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5 Why should ye be stricken and more. The whole head is any more? ye will srevolt more sick, and the whole heart faint.

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verily estranged from me.” It means down, to slay, or kill. It is applied to especially that declining from God, the infliction of punishment on an inor that alienation, which takes place dividual; or to the judgments of God when men commit sin. Ps. Ixxviii. 30. by the plague, pestilence, or sickness.

5. Why, &c. The prophet now, by Gen. xix. 2: “ And they smote the an abrupt change in the discourse, calls men that were at the door with blindtheir attention to the effects of their ness." Num. xiv. 12: “And I will sins. Instead of saying that they had smite them with the pestilence.” Ex. been smitten, or of saying that they vii. 25: “ After that the Lord had smithad been punished for their sins, he ten the river," i.e. had changed it into assumes both, and asks why it should blood. Comp. verse 20. Zech. x. 2. be repeated. The Vulgate reads this: Here it refers to the judgments inflict. “Super quo—on what part-shall I ed on the nation as the punishment of stnite you any more ?" This expresses their crimes. ( Ye will revolt. Heb. well the sense of the Hebrew_12-58 You will add defection, or revolt. The —upon what; and the meaning is, effect of calamity, and punishment, • what part of the body can be found will be only to increase rebellion. on which blows have not been inflict- / Where the heart is right with God, ed? On every part there are traces

the tendency of affliction is to humble of the stripes which have been inflicted it, and lead it more and more to God. for your sins.' The idea is taken from Where it is evil, the tendency is to a body that is all covered over with make the sinner more obstinate and weals or marks of blows, and the idea rebellious. This effect of punishment is, that the whole frame is one continued is seen every where. Sinners revolt bruise, and there remains no sound

more and more. They become sullen, part to be stricken. The particular and malignant, and fretful ; they plunge chastisement to which the prophet re

into vice seek temporary relief, fers, is specified in vs. 7–9. In vs.

and thus they become more and more 5, 6, he refers to the calamities of the alienated from God. | The whole nation, under the image of a person

head. The prophet proceeds to specify wounded and chastised for crimes.

more definitely what he had just said Such a figure of speech is not uncom

respecting their being stricken. He mon in the classic writers. Thus designates each of the members of the Cicero (de fin. iv. 14) says, ' quae hic body—thus comparing the Jewish peoreipublicae vulnera imponebat hic sa

ple to the human body when under nabat.' See also, Tusc. Quaes. iii. 22.

severe punishment. The word head Ad Quintum fratrem, ii. 25. Sallust.

in the Scriptures is often used to deCat. 10. Should ye be stricken.

note the princes, leaders, or chiefs of Smitten, or punished. The manner

the nation. But the expression here in which they had been punished, he is used as a figure taken from the huspecifies in vs. 7,8. Jerome says, that

man body, and refers solely to the the sense is, “there is no medicine punishment of the people, not to their which I can administer to your wounds. sing. It means that all had been smitAll your members are full of wounds; ten-all was filled with the effects of and there is no part of your body which punisnment-as the human body is has not been smitten before. The when the head and all the miembers more you are afHicted, the more will

are diseased. I Is sick. Is so smityour impiety and iniquity increace.” ten-so punished, that it has become The word here, thukkü, from sick and painful. .

?, means to smite, to beat, to strike sickness, or pain. The preposition 3

for-לָחְלֵי ,Heb

5 or, oil.

