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Mean = 52:3 1.84 1. + Madely Wood (Shropshire); 1 Cole- 13. Same mixture as No. 12. brook Vale (Welsh), both No.3, C. (cupola) 14. -8 Calder (Scotch), No. 1, H.; 2 slight flaw lower flange.

wrought iron scrap; air furnace. 2. Calder (Scotch), No. 1, Hot-blast; air 15. -208 Wednesbury Oak, No. 1, C.; furnace. With 28 tons permanent set :41 • 417 Prior Field, No. 2, H.; 209 Lawley, inch.

No. 2, C.; .166 wrought-iron scrap; air 3. Russell's Hall (Staffordshire), No. 2, H.; furnace. cupola; sound fracture.

16. •381 Russell's Hall, No. 2, H.; .476 4. Same as No. 2; good sound fracture. Prior Field, No. 1, H.; 143 wrought-iron 5. ^ Russell's Hall, No. 2, H.; + Madely scrap; air furnace. Wood, No.3, C.; Colebrook Vale, No.3, C.; 17. -857 Ley's Works, No. 2, H.; .143 cupola.

wrought-iron scrap; alr furnace; sound. 6. Same mixture as No. 1; cupola.

18. Same mixture as No. 14; defect in top 7. Ley's Works (Staffordshire), No. 2, H.; flange. air furnace. With 14 tons, set to inch.

19. Unknown. 8. Same mixture as No. 7.

20. Same mixture as No.16;sound casting. 9. Same mixture as No. 7, but from 21. 8 Calder (Scotch), No. 1, H.; :3 cupola; sound casting

wrought-iron scrap; slight defect; air 10. Madely Wood, No. 3, C.; # Cole- furnace. brook Vale, No. 3, C.; air furnace.

22. •75 Calder (Scotch), No. 1, H.; .25 11. Same mixture as No. 10.

wrought-iron scrap; defective; air furnace. 12. + Prior Field (Staffordshire), No. 1, H.; 23. Same mixture as No. 17; air furnace. + Wednesbury Oak, No. 1, C.; Lawley 24. Same mixture as No. 21; sound (Shropshire), No. 2, C.; air furnace.

fracture; air furnace.

results: thus, taking for the values of Mr = .92 ton for the breaking weight, and 3rd of .92, or .3067 for the safe weight, then calculating the former by the special rule and the latter by the ordinary rule, the safe load comes out considerably more than 3rd of the breaking weight; in fact more than ļ in some cases.

For instance : for hollow square beams in (346) the breaking weight by special rule = 2 tons, but by ordinary rule with MI= .92 we obtained 3.119 tons: obviously with MI = .3067, or įrd of .92, we should have 3.119 = 3 1.0397 ton, which is more than half the breaking weight as calculated by the special rule, namely, 2 tons.

Again: with the equal-flanged girder in (350), the calculated breaking weight by the special rule = 6197 lbs., and the safe load by ordinary rule would be 10630 = 3 = 3543 lbs., which again is considerably more than half the breaking weight by special rule and experiment, instead of jrd, as it would have been if both had been calculated by the same rule.

(355.) This reasoning is certainly correct for cast iron with very light strains up to 4th of the breaking weight, as shown in (617); as the load is increased beyond that point, the ordinary rules give results more and more in excess of the true strength until the breaking weight is attained, when, as shown in (353), it becomes more than 50 per cent. On the other hand, the special rules may be taken as perfectly correct for the breaking weight; but as the load is reduced they give results in defect of the true value, the error increasing until with 4th of the breaking weight it becomes - 33 per cent.

It will be evident from this that with } of the breaking weight, which is usually adopted for the safe load, the strength would be intermediate between those given by the two rules. It is therefore not quite correct to assume that the ordinary rules will give the working load with “ Factor” 3.

(356.) In Fig. 81 we have a Diagram in which the combination of the two rules is represented graphically, the results by the special rule being shown by the line A, and by the ordinary rule by the line B, the latter being throughout 50 per cent. in excess of the former. Now, we have seen that the ordinary rule is correct with 4th of the breaking weight, and the special rule with the full breaking weight:-then the line C, which connects those two points, should give the correct load throughout. Thus, at įth the breaking weight, or at D, the line C is exactly intermediate between A and B, and the true strength is an arithmetical mean between the two rules. For example: the hollow square beams in (346) came out 2 tons breaking weight by the special rule, therefore at {th, or with Factor = 4, we have 2 : 4 = 0.5 ton working load. By ordinary rule the breaking weight was 3•119 tons, and for the working load we have 3•119 4 = .78 ton. Then, as by Diagram, the true load for 4th the breaking weight is an arithmetical mean between those results, and becomes (0.5 + 0.78) = 2 = .64 ton. Or we might have done it another way, by dividing the difference between the two rules into two equal parts; adding one of those parts to the calculated strength by the special rule, or, deducting it from that by the ordinary rule, we should obtain the same result. Thus, in our case (.78 – •5) = 2 = .14, and •5 + 14 =:

:.64; or •78 – 14 =•64 as before. In this case, the breaking weight is 25.64 = 3.13 times the safe load, and yet the beam is strained to 4th only of the breaking weight : the effect being to add · 64 •5 = 1.28, or 28 per cent. to the working load.

