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Schulz, and Simonis, Lex. ed. Eichhorn.) Whoever will take the trouble to examine the respective derivations of the word proposed by these learned men, and to trace them to their sources, will probably be of opinion, that biblical knowledge is not likely to be much improved by the dialect of Arabia.
34. Surely he scorneth, $c.]—The version of the LXX is, Κυριος υπερηφανους αντιτασσεται, ταπεινοις δε διδωσι χαριν, the Lord resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble; and it is cited by James, iv. 6, and by Peter, 1 Ep. v. 5, with the single exception of Ocoç being substituted for Kupoç. “ The apostle's quotation of this passage, though somewhat different in the words, is the same in the sense with the original. For scorners, in Scripture, are proud, insolent, wicked men: and to resist such persons, by rendering their schemes abortive, and by humbling them, is emphatically called a scorning of them.”—Macknight.
35. But shame shall exalt fools]— It shall bring them into the most conspicuous disgrace, as Dimock expresses it. Schultens, who derives posp from abp ussit, torruit, thinks here is an allusion to the stigmata imprinted upon the body, and translates the clause, “ et elumbes nobilitat inustio infamiæ,” adding, in a note, “ Gravis et sententiosa oppositio ; perquam et stolidis sua assignatur hæreditas præclara, ad posteros prodenda, ac propaganda, infamia semper duratura, per quam ipsi quoque suo more, meritissimoque jure, nobilitentur.” The Jews were forbid to inflict stigmata upon their bodies, but it was customary among the surrounding idolatrous nations, as well as among the Greeks and Romans.—(Levit. xix. 28; Potter's Ant. of Greece, lib. i. cap. 10; Spencer, de Leg. Heb. lib. ii. cap. 14, where the subject is treated with immense erudition.) But, whether there be any allusion to these stigmata
or not, the sense is clearly as explained above: so Hodgson. renders the clause, “ But disgrace shall lift fools to notice;" and Dathe, “ Stulti infamia sunt famosi."
1. of a father]—i. e. a teacher or instructor.—Ch. i. 8, note.
3. For I was a son very dear to my father]—Durell, Le Clerc, Hodgson, Dathe connect 77 tender, tenderly loved, dear, with 13 a son, and the ancient versions, probably, adopted the same construction; I have, therefore, followed it.—Compare 2 Chron. xxii. 5, xxix. 1.
- And well-beloved]—As Bathsheba had more sons than Solomon, (2 Sam. v. 14; 1 Chron. iii. 5,) gon' cannot mean only, unicus, but well-beloved, as Gen. xxii. 2, 12: áyarwuevos, LXX.
4. He taught me also]—It cannot be doubted that David, a man so eminent for his deep contrition, and his zeal for the service and honour of God, would carefully instruct his son in the doctrines and duties of religion ; and some instances of his pious admonitions are recorded i Kings, ii. 2; 1 Chron. xxii. 12, xxviii. 9. Happy are they who have been well instructed and disciplined by parental care and example!
- and thou shalt live]— 7'ni, imperative for the future, i.e. thou shalt enjoy a long and happy life; for Solomon, like the Jewish legislator, only uses temporal sanctions in enforcing his precepts.—(See Prel. Diss.) In the same way we are to understand ch. iii. 2, vii. 2, viii. 35, ix. 11, x. 27, &c. Verse 10 of this chapter shows that Solomon is speaking only of temporal life and happiness.
5. Forget not this]— This version coincides with E. T. which, however, is not quite perspicuous. The pronominal affix, or 717 707this thing, must be supplied after nown 5. Hodgson and others render the clause, “ Forget not, neither turn from the words of my mouth;” but the particle o in "pp is an objection to this construction.
7. Wisdom is the principal thing]—Wisdom, being the principal thing, ought to be acquired, even at the expense of every other possession, if necessary. It is a goodly pearl of great price, and a prudent man will sell all that he hath, and purchase it.-—(Matt. xiii. 45.) Others think the sense is, among, or together with thy other possessions get wisdom, without which they are useless, if not injurious. There is an elegant paronomasia in the original, which our translators have endeavoured to preserve at the expense of perspicuity.