6 From the sole of the foot they have not been closed, neither even unto the head there is no bound up, neither mollified with soundness in it; but wounds, and ointment.5 bruises, and putrifying sores : denetes a state, or condition of any as it is at the East at this time. Abarthing. Ps. lxix. 21. “ And in [>] banel and Kimchi say that the word my thirst, they gave me vinegar to here rendered wounds (530, a verbal drink.” The expression is intensive, from 5 to wound, to mutilate), and denotes that the head was entirely

means an open wound, or a cut from sick. [The whole heart faint. The heart is here put for the whole region which blood flows. I Bruises. 777an of the chest, or stomach. As when hhăbbūrâ. This word means a conthe head is violently pained, there is tusion, or the effect of a blow where also sickness at the heart, or in the sto

the skin is not broken ; such a contumach, and as these are indications of sion as to produce a swelling, and livid entire or total prostration of the frame, appearance; or to make it, as we cay, Bo the expression here denotes the black and blue. Putrifying sores. perfect desolation which had come over

The Hebrew rather means recent, or the nation. f Faint. Sick, feeble, fresh wounds; or rather, perhaps, a without vigour; attended with nausea. running wound, which continues fresh Jer. viii. 18: “ When I would comfort and open; which cannot be cicatrized, myself in my sorrow, my heart is faint

or dried up. The LXX. render it within me.” Lam. i. 22. When the elegantly ridny pleypaivovoa, a swellbody is suffering; when severe punish- ing, or tumefying wound. The exment is inflicted, the effect is to pro- pression is applied usually to inflamduce languor and faintness at the seat mations, as of boils, or to the swelling of life. This is the idea here. Their of the tonsils, &c. They have not punishment had been so severe for their been closed. That is, the lips had not sins, that the heart was languid and been pressed together, to remove the feeble-still keeping up the figure blood from the wound. The meaning drawn from the human body.

is, that nothing had been done towards 6. From the sole of the foot, &c. healing the wound. It was an unOr as we say, 'from head to foot, healed, undressed, all-pervading sore. that is, in every part of the body. The art of medicine, in the East, con: There may be included also the idea sists chiefly in external applications ; that this extended from the lowest to accordingly the prophet's images ia the highest among the people. The this place are all taken from surgery. Chaldee paraphrase is, “ from the low- Sir John Chardin in his note on Prov. est of the people even to the princes— iii. 8,' It shall be health to thy navel, all are contumacious and rebellious.” and marrow to thy bones,' observes, No soundness. bna methőm, from that the comparison is taken from the

plasters, ointments, oils, and frictions, bom thâmăm, to be perfect, sound, which are made use of in the East, in uninjured. There is no part unaffect- most maladies.

“ In Judea," says ed ; no part that is sound. It is all Tavernier, “ they have a certain presmitten and sore. But wounds. The paration of oil, and melted grease, precise shade of difference between which they commonly use for the healthis and the two following words may ing of wounds.” Lowth. Comp. Note not be apparent. Together, they mean on ch. xxxviii. 21. I Neither mollisuch wounds and contusions as are fied with ointment. Neither made inflicted upon man by scourging, or soft, or tender, with ointment. Great beating him. This mode of punish- use was made, in Eastern nations, of ment was common among the Jews; l oil, and various kinds of unguents, in

7 Your country is desolate,o | in your presence, and it is deso. your cities are burned with fire: late, as overthrown by stran. your land, strangers devour it gers.

o Deut. 28. 51.

6 the overthrow of.


medicine. Hence the good Samaritan as the cause of their calamities, is is represented as pouring in oil and given in vs. 10–14. That statement wine into the wounds of the man that will fully account for the many woes fell among thieves (Luke x. 34); and which had come on the nation. the apostles were directed to anoint 7. Your country is desolate. This with oil those who were sick. James is the literal statement of what he had v. 14. Comp. Rev. iii. 18. 1 Oint- just affirmed by a figure. In this there ment. Heb. oil. Tam The oil of

was much art. The figure (ver. 6) olives was used commonly for this pur

was striking. The resemblance bepose.—The whole figure in these two

tween a man severely beaten, and enverses relates to their being punished fectly desolate, was so impressive as

tirely livid and sore, and a land perfor their sing. It is taken from the

appearance of a man who is severely threatened as one of the curses which

to arrest the attention. This had been beaten, or scourged for crime ; whose should attend disobedience. Lev. xxvi wounds had not been dressed; and who was thus a continued bruise, or sore, from his head to his feet. The

And I will scatter you among the heathen,

Aud will draw out a sword after you: cause of this the prophet states after- And your land shall be desolate, wards, vs. 10, seq.

