc iræ tempestas, propter me orta est, mitte me in mare amarissimæ passionis.' Whereas the great sin of Adam cannot go away, I beseech thee heavenly Father punish it For I take all his sins upon myself. If then this tempest of anger be risen for me, cast me into the sea of my most bitter passion.' See in the justification of these expressions, Heb. x. 5-10. The discourse of Albertus Pighius to this purpose, though often cited and urged, shall be once again repeated, both for its worth and truth, as also to let some men see, how fondly they have pleased themselves in reflecting on some expressions of mine, as though I had been singular in them. His words are, after others to the same purpose; 'Quoniam quidem inquit (apostolus) Deus erat in Christo, mundum reconcilians sibi, non imputans hominibus sua delicta; et deposuit apud nos verbum reconciliationis. In illa ergo justificamur coram Deo, non in nobis; non nostra sed illius justitia, quæ nobis cum illo jam communicantibus imputatur. Propriæ justitiæ inopes, extra nos, in illo docemur justitiam quærere. Cum, inquit, qui peccatum non noverat, pro nobis peccatum fecit; hoc est, hostiam peccati expiatricem, ut nos efficeremur justitia Dei in ipso, non nostra, sed Dei justitia justi efficimur in Christo; quo jure? Amicitiæ, quæ communionem omnium inter amicos facit, juxta vetus et celebratissimum proverbium; Christo insertis, conglutinatis, et unitis, et sua
nostra facit, suas divitias nobis communicat, suam justitiam inter Patris judicium et nostram injustitiam interponit, et sub ea veluti sub umbone ac clypeo a divina, quam commeruimus, ira nos abscondit, tuetur ac protegit; imo eandem nobis impertit et nostram facit, qua tecti ornatique audacter et secure jam divino nos sistamus tribunali et judicio: justique non solum appareamus, sed etiam simus. Quemadmodum enim unius delicto peccatores nos etiam factos affirmat apostolus: ita unius Christi justitiam in justificandis nobis omnibus efficacem esse; et sicut per inobedientiam unius hominis peccatores constituti sunt multi, sic per obedientiam unius justi (inquit) constituentur multi. Hæc est Christi justitia, ejus obedientia, qua voluntatem Patris sui perfecit in omnibus; sicut contra nostra injustitia, est nostra inobedientia, et mandatorum Dei prævaricatio. In Christi autem obedientia quod nostra collocatur justitia inde est, quod nobis illi incorporatis, ac si nostra esset, accepta ea fertur: ut ea ipsa etiam nos justi habeamur. Et velut ille quondam Jacob, quum nativitate primogenitus non esset, sub habitu fratris occultatus, atque ejus veste indutus, quæ odorem optimum spirabat, seipsum insinuavit Patri, ut sub aliena persona benedictionem primogenituræ acciperet : ita et nos sub Christi primogeniti fratris nostri preciosa puritate delitescere, bono ejus odore fragrare, ejus perfectione vitia nostra sepeliri et obtegi, atque ita nos piissimo Patri ingerere, ut justitiæ benedictionem ab eodem assequamur, necesse est.' And afterward, Justificat ergo nos Deus Pater bonitate sua gratuita, qua nos in Christo complectitur, dum eidem insertos innocentia et justitia Christi nos induit ; quæ una ut vera et perfecta est, quæ Dei sustinere conspectum potest, ita unum pro nobis sisti oportet tribunali divini judicii et veluti causæ nostræ intercessorem eidem repræsentari: qua subnixi etiam hic obtineremus remissionem peccatorum nostrorum assiduam: cujus puritate velatæ non imputantur nobis sordes nostræ, imperfectionum immunditiæ, sed veluti sepultæ conteguntur, ne in judicium Dei veniant: donec confecto in nobis, et plane extincto veteri homine, divina bonitas nos in beatam pacem cum novo Adam recipiat.'
