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10 And they shall be broken 'make sluices and ponds for fish in the purposes& thereof, all that 8 foundations. 9 of living things. the Egyptians had the art of working down or destroyed. Others suppose lace from linen. Saadias supposes that that it is derived from one shátha, nets are meant, as being made with to weave, and that it refers to the holes or meshes ; but it is evident that places where they wove the cloth, i. e. a finer work is intended than that. their looms; or to the places where I Shall be confounded. Heb. Shall be they made their nets. And others ashamed. That is, they shall be thrown suppose that it is not the places where out of employment, and not know what they wove which are intended, but the to do.

I weavers themselves. Forerius supposes 10. And they shall be broken. There it to be derived from now shâthàth, to has been a great variety of opinion in place, lay, and that it refers to the regard to the interpretation of this banks, or dykes that were made to reverse, and much difficulty in the con- tain the waters in the canals, and that struction of the Hebrew words. The these would be trodden down. This, Vulgate renders it, “and its wet places it seems to me, is the most probable shał fail; all who make ponds to take interpretation, as it suits the connection fish.' The LXX, “ and all who make and agrees with the derivation of the beer (buv) shall lament, and shall word. But the meaning cannot be atllict their souls” This (úlor was a certainly ascertained. | All that make sort of malt liquor made of fruits by sluices. There has been quite as great fermentation, and was used in Egypt in a variety in the interpretation of this the place of wine, as the grape did not passage as in the former. The word flourish there. Jerome on this place rendered sluices, 720, our translators says, that this was much used also in

| understand in the sensc of places where Dalmatia and Pannonia, and was com

the water would be retained for fish monly called Sabaium. The Chaldee

ponds—made by artificial banks conrenders this, “and the place where they fining the waters that overflow from weave cloth shall be trodden down, and

the Nile. This sense they have given the place where they make fish-ponds,

to the word, as if it were derived from and where they collect waters, each one for his own life.” This variety of read. I 2o sâkhăr, to shut up, to enclose. ing arises chiefly from the different The LXX read it as it it meant the modes of pointing the Hebrew words. | Hebrew 7 shēkhâr, or strong drink; The word rendered “ broken” 0°877?

and so also the Syriac renders it—as if means trodden down, from * to

from 700 shâkhăr, to drink. There

is no doubt that by a difference of tread, or trample down, and agrees in

pointing it may have this signification. the Hebrew with the word rendered

But the most probable interpretation, “ purposes," the purposes shall be

perhaps, is that which derives it from trodden down.' The word “purposes,"

20 sâkhăr, to hire, and means that non is found only in the plural,

tal, they made those places for reward, or and is translated in Ps. xi. 3, founda- for gain. They thus toiled for hire ; tions, from a foundation or pillar. and the prophet says, that they who According to this, it would mean that thus made enclosures for fish in order all the pillars or foundations, i. e. to make a livelihood, would be trodden probably all the nobles of Egypt, would down-that is, they would fail of their be trodden down. But this does not purposes. [ Ponds for fish. The word well suit the connection. Others de- rendered fish, we néphčsh, denotes rive it from onw shâthân, to drink : properly any living thing (see the marand suppose that it means that which gin), but if the usual interpretation is is prepared for drink shall be trodden given of this verse, it is evident that fisha

11 Surely the princes of Zoans | are thy wise men ? and let them are fools, the counsel of the wise tell thee now, and let them know counsellors of Pharaoh is become what? the Lord of hosts hath brutish : how say ye unto Pha.' purposed upon Egypt. raoh, I am the son of the wise, 13 The princes of Zoan are the son of ancient kings ? become fools, a the princes of

12 Wherey are they? where Noph are deceived; they have

1 Numbers 13. 22. y 1 Cor. 1. 20. z ch. 44. 7, 8. a Rom. 1. 22. Jer. 2. 16. are intended. The description, there- fools. They are unable to meet by fore, in this entire passage, from verse their counsels the impending calami. fitih to verse tenth, is designed to denote ties. Perhaps their folly was evinced the calamities which would come upon by their flattering their sovereign, and Egypt from the failure of the waters of by exciting him to plans that tended to the Nile ; and the slightest knowledge the ruin, rather than the welfare of the of the importance of the Nile to that kingdom. The wise counsellors of country will show that all these calami- | Pharaoh. Pharaoh was the common ties would follow from such a failure. name of the kings of Egypt in the

