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because he will not ever be wheel of his cart, nor bruise it threshing it, nor break it with the with his horsemen.


wheels. The word P27 means often mountains, and beatest them small". to break in pieces ; to make small or pin?. 1 Because he will not eder be fine. It is, however, applied to threshing as consisting in beating, or crush-threshing it. The word rendered " being. Isa. xli. 15 : “ Thou threshest the cause," ", evidently here means ale

29 This also cometh forth from derful din counsel, and excellen: the Lord of hosts, which is won. in working.

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though or but ; and the sense is, that Michaelis' Commentary on the Laws
ae will not always continue to thresh of Moses, vol. ii. Appendix, pp. 430–514,
it, this is nuc nis only business. It is Ed. London, 1814. There are here,
only a part of his method by which he therefore, four modes of threshing men.
obtains grain for his bread. It would tioned, all of which are common still in
be necdless and injurious to be always the East. (1.) The sledge with rollers
engaged in rolling the stone or the on which were pieces of iron, or stone,
Bledge over the grain. So God takes and which was dragged over the grain.
Various methods with his people. He (2.) The cart or wain, with serrated
does not always pursue the same course. wheels, and which was also drawn orer
He sometimes smites and punishes the grain. (3.) The fail, or the stick.
them as the farmer beats his grain. (4.) The use of cattle, and horses.
But he does not always do it. He is

29. This also cometh, &c. That is,
not engaged in this method alone ; nor
does he pursue this constantly.

these various devices for thresbing his

It would crush and destroy them.

grain comes from the Lord no less than He,

the skill with which he tills his land. therefore, smites them just enough to

See ver. 26. And excellent in work. secure, in the best manner, and to the fullest extent, their obedience; just as

ing. Or rather who magnifies bains the farmer bruises his sheaves enough his wisdom, nean. This word proto separate all the grain from the choff. perly means wisdom, or understanding When this is done, he pursues other Job xi. 6, xii. 16, xxvi. 3. Prov. in. 21, methods. Hence the various severe viii. 14, xviii. 1. The idea of the and heavy trials with which the people prophet is, that God, who had so wisely

, of God are afflicted. I Nor bruise it taught the husbandman, and who had with his horsemen. Lowth renders instructed him to use such various this “ with the hoofs of his cattle ;" methods in his husbandry, would also proposing to read 72070 instead of be himself wise, and would pursue 1-20 by a change of a single letter o similar methods with his people. He

would not always pursue the same unSamekh, instead of t Shin. So the varying course, but would vary his disSyriac and the Vulgate; and so Sym- pensations as they should need, and as machus and Theodotion. But the word would best secure their holiness and upp may denote not only a horseman, happiness We see (1.) The reason but the horse itself on which one rides. of afflictions. It is for the same cause See Bochart Hieroz. P. i. L. ii. c. vi. which induces the farmer to employ p. 98. Comp. Habak. i. 8, Note Isa. various methods on his farm. (2.) We xxi. 7, 9, 2 Sam. i. 6. That horses are not to expect the same unvarying were used in treading out grain there course in God's dealings with us. It can be no doubt. They are extensively would be as unreasonable as to expect used in this country; and though in that the farmer would be always ploughPalestine it is probable that oxen were ing, or always threshing. (3.) We are chiefly employed (Deut. xxv. 4) in the not to expect always the same kind of early times, yet there is no improba- afflictions. The farmer nses different bility in supposing that in the times machines and modes of thresting, and subsequent to Solomon, when horses adapts them to the nature of the grain. abounded, they were preferred. Their So God uses different modes and adapts more rapid motion, and perhaps the them to the nature, character, and dis hardness of their hoofs, makes them position of his people. One man remore valuable for this service. See quires one mode of discipline, and

another anotner. At one time we need pursue it too far, and not to injure the one inode of correction to call us from grain. So with God's dealings with sin and temptation ; at another another. his people. His object is not to destroy We may lay it down as a general rule them, but it is to separate the chafi that the divine judgments are usually from the wheat ; and he will afflict in the line of our offences; and by the them only so much as may be necessary nature of the judgment we may usually to accomplish this. He will not be al. ascertain the nature of the sin. If a ways bruising his people, but will in man’s besetting sin is pride, the judg- due time remit bis strokes-just as the ment will usually be something that is thresher does. (5.) We should, therefilted to humble his pride; if it be fore, bear aflictions and chastisements covetousness, his property may be re- with patience. God deals with us in moved, or it may be made a curse ; if mercy—and the design of all his disit be undue attachment to children or pensations toward us in prosperity and friends, they may be removed. (4.) God adversity; in sickness and in health; will not crush or destroy his people. in success and disappointment, is to The farmer does not crush or destroy produce the richest and most abundant his grain. In all the various methods fruits of righteousness, and to prepare which he uses, he takes care not to us to enter into his kingdom a: yve.