From this verse it may be gathered, that n'wnn here and ch. i. 8, ix. 10, is correctly rendered “ the principal part or thing," not “ the beginning;” since it would be absurd to say “the beginning of wisdom is this; get wisdom ;” for the acquirement of wisdom cannot be the beginning of it; but it is highly proper to say, that as wisdom is the principal thing, therefore obtain it. That s'un7 does often signify the principal or most excellent and chief part or thing, see Numb. xxiv. 20; 1 Sam. ii. 29; Job, xl. 19; Jer. xlix. 35; Amos, vi. 1, 6. Compare ch. ix. 10, and note.
Ps. Ixviii. 4; Taylor's Concord.) The kindred dialects afford no assistance. Schultens, indeed, refers bobo to the Arabic canla connexuit, concutenavit, with which it appears to have no affinity in meaning; and Michælis refers it to the elevavit, but the propriety of this reference may be questioned. Gousset inclines to derive it from so a basket, and to translate it, “ eam in corbe ponito,' allusione vel ad canistra sacra, vel ad canistra colligentium fructus.”—Lex. Heb. in 330.
9. deliver to thee] — The LXX and Vulg. render qann by VTEPAonion and“ proteget,” probably connecting it with pap a shield, from psa to protect; but analogy requires that it should be referred to a separate root, yan, as Gen. xiv. 20; Hosea, xi. 8, which last fixes its meaning to that of giving; but whether it includes the sense of giving gratis, (in Arab. Syr. and Chald. it signifies gratis,) or of giving largely and profusely, is very doubtful.—See Schultens in loc, and Parkburst's Lex.
12. shall not be straitened]—98 > might, perhaps, be more correctly rendered, " thy march shall not be impeded.” 778 to bind, to straiten, to distress; applied to steps or walking, to impede : “ thy steps shall not be impeded.”—(Hodgson, Le Clerc.) The sense is, “ Quicquid agas vel suscipias extra periculum erit et afflictionem; et vel si summa diligentia et festinatione id feceris, non ideo infeliciter succedet, si sapientiam ducem seqnares”-Merc.
13. thy life]—The cause of a long and prosperous life to thee. The pronouns 7 and refer to open wisdom, mentioned above, as Buxtorf observes (Thesaurus, p. 414.)
16. For they sleep not, unless, &c.]—This is very similar to Virgil's expression, “ Et si non aliqua nocuisses, mortuus esses;” and Juvenals,
« Ergo non aliter poierit dormire ; quibusdam
Somnum rixa facit.”
· 17. For they eat &c.]—Many commentators understand this of food and wine gained by iniquity and violence; but it strikes me as a figurative way of expressing the great delight the wicked have in their base and disgraceful deeds. They cannot sleep unless they have done mischief; for if they have committed no trespass, if they have done no deed of violence, they are deprived of their highest gratification, and sleep is banished from their eyes.—See Poli Synop. and Schultens.
18. But the path of the righteous, &c.]—The imagery in this verse is taken from the dawn, which, by degrees, leads on to perfect daylight; and the sense is, The path of the righteous is glorious and honourable; the further it is pursued, 'it opens to scenes of still brighter prospects, as the morning dawn increases in splendour, till it ends in the full blaze of day. Some think that a future state is here intimated, and that this passage “ beautifully expresses the reward of virtue, increasing from day to day, until it terminates in endless glory;" (Graves on the Pent. vol. ii. p. 252 ;) but this is the interpretation of a Christian, not of a Jew of the Solomonic era.
- light of the dawn]—013 signifies the dawn, aurora ; (Isa.Ix. 3, lxii. 1;) so on and lompe, in Syriac, is the dawn, crepusculum, aurora.—(Castell.) See Michæl. Sup. No. 1514, and Schultens, who renders it “at iter justorum ut lux jubaris Orientis ;” or, as Merc. renders it, “ velut lux auroræ.” It may, however, be referred to ns, and rendered, “ The path of the righteous is splendid as the light;” “justorum vią instar lucis splendet,” Dathe and many in Poli Synop. after the LXX.
- which shineth more and more]—7189931, literally going and shining; a common Hebraism for shining more and more. Other examples may be seen in Glassii Phil. Sac. p. 274, ed. Dathe.