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- I present]—AYDN seems to be put for n'ips in Hiph. as the characteristic · is often omitted, and may be literally rendered “ I cause to find,” i. e. I offer or present the knowledge of discreet things to such as request it.“ I teach," Hodgson ; “ penetro,” Schultens, who remarks, “ Non satis dignum visum, ut Summa Sapientia dicatur invenire, quod tanquam perennis Fons possidet. Aliis eadem de causa placitum, præsentem habeo. Mihi invenio valet hic intime penetro.” In confirmation of the translation I have given, it may be remarked, that this word occurs in Hiph. without the Jod, in the sense of presenting, Levit. ix. 12, 18, and in the sense of causing to find, Job, xxxiv. 11.
13. The fear of Jehovah]—Instead of nor and najw, Durell, Dimock, Doederlein, and Dathe would read 'no' and naiw, viz. “ I fear Jehovah, I hate evil;" a most unwarrantable alteration, since it is contrary to all the manuscripts and versions. Nor is the textual reading either frigid or unseasonable, as they suppose. Wisdom declares “ the fear of Jehovah is to hate evil;" therefore “ pride, and arrogancy, and the evil way, and the perverse mouth do I hate;" that is, when I discover these odious qualities in men, they incur my displeasure; a sentiment very appropriate to the Son of God.
- do I hate]-- From verse 12 to the end of the chapter, at least to the 31st verse, the discourse, undoubtedly, turns upon the same subject, whatever it may be that is included under the term Wisdom. Now, according to the principles laid down in the introductory remarks, it must mean, either an attribute of God, or a Person in the Divine Essence. We might say, “ the justice of God, or the purity of God hates iniquity;" but to aver that his “wisdom hates it would, surely, be improper. We may therefore conclude, that this verse is to be regarded as coming from a divine Person.
It is not intended to deny, that some of the verses included in verses 12—22 may be applied to abstract wisdom personified; but still it may be justly asserted, that they are more suitable to Christ. As the author proceeds, however, he gives still clearer indications of the personage depicted in this portion of Scripture, till he accumulates such a variety of marks and characters, as, in my apprehension, leave no doubt that the divine Logos is the subject.
14. Counsel is mine, &c.]—The same sentiment and nearly the same words occur Job, xii. 13, there spoken of God, and, being here applied to Wisdom, show that a divine Person is meant.—(See Gill's Bible.) “ It must be granted,” says Dr. Jamieson, “ either that a person is meant, or that an attribute may be the subject of an attribute; nay, that a thing may be predicated of itself. Does not the reader learn a great deal, by being informed that wisdom belongs to wisdom? Nor is it much better to say, in this sense, I have strength. Is power an attribute of the attribute of wisdom ?” - Vindication of the Deity of Christ, lib. i. cap. 9.
- I am understanding]-So nd''N is rendered by E. T. Merc. Cast. Piscat. Cartw. Pagn. Mont. Michæl. ; but the Polyglott versions render it “understanding is mine," having, probably, read 5 instead of us, and they have been followed by many modern translators. The version of Schultens is, “ Ego Prudentia meam aio potentiam,” like ndan 'in
ver. 12. Whether we choose to translate it, “ I understanding,” or “ I am understanding,” the sense is much the same; and in either case Wisdom is called ad'a, a word which occurs thirty-seven times, and never applied to the wisdom or understanding of God, but invariably to that of man. This, however, does not militate against the interpretation of the passage here proposed; for the Son of God may be called “ Understanding,” in as much as he is the author of it in man ; in the same way as our blessed Lord calls himself “the resurrection and the life,” (John, xi. 25,) and as he is styled by the apostle to be made of God unto us “ wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption,” (1 Cor. i. 30,) that is, the author of these blessings. Such metonymical expressions are very common in the sacred writings. It may be observed, that some suppose d'a properly means the power of discerning and judging of things aright. “ Inter pan et al'a distinguunt ita, ut illud sit lux et cognitio rerum, quæ dicitur sapientia, hoc vero judicium, quod ex hac sapientia oritur, quo inter res discernimus, quod Græci ô ayvwou vocant, et Latini intelligentiam, seu prudentiam.”—Rosenmuller, Scholia in Isaiah, xi. 2.