ANALYSIS OF THE CHAPTER. This chapter relates solely to Jerusalem-here called Ariel. See Note on ver. 1. It is not imme diately conuected with the preceding or the following chapters, though it is not improbable the; were delivered about the same time At what time this was delivered is not known, thongh it is evident that it was before the invasion by Sennacherib, and probably before the time of Hezekiah. The prophecy in the chapter consists of two parts. I. The invasion of Judea by Sennacherib, and its sudden deliveronce, vs. 1-8. II. A reproof of the Jews for their wufidelity and impiety.

1. The vusion of Judea, and the distress that would be brought upon Jerusalem, and its sudden deliverance, vs. 1-9.

(a) Ariel would be filled with grief and distress, vs. 1, 2. 10.) JEHOVAH would encamp against it and besiege it, and it would be greatly straitened and

humbled, vs. 3. 4. (c.) Yet the besieging army would be visited with rudden calamity and destructior.-represented

here by thunder and tempest and fame, vs 5, 6. (d.) The enemy would vanish as a dream, and all his hopes would be disappointed, as the hopes

of a hungry and thirsty man are disappointed who dreams of having satisfied his hunger and

thirst, vs. 7,8. There can be no doubt, I think, that this portion of the prophecy refers to the sudden and drradmul overthrow of Sennacherib; and the design of this portion of the prophecy is to give the assurance that though Jerusalem would be in imminent danger. yet it would be suddenly delivered.

II. The second part consists of reproofs of the inhabitants of Jerusalem for their infidelity and impiety. (9.) They were full of error, and all classes of people were wandering from God-reeling undes David dwelt, as well as the entire scope i given to Jerusalem because it was like of the prophecy, proves this. But still, a lion. If this be the true interpreta. it is not quite clear why the city is tion, then it is so called because Je. here called Ariel. The margin reads, rusalem was the place of the burnt-offer“O Ariel, i. e. the lion of God." The ing, or of the public worship of God; word Ariel, Sp, ie compounded of the place where the fire, as on an two words, and is usually supposed to hearth, continually burned on the altar. be made up of "ax a lion, and God; took the hill of Zion from the Jebusites

error like a drunken man, ver. 9. (3) A spint of blindness and stupidity every where prevailed among the people, vs. 10–12.. (c) Formality and external regard for the institutions of religion prevailed, but without its life

and power, ver. 13. (d.) They attempted to lay deep and skilful plans to hide their wickedness from JEHOVAH,

ver. 15. (e.) They were unjust in their judgments, making a man az offender for a word, and perverting

just judgment, ver. 21 (8.) For all this they should be punished. (1.) The wisdom of their wise men should fail, ver. 14.

12.) The scorner would be consuraed, ver. 20. (g.) There would be an overturning, and the people would be made acquainted with the law of

God, and the truly pious would be comforted. vs. 16-19. Those who had erred would be to

formed, and would come to the true knowledge of God, vs. 22–24. 1 Wo 'to Ariel, to Ariel, Sthe ye year to year; let them kill city where David dwelt! add sacrifices. 108, 0 Ariel, i.e. the lion of God. 2 or, of the city. s 2 Sam. 5. 9. 3 cut off the heads.

1. Wo. Comp. Note ch. xviii. 1. that Jerusalem is here intended. The ITO Ariel. There can be no doubt declaration that it was the city where


1 The city where David dwelt. David and if this interpretation is correct, it is and made it the capital of his kingdom. equivalent to a strong, mighty, fierce

2 Sam. v. 6-9. Lowth renders this, lion-where the word “God” is used to denote greatness in the same way as

" the city which David besieged.” So the lofty cedars of Lebanon are called

the LXX (inodiumor); and so the Valcedarz of God; i. e. lofty cedars. The gate (expugnavit). The word niyo lion is an emblem of strength, and a properly means to encamp, to pitch strong lion is an emblem of a mighty one's tent (Gen. xxvi. 17), to station warrior or hero. 2 Sam. xxiii. 20: “He one's self. It is also used in the sense blew two lion-like () men of of encamping against any one, that is, Moab.” 1 Chron. xi. 22. This use of 3, and Ps. xxvii. 3, 2 Sam. xii. 20);

to make war upon or to attack (see ver. the word to denote a hero is common in Arabic. See Bochart, Hieroz. P. i.

and Jerome and others have supposed Lib. iii. c. i. If this be the sense in that it has this meaning here in accord. which it is used here, then it is applied and the Vulgate. But the more correct

ance with the interpretation of the LXX to Jerusalem under the image of a hero, idea is probably that in our translation, and particularly as the place which was distinguished under David as the capital that David pitched his tent there ; that of a kingdom that was so celebrated is, that he made it his dwelling place. for its triumphs in war. The word

1 Add ye year to year. That is, ' go “ Ariel” is however used in another

on year after year, suffer one year to Bense in the Scriptures, to denote an glide on after another in the course altar (Ezek. xliii. 15, 16), where in the which you are pursuing? This seems Heb. ihe word is Ariel. This name is

to be used ironically, and to denote that given to the altar, Bochart

they were going on one year after

supposes (Hieroz. P. i. Lib. iii

. c. i.), because the another in the observance of the feasts ; altar of burnt-offering devours as it walking the round of external cere. were the sacrifices as a lion devours its monies as if the fact that Darid had prey.