11. Surely the princes. The follow- same way as Cesar became afterwards ing verses to ver. 16 are designed to the common name of the Roman emdescribe further the calamities that perors—and the king who is here inwere coming upon Egypt by a want of tended by Pharaoh is probably Psam. wisdom in their rulers. They would metichus. See Note on ver.4. f How be unable to devise means to meet the say ye, &c. Why do you flatter the impending calamities, and would actu monarch? Why remind him of his ally increase the national misery by ancestry? Why attempt to inflate him their unwise counsels. The word with the conception of his own wis“ princes” here is taken evidently for dom? This was, and is, the common the rulers or counsellors of state. 1 Of practice of courtiers; and in this way Zoan. The Vulgate, LXX, and Chal kings are often led to measures most dee, render this Tanis. Zoan was ruinous to their sabjects. doubtless the Tanis of the Greeks 12. Where are they? This whole (Herod. ii. 166), and was a city of verse is an appeal by the prophet to Lower Egypt, built according to Moses the king of Egypt respecting the coun(Num. xii. 22) seven years after He sellors and soothsayers of his kingdom. bron. It is mentioned in Ps. lxxviii. The sense is, a time of distress and 12. Isa. xix. 11, 13, xxx. 4. Ezek. xxx. danger is evidently coming upon Egypt. 14. It was at the entrance of the They pretend to be wise ; and there is Tanitic mouth of the Nile, and gave now occasion for all their wisdom, and name to it. Its ruins still exist, and opportunity to evince it. Let them there are seen there at present nume show it. Let them declare what is rous blocks of granite, seven obelisks coming upon the nation, and take of granite, and a statue of Isis. It proper measures to meet and remove was the capital of the Dynasty of the it; and they will then demonstrate Tanitish kings until the time of Psam that it would be proper for Pharaoh to metichus; it was at this place princi repose confidence in them.' But if pally that the miracles wrought by they could not do this, then he should Moses were performed. “Marvellous not suffer himself to be deluded, and things did he in the sight of their fa- his kingdom ruined, by their counsels. thers in the land of Egypt ; in the field 13. The princes of Zoan. Note ver. of Zoan.” Ps. lxxviii. 12. Its ruins 11. This repetition is intensive and are still called San, a slight change of emphatic, and shows the deep convicthe word Zoan. The Ostium Taniti- tion of the prophet of their folly. The cum is now the Omm. Faredje. I Are design is to show that all the counsel.

also seduced Egypt, even they: Egypt to err in every work there. that are the stay of the tribes of, as a drunken man staggereth thereof.

in his vomit. 14 The LORD hath mingled 15 Neither shall there be ang a perverse spirit in the midst work for Egypt, which the head thereof: and they have caused or tail, branch or rush, may do. 3 the corners, or, governors.

d 1 Kings 22. 22, 23. 4 spirit of perversenas. lors on which the Egyptians depended Research. i. 40. 1 They hare also were fools. The princes of Nonh. seduced Egypt. That is, they have by The Vulgate, the LXX, and the Chal- their counsels caused it to err, and dee, render this Memphis, and there is have led it into its present embarrassno doubt that this is the city intended. ment. The stay, &c. Heb. 1:9 The name Memphis may have easily pinna—the corner; i. e. those who arisen from Noph. It was written also should have been the support. So the Moph, and hence Memphis. It is called word is used to denote the head or Menouf by the Copts and Arabians. leader of a people in Ps. cxviii. 22, According to Plutarch, the name Mem- Isa. xxviii. 16, Zech. X. 4, 1 Sam. phis means the port of the good. The xiv. 38, Judges xx. 2, 14. situation of Memphis has been a sub 14. The Lord hath mingled. The ject of considerable dispute, and has

word Tomâsakh, to mingle, is used afforded matter for long and laborious

commonly to denote the act of mixing investigation. Sicard and Shaw fix its site at Djezeh or Ghizeh, opposite to old

spices with wine to make it more inCairo. Pococke, D’Anville, Niebuhr,

toxicating. Prov. ix. 2, 5. Isa. v. 22.

if, Here it means, that JEHOVAN has and other writers and travellers, place

poured out into the midst of them a Memphis more in the direction of Mi.

spirit of giddiness; that is, has pro. traheny, about fifteen miles further

duced consternation among them. Na. south, on the banks of the Nile, at the

tional commotions and calamities are entrance of the plain of the mummies,

often thus traced to the overruling proat the north of which the pyramids are

vidence of God. See Note . ver. 2. placed. It was the residence of the

Comp. ch. x. 5, 6. ancient kings of Egypt until the time

A perverse spirit.

