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24 And it shall come to pass, shall be stink ; and instead of a that instead of sweet smell, there girdle, a rent; and instead of

cessary. This is now done by females calamity and grief. [ Instead of sweet of Eastern nations. Shaw informs us

smell. Hebrew dwa bõsēm, aromathat, “ In the Levant looking-glasses tics, perfumes, spicy fragrance ; such are a part of female dress. The Moor

as they used on their garments and ish women in Barbary are so fond of


“ No one ever enters a comtheir ornaments, and particularly of

pany without being well perfumed, and their looking-glasses, which they hang in addition to various scents and oils, upon their breasts, that they will not they are adorned with numerous garlay them aside, even when, after the lands, made of the most odoriferous drudgery of the day, they are obliged flowers.Roberts. “ The persons of 10 go two or three miles with a pitcher the Assyrian ladies are elegantly clothor a goat-skin to fetch water.” Bur- , ed and scented with the richest oils der. In Egypt, the mirror was made and perfumes. When a queen was to of mixed metal, chiefly of copper, and be chosen to the king of Persia, inthis metal was so highly polished that stead of Vashti, the virgins collected in some of the mirrors discovered at

at Susana, the capital, underwent a Thebes the lustre has been partially purification of twelve months duration, restored, though they have been buried

to wit: “six months with oil of myrrh, in the earth for many centuries. The and six months with sweet odours.' mirror was nearly round, inserted in a

The general use of such precious oil handle of wood, stone, or metal, whose and fragrant perfumes among the anform varied according to the taste of cient Romans, particularly among the the owner. The cuts on the following ladies of rank and fashion, may be inpage will give an idea of the ancient ferred from these words of Virgil: form of the mirror, and will show that

Ambrosiacque comae divinum verticu odorem they might be easily carried abroad as Spiravere :an ornament in public. Comp. Wilkin- From her head the ambrosial locks son's Manners and Customs of the An- breathed divine fragrance.'Paxton. cient Egyptians, vol. iii. p. 384-386.

TA stink. This word properly means [ And the fine linen. Anciently the

the fetor, or offensive smell which atmost delicate and fine garments were tends the decomposition of a deceasmade from linen which was obtained ed body. It means that the bodies chiefly from Egypt. See Note Luke xvi. which they so carefully adorned, and 19. I And the hoods. Or, turbans. which they so assiduously endeavoured And the veils. This does not differ

to preserve in beauty by unguents and probably from the veils worn now, ex- perfumes, would dia and turn to corcept that those worn by Eastern females ruption. 1 And instead of a girdle. are large and made so as to cover the Girdles were an indispensable part of head and the shoulders—so that they

Their garments may be drawn closely round the body, were loose and flowing, and it became and effectually conceal the person.

an Oriental dress.

necessary to gird them up when they Comp. Gen. xxiv. 65.

ran, or 'danced, or laboured. [A rent. 24. And it shall come to pass. The | There has been a great variety of opiprophet proceeds to denounce the judg- nion about the meaning of this word. ment or punishment that would come The most probable signification is that upon them for their pride and vanity. which is derived from a verb meaning In the calamities that would befall the to go around, encompass, and hence nation, all their ornaments of pride that it denotes a cord. Instead of the and vairglory would be stripped off; beautiful girdle with which they girded and instead of them they would exhi- themselves, there shall be a cord-an bit the marks, and wear the badges of emblem of poverty, as the poor had

Aen. 1. 403.

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well-set hair, baldness;- and in- of sackcloth : and burning in stead of a stomacher, a girding stead of beauty.

r Micah 1. 16.

noining else with which to gird up stiffened for the front, but I do not their clothes—a humiliating descrip- think it common.Roberts. A girdion of the calamities which were to ing of sackcloth. This is a come upon proud and vain females of cloth that was commonly worn in the court. 1 And instead of well-set times of affliction, as emblematic of hair. Hair that was curiously braided grief. 2 Sam. iii. 31. 1 Kings xx. 31. und adorned. No ladies pay more xxi. 27. Job xvi. 15. Isa. xxxii. 11. Litention to the dressing of the hair And burning. The word here used laan these (the dancing girls of India); does not occur elsewhere. It seems 1èr as they never woar caps, they take to denote a brand, a mark burnt in, a great delight in tnis their natural orna- stigma ; perhaps a sun-burnt couatement.Roberts. Miss Pardoe, in “ the inance, indicating exposure in the long city of the Sultan,” says, that after and wearisome journey of a captivity taking a bath the slaves who attended over burning sands and beneath a her spent an hour and a half in dress- scorching sun. 1 Instead of beauty. ing and adorning her hair. Comp. Instead of a fair and delicate complex. 1 Pet. iii. 3. Instead of a stomacher. | ion, cherished and nourished with care. It is not certainly known what is meant Some of the articles of dress here re by this, but it probably means some ferred to may be illustrated by the fol. sort of girdle, or a plaited, or stiffened lowing cuts exhibiting several varieties ornament worn on the breast. “I once of the costume of an Oriental female. kaw a dress beautifully plaited and




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25 Thy nen shall fall by the ment and mourn; and she, being sword, and thy "mighty in the desolate, shall sit upon the war.

ground. 26 And sher gates shall la- 4 might. z Lam, 1.4. 7 cleansed, or emzied.

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To what particular time the prophet

25. Thy men.

This is an address refers in this chapter is not known, to Jerusalem itself—by a change not perhaps, however, to the captivity at uncommon in the writings of Isaiah. Babylon. To whatever he refers, In the calamities coming on them, it is one of the most striking re- their strong men should be overcome, proofs of vanity and pride—especially and fall in battle. the pride of female ornament, any 26. And her gates. Cities were where to be found. And although surrounded with walls, and were enhe had particular reference to the tered through gates opening into the Jewish females, yet there is no im- principal streets. Those gates became propriety in regarding it as applica- of course the places of chief confluence ble to all such ornaments wherever and of business; and the expression they may be found. They indicate here means that in all the places of the same state of the heart, and they confluence, or amidst the assembled must meet substantially the same re- people, there should be lamentation on buke from God. The body, however account of the slain in battle and the delicately pampered and adorned, must loss of their mighty men in war. 1 And become the prey of corruption. “ The she. Jerusalem is often represented worm shall feed sweetly on it, and the as a female distinguished for beauty. earth-worm shall be its covering." It is here represented as a female sitComp. Isa. xiv. 2. Job xxiv. 20. The ting in a posture of grief. I Being single thought that the body must die desolate shall sit upon the ground. —that it must lie and moulder in the To sit on the ground, or in the dust, grave-should check the love of gay was the usual posture of grief and adorning, and turn the mind to a far mourning-denoting great depression more important matter, the salvation and humiliation. Lam. ii. 10, iii. 28. of the soul which cannot die ; to “ the Jer. xv. 17. Job iii. 13. Ezra ix. 3-5. ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, It is a remarkable coincidence that in. which is in the sight of God of great the medals which were made by the price.” 1 Pet. iii. 4.*

Romans to commemorate the captivity

of Judea and Jerusalem, Judea is re* On this portion of Isaiah (iii. 16–24), the following works may be consulted N. G. Schroe: presented under the figure of a female deri comm. Philo. Crit. de vestitu mulierum He: sitting in a posture of grief under a Lyceri, ad Esa. 11. 16–18 illustrandum, in The : palm tree, with this inscription :Judea anu. Antiq. Ugolini, Tom. XXIX. pp. 438-452; captain the form which is exhibited also Bynaeus, de Calccis Hebrae. ch. viii. TheMu. Antiq. Sacr., Tom. XXIX. p. 756 seq.

in the annexed engraving.

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