And your cities wagle. With great skill he first reminds them of what they Comp. vs. 31, 32. Deut. xxviii. 49.saw and knew, that they were severely 52. It is not certain, or agreed among punished ;

and then states to them the expositors, to what time the prophet cause of it. Of the calamities to which refers in this passage. Some have the prophet refers, they could have no

supposed that he refers to the time of doubt. They were every where visi- | Ahaz, and to the calamities which ble in all their cities and towns. On

came upon the nation during his reign. these far-spreading desolations, he fixes ? Chron. xxviii. 5–8. But the prothe eye distinctly first. Had he begun bability is, that this refers to the tiine with the statement of their deprarity, of Uzziah. See the Analysis of the they would probably have revolted at chapter. The reign of Uzziah was it. But being presented with a state

indeed prosperous. 2 Chron. xxvi. But ment of their sufferings, which they all it is to be remembered that the land suw and felt, they were prepared for had been ravaged just before under the the statement of the cause. - To find reigns of Joash and Amaziah, by the access to the consciences of sinners, kings of Syria and Israel, 2 Kings xiv. and to convince them of their guilt, it 8-14, 2 Chron. xxiv. xxv. ; and it is is often necessary to remind them first by no means probable that it had reof the calamities in which they are

covered in the time of Uzziah. It was actually involved; and then to search lying under the effect of the former for the cause. This passage, therefore, desolation, and not improbably the has no reference to their moral charac- enemies of the Jews were even then ter. It relates solely to their punish-hovering around it, and possibly still ment. It is often indeed adduced ro

in the very midst of it. The kingdom prove the doctrine of depravity ; but it

was going to decay, and the reign of has no direct reference to it, and it Uzziah gave it only a temporary prosshould not be adduced to prove that perity. I Is desolate. Heb. Is desomen are depraved, or applied as refer-lation.mamu shemâmâ. This is a ring to the moral condition of man. Hebrew mode of emphatic expression, The account of their moral character, denoting that the desolation was su 8 And the daughter of Zion is left as 'a cottage in a vine.

q Lam. 2. 6.


universal that the land might be said the southern part of the city. As Zion to be entirely in ruins. [ Your land. | became the residence of the court, and That is, the fruit, or productions of was the most important part of the the land. Foreigners consume all that city, the name was often used to de. it produces. [ Strangers. On zâ

note the city itself, and is often ap

plied to the whole of Jerusalem. "The rim, from 977 zūr, to be alienated, or phrase “ daughter of Zion” here means estranged, ver. 4. It is applied to

Zion itself, or Jerusalem. The name foreigners, i. e. those who were not daughter is given to it by a personifiIsraelites, Ex. xxx. 33 ; and is often cation in accordance with a common used to denote an enemy, a foe, a bar

custom in Eastern writers, by which barian. Ps. cix. 11:

beautiful towns and cities are likened Let the extortioner catch all that he hath,

to young females. The name mother And let the strangers plunder his labour. is also applied in the same way. PerEzek. xi. 9, xxviii. 10, XXX. 12. Hos. haps the custom arose from the fact vii. 9, viii. 7. The word refers here that when a city was built, towns and particularly to the Syrians. Devout and the first would be called the mo

villages would spring up round itit. Consume its provisions. [ In your presence. This is a circumstance The expression was also employed as

ther-city (hence the word metropolis). that greatly heightens the calamity, that they were compelled to look on

an image of beauty, from a fancied reand witness the desolation, without and a beautiful and well-dressed wo

semblance between a beautiful town being able to prevent it. I As over

Thus Ps. xlv. 13, the phrase thrown by strangers. 9 DOD??? daughter of Tyre, means Tyre itself.