Heb. A spirit of perverse ness. The of the Ptolemies, who commonly resided at Alexandria. Memphis retain

word rendered percerse is derived from ed its splendour until it was conquered

7713, to be crooked or perverted. Flere by the Arabians, about A. D. 641. it means, that their counsels were unAt the supposed site of Memphis south wise, and such as tended to error and of Ghizeh, there are large mounds of i ruin. To err as a drunken mon. rubbish, a colossal statue sunk in the &c. This is a very striking figure. ground, and a few fragments of granite, | The whole nation was reeling to and which remain to test the existence fro, and unsettled in their counsels, as of this renowned capital. In Strabo's a man is who is so intoxicated as to time, although partly in ruins, it was reel and to vomit. Nothing could more yet a populous city, second only to

| strikingly express (1) the fact of their Alexandria. The total disappearance

perverted counsels and plans, and (2) of the ancient edifices of Memphis is

God's deep abhorrence of the course easily accounted for by the circum

which they were pursuing. stance, that the materials were em 15. Neither shall there be any work. ployed for the building of adjacent The sense is, that there shall be sucb cities. Fostál rose out of the ruins, discord that no man, wheuer a prince and when that city was again deserted, a politician, or a priest, shall be able to thege ruins migrated again to the more give any advice, or form any plan for modern Cairo. See Robinson's Bibli. the national safety and security, which

16 In that day shall Egypt be shall be a terror unto Egypt : likee unto women; and it shall | every one that maketh mention be afraid and fear, berause of the ihereof shall be afraid in himself, shaking of the hand of the LORD because of the counsel of the of hosts, which he shaketh over it. | LORD of hosts, which he hath 17 And the land of Judah determined against it.

I 18 In that day shall five cities e Jer. 51. 30. Nahum 3. 13.

shall be successful. [ Which the head interpretation is that which refers it to or tail. High or low; strong or weak; the invasion of Judah by Sennacherib. those in office and those out of office; The Egyptians would know of that. all shall be dispirited and confounded. Indeed the leading design of SennaRosenmüller understands by the head cherib was to invade Egypt, and Judah here, the political orders of the nation, and Jerusalem were to be destroyed and by the tail the sacerdotal ranks. only in the way to Egypt. And when But the meaning more probably is, the the Egyptians heard of the great prepahighest and the lowest ranks—all the rations of Sennacherib, and of his ad. piliticians, and priests, and princes, on vance upon Judah, (see ch. x. 28-31), the one hand, as the prophet had just and knew that his design was to invade stated (vs. 11-15); and all the artifi them, “the land of Judah ” would be cers, fishermen, &c., on the other, as he “a terror," because they apprehended had stated (vs. 8–10). This verse, that he would make a rapid descent therefore, is a summing up of all he upon them. Vitringa, however, suphad said about the calamities that were poses that the sense is, that the Egypcoming upon them. I Branch or rush. tians in their calamities would rememSee these words explained in the Note ber the prophecies of Jeremiah and on ch. ix. 14.

others, of which they had heard, re16. In that day shall Egypt be like specting their punislrment ; that they unto women. Timid ; fearful ; alarmed. would remember that the prophecies The Hebrews often, by this comparison, respecting Judah had been fulfilled, and express great fear and consternation. that thus Judah would be a terror to Jer. li. 30. Nahum iii. 13. [ Because them because those predictions had of the shaking of the hand. The come out of Judah. This is plausible, shaking of the hand is an indication and it may be the correct explanation. of threatening or punishment. Note [ Which he hath determined against ch, x. 32, xi, 15.

it. Either against Judah, or Egypt. 17. And the land of Judah. The | The Hebrew will bear either. It may fear and consternation of Egypt shall mean that they were alarmed at the be increased when they learn what counsel which had been formed by events are occurring there, and what JEHOVAH against Judah, and which was Jehovau has purposed in regard to it. apparently about to be executed by the