15. By me kings reign]—It is unquestionably true, that monarchs cannot reign happily, nor discharge their royal duties so as to promote the public welfare, without wisdom; and the impossibility either of a long or prosperous reign, without wisdom and moral rectitude, is a doctrine frequently inculcated in the book of Proverbs.—(Ch. xvi. 12, xx. 28, xxviii. 16, xxix. 2, 4, 14.) But the language in this verse has a higher and more important meaning. There is no mention of reigning long or prosperously. Wisdom says, without limitation, “ by me kings reign;" their power, however used, is derived from me; an expression strictly applicable to Him, “ to whom all power is given in heaven and in earth.”—(Mat. xxviii. 18.) “ He removeth kings, and setteth up kings;" (Dan. ii. 21 ;) “for there is no power but of God; the powers that he are ordained of God.”—(Rom. xiii. 1. Compare Deut. i. 13, xvii. 14, et seq.) It cannot be denied that the sovereign power is ordained of God; but Wisdom asserts, “ by me kings reign :" Wisdom, therefore, is God, God the Son.
16. By me princes rule, &c.]—This, like the preceding verse, cannot be predicated of an attribute, but must be referred to the Son, by whom God made the world, and by whom he govers it, having committed all power unto him.
-Ephes. i. 22; Heb. ii. 7, 8; 1 Cor. xv. 27; John, iii. 35, v. 20, 22, xii. 3, xvii. 2; Mat. xxviii. 18, xi. 27 ; Luke, x. 22.
- are illustrious]— '2'73 noble, princely, illustrious, (see Simonis, Lex.) agreeing with yog'ubu so all the judges of the earth. “Illustresque sunt omnes orbis præsides," Castalio : to the same purpose Munster, the Tigurine Version, and Le Clerc. It is by the appointment of the Supreme Ruler that judges are reverenced, and looked up to with respect.
17. I love those that love me]—To love is a personal act; and though it may, perhaps, by a bold figure, be applied to a personified attribute, it seems properly to belong to a person. For in the Keri has rank; but the final 17 may be paragogic.——(See Storrii Observat. ad Analog. et Syntax. Heb. p. 438.) 318 is the future, contracted for 2018.–See Altingii Fundam. Punct. Ling. Sanct. p. 442.
18. Riches, &c.]—Wisdom is said to be possessed of “riches and honour;” (ch. iii. 16;) and this verse may, undoubtedly, be predicated of an attribute; as, for instance, St. Paul speaks of “ the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God.” (Rom. xi. 33,) and of “the riches of his goodness,” (Rom. ii. 4,) and of “the riches of his grace,” (Ephes. ii. 7.) It may, nevertheless, be appropriately
applied to the Son, whose “ riches,” the apostle says, are “unsearchable,” (Ephes. iii. 8,) who received from God “honour and glory,” (2 Pet. i. 17,) and “ in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge,” (Col. ii. 3.)
Even durable wealth]—The radical meaning of pnp is to remove, Gen. xii. 8, xxvi. 22; Job, ix. 5, xiv. 18, xviii. 4, xxxii. 15; “they removed speaking from them,” i. e. they left it off, Isaiah, xxviii. 9. In Hiph. to cause to remove, as, for instance, into a particular place, Prov. xxv. 1, " which the men of Hezekiah collected,” caused to remove, “nempe ex suis libris in hunc librum.”—(Cocc. Lex. ed. Schulz.) 2. To grow old, veterascere, to continue removing, or going on, (such is its meaning in Syriac, Chaldee, and Arabic,) Job xxi. 7; Ps. vi. 8, “mine eye waxeth old,” i. e. grows dim, like the eyes of the aged, “because of all mine enemies," on account of the grief which they occasion me. (The Chaldee piny ancient, occurs Dan. vii. 9, 13, 22.) Hence as a noun, Ist. lasting, durable, Prov. viii. 18; Isaiah, xxisi. 18: 2d. stiff, hard, harsh, being qualities attendant on age, and generally belonging to durable things, 1 Sam. ii. 3; Ps. xxxi. 18, Ixxv. 6, xciv. 4. In 1 Chron.iv. 22, it may be the name of a place, as Parkhurst observes. These are all the places wherein this root occurs, and, surely, they are explained in an easy and perspicuous manner, without having recourse to remote and farfetched senses, drawn from the dubious sources of the kindred languages. Yet, because zže in Arabic means pulchritudo, nitor, Schultens would superinduce this idea in Isaiah, xxiii. 18, piny ndon “ durable clothing;" “ nou solum durabile,” says he, “ut dari solet, verum etiam nitoris integri, et cujus pulchritudo non praflorata;” and this notion is adopted by Dathe and Rosenmuller.
- and righteousness)—Aben Ezra takes apny to mean “ happiness or prosperity.” Doederlein thinks it may be