-from 797 hâphākh, to turn, to Ps. cxxxvii. 8, daughter of Babylon,
overturn, to destroy as a city. Gen. i. e. Babylon. Isa. xxxvii. 22, “ The
xix. 21-25. Deut. xxix. 22 It refers virgin, the daughter of Zion.” Jer.
to the changes which an invading foe xlvi. 2. Isa. xxiii. 12. Jer. xiv. 17.
produces in a nation, where every thing Num. xxi. 23, 32. (Heb.) Jud. xi. 26.
is subverted; where cities are destroy- 18 left. 7inis. The word here used
ed, walls are thrown down, and fields denotes left as a part or remnant is
and vineyards laid waste. The land
was as if an invading army had passed in a weakened or divided state.

left--not left entire, or complete, but

As through it, and completely overturned

a cottage. Literally, a shade, or shelter every thing. Lowth proposes to read this,' “ as if destroyed by an inunda- -707 kesúkkâ, a temporary habition;" but without authority. The tation erected in vineyards to give desolation caused by the ravages of shelter to the grape-gatherers, and to foreigners, at a time when the nations those who were appointed to watch were barbarous, was the highest possi- the vineyard to guard it from depreble image of distress, and the prophet dation. Comp. Note Matt. xxi. 33. dwells on it, though with some appear. The following passage from Mr. Jowance of repetition.

ett's “ Christian Researches," describ8. And the daughter of Zion. Zion, ing what he himself saw, will throw or Sion, was the name of one of the light on this verse. « Extensive fields hills on which the city of Jerusalem of ripe melons and cucumbers adorned was built. On this hill formerly stood the sides of the river (the Nile). They the city of the Jcbusites, and when grew in such abundance that the sailDavid took it from them he transferred ors freely helped themselves. Some to it his court, and it was called the guard, however, is placed upon them. city of David, or the holy hill. It was in Occasionally, but at long and desolate

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yard, as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers, as a besieged city. intervals, we may observe a little hut, custom prevails in Hindostan, as tramade of reeds, just capable of contain- vellers inform us, of planting in the ing one man; being in fact little more commencement of the rainy season, inan a fence against a north wind. In in the extensive plains, an abundance these I have observed, sometimes, a of melons, cucumbers, gourds, &c. In poor old man, perhaps lame, protecting the centre of the field is an artificial the property. It exactly illustrates mound with a hut on the top, just large Isa. i. 8.” “ Gardens were often pro- enough to shelter a person from the bably unfenced, and formerly, as now, storm and the heat.” Bib. Dic. A.S.U esculent vegetables were planted in The following cut will convey a clear some fertile spot in the open field. A l idea of such a cottage.


Such a cottage would be designed only, and perfection. These things are par for a temporary habitation. So Jerusa- ticularly mentioned among the luxulem seemed to be left amidst the sur- ries which the Israelites enjoyed in rounding desolation as a temporary Egypt, and for which they sighed when abode, soon to be destroyed. As a they were in the wilderness. Num. xi. lodge. The word lodge here properly 5 : “ We remember—the cucumbers denotes a place for passing the night, and the melons,” &c. The cucumber but it means also a temporary abode. which is produced in Egypt and PalesIt was erected to afford a shelter to tine is large—usually a foot in length, those who guarded the enclosure from soft, tender, sweet, and easy of digeshieves, or from jackals, and small tion (Gesenius), and being of a cool. foxes. “ The jackal,” says Hassel- | ing nature, was peculiarly delicious in quist, “is a species of mustela, which their hot climate. The meaning here is very common in Palestine, especial- is, that Jerusalem seemed to be left as ly during the vintage, and often de- a temporary, lonely habitation, soon to stroys whole vineyards, and gardens be forsaken and destroyed. I As a of cucumbers." T A garden of cucum- besieged city. 777737 737. Lowth. bers. The word cucumbers here pro- “ As a city taken by siege.” Noyes. bably includes every thing of the melon - So is the delivered city. This kind, as well as the cucumber. They translation was first proposed by are in great request in that region Arnoldi of Marburg. It avoids the on account of their cooling qualities, incongruity of comparing a city with and are produced in great abundance

a city, and requires no alteration of

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