Shall be a terror. This cannot be invasion of Sennacherib, and that thus understood to mean that they were in they feared an invasion themselves, or danger from an invasion by the Jews, that they learned that a purpose of defor at that time they were not at war, struction was formed by SEHOVAH and Judah had no power to overrun ! against themselves, and that Judah beEgypt. Jarchi and Kimchi suppose came thus an object of terror because that the passage means that the Egyp- the prophecies which were spoken there tians would hear what had occurred to were certain of being fulfilled. The la:. the army of Sennacherib on its over- ter is the interpretation given by Vithrow, and that they would bo alarmed tringa, and perhaps is the most probable. as if a similar fate was about to come 18. In that day. The word “ day" upon them. But the more probable is used in Scripture in a large signifi

in the land of Egypt speak 8the to the Lord of hosts : 'one shall languages of Canaan, and swear be called, The city of destruction. 8 lip. & Zeph. 3. 9.

9 or, Heres, or, the sun. cation as including the whole period emn covenant. Comp. Deut. 1. 20. under consideration, or the whole time Is. xlv. 20, where conversion to God, that is embraced in the scope of a pro- and a purpose to serve him, is er. phecy. In this chapter it is used in pressed in the same manner by swear. this sense ; and evidently means that ing to him, i. e. by solemnnly devoting the event here foretold would take themselves to his service. One shall place somewhere in the period that is be called. The name of one of them embraced in the design of the prophecy. shall be, &c. Why one particularly is That is, the event recorded in this designated is not known. The city verse would occur in the series of of destruction. There has been a events that the prophet saw respecting great variety of interpretation in reEgypt. See ch. iv. 1. The sense is, gard to this expression. The margin that somewhere in the general time renders it, “or Herer, or the sun." here designated (vs. 4–17), the event The Vulgate, “ the city of the sun ;* here described would take place. There evidently meaning Heliopolis. The would be an extensive fear of JEHOVAH, LXX, “ The city Asedek," asedik. Tbe and an extensive embracing of the true Chaldee, “the city of the house of religion, in the land of Egypt. I Shall the sun wow na which is to be fire cities. The number five here is laser

destroyed.” The Syriac, “the city of evidently used to denote an indefinite

Heres.” The common reading of the number, in the same way as seven is often used in the Scriptures. See Lev.

Hebrew text is, o nt 799,' Ir Hérés. xxvi. 8. It means, that several cities This reading is found in most MS. in Egypt would use that language, one editions and versions. The word om of winch only is specified. The hērés commonly means destruction, language of Canaan. Marg. Lip of though it may also mean delirerance : Canaan. So the Hebrew ; but the

and Gesenius supposes the name was word often means language. The lan

to be given to it because it was to be a guage of Canaan evidently means the delivered city ; i.e. it would be the ciu Hebrew language ; and it is called to which “ the saviour," mentioned in “ the language of Canaan” either be- ver. 20, would come, and which he cause it was spoken by the original would make his capital. Ikenius coninhabitants of the land of Canaan, or tends that the word Heres is taken more probably because it was used by from the Arabic, and that the name is the Hebrews who occupied Canaan as the same as Leontopolis, the city of the the promised land; and then it will lion, a city in Egypt. But besides mean the language spoken in the land other objections which may be made to of Canaan. The phrase here used is

this interpretation, the signification of employed probably to denote that they lion is not given to the word in the would be converted to the Jewish reli- Hebrew language. The cominon read. gion ; or that the religion of the Jews ing is that which occurs in the textwould flourish there. A similar ex- the city of Heres. But another reading pression, to denote conversion to the

O ?? is found in sixteen MSS. and true God, occurs in Zeph. iii. 9: “For there I will turn to the people a pure

has been copied in the Complutensian anguage, that they may call upon the Polyglott. This word, O Hheres naine of the Lord to serve him with properly means the sun, and the phrase one consent." And swear to the means the city of the sun ; i. e. HelioLord of hosts. That is, they shall polis. Onias, who was disappointed devote themselves to him ; or they shall in obtaining the high-priesthood (B. C bind themselves to his service by sol- | 149) on the death of his uncle Mene.

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