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laus, fled into Egypt and ingratiated | mistaken for the other; the change of hiinself into the favour of Ptolemy Phi- 7 into n. This might have occurred lometer and Cleopatra, and was advanced to the highest rank in the army by the error of a transcriber, though the

circumstances would lead us to think it and the court, and made use of his infuence to obtain permission to build a

not improbable that it may have been temple in Egypt like that at Jerusalem, known. li may have been originally

made designedly, but by whom is un. with a grant that he and his descendants should always have a right to subsequently altered by the Jews to

as Onias pretended, and have been officiate in it as high-priests. In order to obtain this, he alleged that it would for building a temple in Egypt; but

counteract the authority which he urged be for the interest of Egypt, by inducing many Jews to come and reside there is no certain evidence of it. The there, and that their going annu

evidence from MSS. is greatly in favour ally to Jerusalem to attend the great

of the reading as in our translation feasts would expose them to alienation?? hêres , and this may be renderfrom the Egyptians, to join the Syrian ed either destrurtion, or more probably, interest. See Prideaux's Connections, according to Gesenius, deliverance, so under the year 149 B. C. Josephus called from the deliverance that would expressly tells us (Ant. B. xiii. ch. iii. be brought to it by the promised sa

1, 2, 3), that in order to obtain this viour. Ver. 20. It may be added, that favour, he urged that it had been there is no evidence that Isaiah meant predicted by Isaiah six hundred years to designate the city where Onias built before, and that in consequence of this, the temple, but merely to predict that Ptolemy granted him permission to many cities in Egypt would be conbuild the temple, and that it was built at verted, one of which would be the one Leontopolis. It resembled that at Jeru- here designated. Onias took advantage salem, but was smaller and less splendid. of this, and made an artful use of it, It was within the Nomos or prefecture but it was manifestly not the design of of Heliopolis, at the distance of twenty- Isaiah. Which is the true reading of four miles from Memphis. Onias pre- the passa ge it is impossible now to detended that the very place was foretold termine ; nor is it important. I think py Isaiah, and this would seem to sup- the most probable interpretation is that pose that the ancient reading was that which supposes that Isaiah meant to of “ the city of the sun." He urged refer to a city saved from destruction, this prediction in order to reconcile the as mentioned in ver. 20, and that he Jews to the idea of another temple did not design to designate any parbesides that at Jerusalem, because a ticular city by name.—The city of temple erected in Egypt would be an Heliopolis was situated on the Pelusian object of disapprobation to the Jews in branch of the Nile, about five miles Palestine, Perhaps for the same rea- below the point of the ancient Delta. son the translation of Isaiah in the It was deserted in the time of Strabo. Septuagint renders this, " the city of | And this geographer mentions its Asedek" docdék, as if the original were mounds of ruin, but the houses were Mp7 izedâkâthe city of righteous- shown in which Eudoxus and Plato ness—i. e. a city where righteousness had studied. The place was celebrated dwells; or a city which was approved for its learning and its temple dedicated

to the sun. There are now no ruins of by God. But this is manifestly a corruption of the Hebrew text. It may be ancient buildings, unless the mounds proper to remark that the change in the

can be regarded as such; the walls, Hebrew between the word rendered however, can still be traced, and there

is an entire obelisk still standing. This destruction, on hérés, and the word obelisk is of red granite, about seventy * sun,” Op hhêrès, is a change of a feet high, and from its great antiquity single letter whrre one might be easily | has excited much attention among the

19 In that day shall there be of the land of Egypt, and a pillard an altar to the Lord in the midst at the border thereof to the LORD.

h Gen. 28. 19. Ex. 24. 4. learned. In the neighbouring villages once occupied by houses, and partly by there are many fragments which have the celebrated temple of the sun. This been evidently transferred from this area is now a ploughed field, a garden city Dr. Robinson, who visited it, of herbs ; and the solitary obelisk which says, that “the site is about two hours rises in the midst is the sole remnant N. N. E. from Cairo. The way thither of the splendour of the place.—Near by passes along the edge of the desert, it is a very old sycamore, its trunk which is continually making encroach- straggling and gnarled, under which ments, so soon as there ceases to be a legendary tradition relates that the supply of water for the surface of the holy family once rested.” Bibli Reground.—The site of Heliopolis is mark- search. i. 36, 37. The annexed cat, ed by low mounds, inclosing a space from the Pictorial Bible, will give an about three quarters of a mile in length, idea of the present appearance of Heby half a mile in breadth, which was liopolis.