God was in Christ,' saith the apostle, ' reconciling the world unto himself; not imputing unto men their sins. In him therefore we are justified before God, not in ourselves, not
by our own, but by his righteousness, which is imputed unto us, now communicating with him. Wanting righteousness of our own, we are taught to seek for righteousness without ourselves in him. So he saith, him who knew not sin, he made to be sin for us, that is, an expiatory sacrifice for sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him; we are made righteous in Christ, not with our own, but with the righteousness of God. By what right? the right of friendship, which makes all common among friends, according unto the ancient celebrated proverb. Being engrafted into Christ, fastened, united unto him, he makes his things ours, communicates his riches unto us, interposeth his righteousness between the judgment of God and our unrighteousness, and under that, as under a shield and buckler, he hides us from that divine wrath which we have deserved; he defends and protects us therewith, yea, he communicates it unto us and makes it ours, so as that being covered and adorned therewith, we may boldly and securely place ourselves before the divine tribunal and judgment, so as not only to appear righteous, but so to be. For even as the apostle affirmeth, that by one man's fault we were all made sinners, so is the righteousness of Christ alone, efficacious in the justification of us all; and as by the disobedience of one man many were made sinners, so by the disobedience of one man, saith he, many are made righteous. This is the righteousness of Christ, even his obedience, whereby in all things he fulfilled the will of his Father. As on the other hand, our unrighteousness is our disobedience, and our transgression of the commands of God. But that our righ teousness is placed in the obedience of Christ, it is from hence, that we being incorporated into him, it is accounted unto us as if it were ours; so as that therewith we are esteemed righteous. And as Jacob of old, whereas he was not the first-born, being hid under the habit of his brother, and clothed with his garment which breathed a sweet savour, presented himself unto his Father, that in the person of another, he might receive the blessing of the primogeniture; so it is necessary that we should lie hid under the precious purity of the first-born, our eldest brother, be fragrant with his sweet savour, and have our sin buried and covered with his perfections, that we may present ourselves before our
most holy Father, to obtain from him the blessing of righteousness.' And again; God therefore doth justify us by his free grace or goodness wherewith he embraceth us in Christ Jesus, when he clotheth us with his innocency and righteousness, as we are engrafted into him; for as that alone is true and perfect which only can endure in the sight of God, so that alone ought to be presented and pleaded for us before the divine tribunal, as the advocate of, or plea in, our cause; resting hereon, we here obtain the daily pardon of sin; with whose purity being covered, our filth and the uncleanness of our imperfections are not imputed unto us, but are covered as if they were buried, that they may not come into the judgment of God; until the old man being destroyed and slain in us, divine goodness receives us into peace with the second Adam.' So far he; expressing the power which the influence of divine truth had on his mind, contrary to the interest of the cause wherein he was engaged, and the loss of his reputation with them, for whom, in all other things, he was one of the fiercest champions. And some among the Roman church, who cannot bear this assertion of the commutation of sin and righteousness by imputation between Christ and believers, no more than some among ourselves, do yet affirm the same concerning the righteousness of other men. Mercaturam quandam docere nos Paulus videtur. Abundatis, inquit, vos pecunia, et estis inopes justitiæ; contra, illi abundant justitia, et sunt inopes pecuniæ; fiat quædam commutatio; date vos piis egentibus pecuniam quæ vobis affluit, et illis deficit; sic futurum est, ut illi vicissim justitiam suam qua abundant, et qua vos estis destituti, vobis communicent. Hosius; de expresso Dei verbo,' tom. 2. p. 21. But I have mentioned these testimonies principally to be a relief unto some men's ignorance, who are ready to speak evil of what they understand not.
This blessed permutation as unto sin and righteousness, is represented unto us in the Scripture as a principal object of our faith; as that whereon our peace with God is founded. And although both these, the imputation of sin unto Christ, and the imputation of righteousness unto us, be the acts of God and not ours, yet are we by faith to exemplify them in onr own souls, and really to perform what on our part is re