dwelt there, and that that was the place Gesenius, however, has suggested another reason why the word is of the great altar of worship, constituted given to the altar, since he says that perfect security. One of the sins charged the word " is the same as one used and heartlessness in their devotions

on them in this chapter was formality in Arabic to denote a fire-hearth, and (ver. 13), and this seems to be referred that the altar was so called because it

to here. [ Let them kill sacrifices. was the place of perpetual burnt-offer- Marg." cut off the heads.” The word ing. The name Ariel, is, doubtless, given in Ezekiel to an altar; and it here rendered “ kill,” PP?, may mean may be given here to Jerusalem be- to smite ; to hew; to cut down. la. cause it was the place of the altar, or

x. 34. Job xix, 26. But it has also of the public worship of God. The another signification which better acChaldee renders it, “Wo to the altar, cords with this place. It denotes to the altar which was constructed in the make a circle, to revolve ; to go round cily where David dwelt.” It seems to

a place, Josh. vi. 3, 11 ; to surround, me that this view better suits the con

1 Kings vii. 24, Ps. xxii, 17, 2 kings nection, and particularly ver. 2 (see vi. 14, Ps. xvii. 9, lxxxvüi. 18. The Note), than to suppose that the name is word rendered sacrifices, un, may

2 Yet I will distress Ariel, and 3 And I will camp against thee there shall be heaviness and sor- round about, and will lay siegek row : and it shall be unto me as against thee with a inount, and I Ariel.

will raise forts against thee.

k 2 Kings 25. 1, &c.


mean a sacrifice (Ps. cxviii. 27. Ex. in supposing that there was presented xxiii. 18. Mal. ii. 3), but it more com- to the mind of the prophet in vision the mouly and properly denotes feasts or image of the total ruin that would festivals. Ex. x. 9, xii. 14. Lev. xxiii.

come yet upon the city by the Chal. 39. Deut. xvi. 10, 16. 1 Kings viii. 2, deans—when the temple, the palaces, 65. 2 Chron. vii. 8, 9. Neh. viii. 14. and the dwellings of the magniticent Hos. ii. 11, 13. Here the sense is, city of David would be in flames, and let the festivals go round ; that is, like a vast blazing altar consuming that let them revolve as it were in a per- which was laid upon it. petual, unmeaning circle, until the 3. And I will camp against thee. judgments due to such heartless service 'That is, I will cause an army to pitch shall come upon you. The whole ad- their tents there for a siege. God redress is evidently ironical, and designed gards the armies which he would emto denote that all their service was an ploy as under his control, and speaks unvarying repetition of heartless forms.of them as if he would do it hinself.

1 Round about, 2. Yet I will distress Ariel. The See Note ch. x. 5. reference here is doubtless to the siege 7472. As in a circle—that is, he which God says (ver. 3) he would would encompass or encircle the city. bring upon the guilty and formal city. The word here used (977) in ch. xxii. 1 And there shall be heuviness and 18 means a ball, but here ii evidently

This was true of the city in means a circle ; and the sense is, that the siege of Sennacherib, to which this the army of the besiegers would en. probably refers. Though the city was compass the city. A similar form of delivered in a sudden and remarkable expression occurs in regard to Jerusamanner (see Note on vs. 7, 8), yet it lem in Luke xix. 43 : For the days was also true that it was reduced to shall come upon thee, that thine enegreat distress. See chs. xxxvi. xxxvii. mies shall cast a trench (áparama Ī And it shall be unto me as Ariel. rampart, a mound) upon thee (604 This phrase shows that in ver. 1 Jeru- against thee), and compass thee round salem is called “Ariel,” because it (repeavadúcovoi o, encircle thee). So, contained the great altar, and was the also, Luke xxi. 20. The LXX render place of sacrifice. The word Ariel this, “I will encompass thee as David here is to be understood in the sense of did;" evidently reading it as if it were the hearth of the great altar ; and the 7972; and Lowth observes that two meaning is, I will indeed make Jeru

MSS. thus read it, and he himself salem like the great altar; I will make adopts it. But the authority for corit the burning place of wrath where recting the Hebrew text in this way is my enemies shall be consumed as if they were on the altar of burnt sacri, idea in the present reading is a clear

not sufficient, nor is it necessary. The fice. Thus in ch. xxx. 9, it is said

one, and evidently means that the arof JEHOVAH that his “ fire is in Zion, mies of Sennacherib would encompass and his furnace in Jerusalem.”. This the city. With a mount. A ramis a strong expression denoting the calamity that was approaching; and part; a fortification. Or, rather, perthough the main reference in this whole haps the word 3* means a post, a passage is to the distress that would military station, from Sy, to place, come upon them in the invasion of to station. The word in this form ocSennacherib, yet there is no impropriety | curs nowhere else in the Scriptures, but

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