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19. In thnt day shall there be an altar was to be erected for sacrifices. altar. An altar is properly a place on But the word altar is often used in which sacrifices are offered. Accord another sense to denote a place of ng to the Mosaic law but one great | memorial: or a place of worship in

20 And it shall be for a signk for they shall cry unto the LORD and for a witness unto the LORD because of the oppressors, and of hosts in the land of Egypt: he shall send them a saviour,

Kc Josh. 4. 20.


general. Josh. xxii. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26. JEHOVAH. In regard to the fulfilment It is clear that Isaiah did not intend of this prophecy, there can be no questhat this should be taken literally, or tion. After the time of Alexander the that there should be a rival temple and Great large numbers of Jews were altar erected in Egypt, but his descrip- settled in Egypt. Thev were favoured tion is evidently taken in part from the by the Ptolemies, and they became so account of the religion of the patriarchs numerous that it was deemed necessary who erected altars and pillars and that their Scriptures should be transmonuments to mark the places of the lated into Greek for their use, and acworship of the true God. The parallel- cordingly the translation called the ism here where pillars are mentioned, Septuagint was made. See the Intioshows in what sense the word altar is duction, § 8,1, (1.) used. It means that the worship of the 20. And it shall be for a sign. The true God would be established in Egypt, altar, and the pillar. This shows that and that certain places should be set the altar was not to be for sacrifice, but apart to his service.

Altars were was a memorial, or designed to desigamong the first places reared as con- nale a place of worship. I They shall nected with the worship of God. See cry to the Lord because of the oppresGen. viii. 20, xii, 7, xxxv. 1. Ex. xvii. That is, oppressed and borne 15. [ To the LORD. TO JEHOVAH - down under the exactions of their rulers, the true God. 1 And a pillar. That they shall seek deliverance from the is, a memorial to God. Thus Jacob set true God-one instance among many up the stone on which he had lain“ for of the effect of affliction and oppression a pillar,” and poured oil on it. Gen. in leading men to embrace the true xxviü. 18. Again (Gen. xxxv. 14), he religion. [ And he shall send them a set up a pillar to mark the place where saviour. Who this saviour would be, God mei him and talked with him. has been a subject on which there has Comp. Gen. xxxi. 13. Lev. xxvi. 1. been a great difference of opinion. Deut. xvi. 22. The word "pillar," Grotius supposes that it would be the when thus used, denotes a stone, or angel by which the army of Sennachecolumn of wood erected as a monument rib would be destroyed. Gesenius or memorial; and especially a memorial thinks it was Psammetichus, who would of some manifestation of God or of his deliver them from the tyranny of the favour. Before temples were known, eleven kings who were contending with such pillars would naturally be erected; each other, or that, since in ver. 4 he and the description here means simply is called a severe lord, it is probable that JEHOVAH would be worshipped in that the promise here is to be underEgypt. 1 At the border thereof. Not stood of a delivering or protecting in one place merely, but in all parts of angel. But it is evident that some Egypt. It is not improbable that the person is here denoted who would be name of Jehovah, or some rude desig- sent subsequently to the national judg. nation of the nature of his worship, ments which are here designated. Dr. would be inscribed on such pillars. It Gill supposes that by the saviour here is known that the Egyptians were ac- is meant the Messiah ; but this intercustomed to rear pillars, monuments, pretation does not suit the connection, obelisks, &c. to commemorate great for it is evident that the event here events, and that the names and deeds predicted was to take place before the of illustrious persons were engraven on coming of Christ. Vitringa and Bishop them; and the prophet here says, that Newton suppose with more probability such monuments should be reared to that Alexander the Great is here re

and a great one, and he shall known to Egypt, and the Egypdeliver them.

tians shall know the Lord in that 21 And the LORD shall be day, and shall do” sacrifice and

n Mal. 1. 11.

ferred to, who took possession of Egypt Under the Ptolemies, large numbers of after his conquest in the East, and who the Jews settled in Egypt. For their might be called a saviour, inasmuch as use, as has been remarked, the Old he delivered them from the reign of Testament was translated into Greek, the oppressive kings who had tyran- and a temple was built by Onias under nized there, and inasmuch as his reign the sixth Ptolemy. Philo represents and the reigns of those who succeeded the number of the Jews in Egypt in him in Egypt, would be much more his time at not less than one million. mild than that of the former kings of They were settled in nearly all parts that country. That Alexander the of Egypt ; but particularly in HeliopoGreat was regarded by the Egyptians lis or the city of the Sun, in Migdot, as a saviour or deliverer is apparent in Tahpanes, in Noph or Memphis, in from history. Upon his coming to Pathros or Thebais (Jer. xliv. 1)--perEgypt the people submitted to him haps the five cities referred to in ver. cheerfully, out of hatred to the Persians, 18. And a great one. 2. A so that he became master of the coun-mighty one ; a powerful saviour. The try without any opposition. Diod. Sic.

name “great" has been commonly L. 17. c. 49; Arrian L. 3, c. 1; Quint. assigned to Alexander. The LXX Curtius L. 4.c.7,8, as quoted by New render this “judging (koivuv) he shal ton. He treated them with much kind

save them;" evidently regarding 37 ness; built the city of Alexandria, calling it after his own name, design

as derived from an to manage : ing to make it the capital of his em

cause, or to judge. Lowth renders it pire ; and under him and the Ptolemies“ a vindicator," The word neans who succeeded him trade revived, com

great, mighty; and is repeatedly apmerce flourished, learning was patron- plied to a prince, chief, or captain. ized, and peace and plenty blessed the 2 Kings xxv. 8. Dan. i. 3. Esth. i. * land. Among other things, Alexander Dan. v. 11, ii. 46. transplanted many Jews into Alexan

21. And the LORD shall be knoun to dria, and granted them dany privileges Egypt. Shall be worshipped and honequal to the Macedonians themselves. oured by the Jews who shall dwell Joseph. Jew. Wars, B. ii. ch. xviii. 97. there, and by those who shall be proAgainst Apion, B. ii. § 4.

selyted to their religion. And the rival of Alexander,” says Wilkinson, Egyptians shall know the Lord. That (Manners and Customs of the Ancient many of the Egyptians would be conEgyptians, vol. i. 213, 214,) “was

verted to the Jewish religion there can greeted with universal satisfaction. be no doubt. This was the result in Their hatred of the Persians, and their all countries where the Jews had a frequent alliances with the Greeks, residence. Comp. Notes Acts ii. 9-11. who had fought under the same ban- 1 And shall do sacrifice. Shall off-r ners against a common enemy, natu- sacrifices to JEHOVAH. They would rally taught the Egyptians to welcome naturally go to Jerusalem as often as the Macedonian army with the strong practicable, and unite with the Jews est demonstrations of friendship, and there in the customary rites of their to consider their coming as a direct religion. 1 And oblation. The word interposition of the gods; and so wise na minhha_oblation denotes any and considerate was the conduct of the offering that is not a bloody sacrificeearly Ptolemies, that they almost ceased a thank-offering; an offering of in• to regret the period when they were cense, flour, grain, &c. See Notes ch. governed by their native princes,” i. 13. The sense is, that they should

« The ar

oblation ; yea, they shall vow a a shighway out of Egypt to As. vow unto the LORD, and perform syria; and the Assyrian shall it.

come into Egypt, and the Egyp22 And the LORD shall smite tian into Assyria ; and the EgypEgypt; he shall smite and heal tians shall serve with the Assy. it : and they shall return even to rians. the LORD, and he shall be en. 24 In that day shall Israel be treated of them, and shall heal be the third with Egypt and with them.

Assyria, even a blessing in the 23 In that day shall there be midst of the land.

Q ch. 11. 16

be true worshippers of God.

I They

were large numbers of Jews in both shall vow a vow, &c. They shall be these countries, and that they were sincere and true worshippers of God. united in the service of the true God. The large numbers of the Jews that They worshipped him in those coundwelt there; the fact that many of tries; and they met at Jerusalem at them doubtless were sincere ; the cir- the great feasts, and thus Judah, As. cumstances recorded (Acis ii. 9-11), syria, and Egypt, were united in his that Jews were in Jerusalem on the day worship. [ And the Assyrian shall of Pentecost; and the fact that the come into Egypt. There shall be free true religion was carried to Egypt, and and uninterrupted intercourse between the Christian religion established there, the two nations, as parts of the same ail show how fully this prediction was empire. And the Egyptians shall fulfilled.

serve with the Assyrians. In the same 22. And the LORD shall smite Egypt. armies ; under the same leader. This That is, in the manner described in the was the case under Alexander the previous part of this prophecy (ver. 2- Great. Or the word serve may mean 10). And heal it. Or restore it—to that they would serve God unitedly. more than its former splendour and So Lowth and Noyes render it. prosperity—as described in the previous 24. In that day shall Israel be the verses (vs. 18-20). He shall send it third. That is, the three shall be a saviour; he shall open new sources united as one people. Instead of being of prosperity; and he shall cause the rival, hostile, and contending kingtrue religion to flourish there. These doms, they shall be united and friendadvantages would be more than a com- ly; and instead of having different and pensation for ail the calamities that he jarring religions, they shall all worship would bring upon it. And they shall the same God. The prophecy rather return, &c. These calamities shall be refers to the spread of the true religion, the means of their conversion to JEHO- and the worship of the true God, than

to a political or civil alliance. Even 23. There shall be a highway. A a blessing. It shall be a source of communication; that is, there shall be blessing, because from Judea the true an alliance between Egypt and Assy- religion would extend into the other ria as constituting parts of one empire, lands. I In the midst of the land. and as united in the service of the true That is, the united land-composed God. The same figure of a highway of the three nations now joined in alis found in ch. xi. 16. See Note on liance. Judea was situated in the that place. The truth was, that Alex- midst of this united land, or occupied ander, by his conquests, subjected As- a central position between the two. It syria and Egypt, and they constituted was also true that it occupied a cenparts of his empire, and were united tral position in regard to the whole under him. It was trus also that there earth, and that from it, as a radiating


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