It seems paradoxical to say that a beam loaded with {th of the breaking load is not strained to th of the breaking weight, but this is due to the peculiar character of the material. Thus, say we have a beam whose breaking weight 100, then when loaded with 25 it seems to be self-evident that it will be strained to th of the breaking weight, but we have shown that to produce that strain we shall require a load of 1.28 4 = 32 instead of 25. See (133) and (504).

(357.) For 3rd the breaking weight the diagram shows that the difference between the two rules must be divided into three equal parts, and the true strength will then be found by adding one of those parts to the special rule, or deducting two of the same from the ordinary rule. Thus, taking the same example as before, we have 2 ; 3 = .6667 ton by special rule, and 3.119 ; 3 = 1.0397 by ordinary rule: the difference = 1.0937 - •6667 = 0.373. Then •373 3 = .1243 is to be added to .6667, and we obtain .6667 + •1243 = .791 ton :—similarly two of those parts, or · 1243 x 2 = 2486, deducted from 1.0397 gives 1.0397 – 2486 = .791, as before; the ratio of which to the breaking weight, as found by special rule and experiment, is 2 = .791 = 2.528 to 1.0 instead of 3 to 1, as by the ordinary method of procedure. The effect of this is to add · 791 • • 6667 =1.1865, or 18.65 per cent to the working load :-taking a beam whose breaking weight = 100 tons, then, when strained to krd, the load will not be 100 = 3 33:33 tons, but 118.65 • 3 = 39.55 tons.

(358.) The application of these principles to practice is very simple; for instance, the breaking weight of the girder, Fig. 79, was found in (351) to be 40.5 tons, as calculated by the special rule; then if we adopt 4 as the factor of safety, the working load would be 40.5 = 4 = 10.12 tons by the ordinary course, but by (356) we obtain 10.12 x 1.28 = 13 tons nearly. If we adopt 3 as the Factor, we have 40.5; 3 = 13.5 tons in the usual way, which by (357) becomes 13.5 x 1.1865 = 16 tons, &c.

(359.) Ratio of Square to Round Bars.”—It is shown in (519) that the theoretical ratio of the strength of square to round bars of the same dimensions is 1.7 to 1.0; but this is strictly true for those cases only where the tensile and compressive strengths and the corresponding extensions and compressions are equal to one another, and this, as we have seen, is not realised perfectly with any materials, except with very light strains (617). Under these circumstances, experiment alone can determine the real ratio for the Breaking weight, &c.

(360.) For cast iron we have the experiments of Mr. W. H. Barlow, which were made with direct reference to this question : the results are given in Table 69. It will be observed that the round bars were not made of the same linear dimensions as the square ones, but rather of the same sectional area. The object of this was possibly to avoid the complications due to the size of the casting, which, as shown by (932), is very influential on the transverse strength of cast iron. Thus, a bar 2 inches square would have the same area as another 24 inches diameter, and presumably there would be equality of strength so far as that is affected by the size of casting.

In the first set of experiments the bars were about one square inch in area : the mean value of Mr from five square bars = 2530 lbs., and from five round ones 1697 lbs., the ratio being 2530 - 1697 = 1.491 to 1.0. In the second set the bars were about 4 square inches in area : four square bars gave My 2173 lbs., and nine round ones = 1399 lbs., the ratio being 2173 ; 1399 = 1.553 to 1.0.

Table 69.–Of EXPERIMENTS on the RELATIVE TRANSVERSE STRENGTH

of SQUARE and Round Bars of Cast Iron, all 5 feet long.

[blocks in formation]

in. 1:01 1:01 1:01

1:02 1:00

in.
lbs.

in.

lbs. 1:02

505 2427 1:145 519 1729 1.025 505 2415 1:113 505

1831 1.02

561 2696 1.115 449 1620 1.025 533 2498 1:118 449 1606 1.02

533 2613 1.120 449 1598 Mean' .. 2530

Mean.. 1697 2530 - 1697 = 1.491 to 1; Ratio of square to round.

Bars about Four Square Inches Area.

1.985 1.990 2.01 2.00

2.020 3303 2075

2.52 4283 1338 2:015 3303 2071 2.52 4283 1338 2:01 3443 2120 2.52 4003 1251 1.99 3863 2427 2.51 4003 1266

2.2 3068 1441 2.2

2988 1403 2.19 3388 1613 2:20 3228 1516

2:19 2988 1422 Mean .. 2173

Mean.. 1399 2173 = 1399 = 1.553 to 1; Ratio of square to round.

(361.) The mean ratio from the whole of these experiments, 23 in number, is 1.522 to 1:0, or nearly 1.5 to 1.0, instead of 1.7 to 1.0, as due by theory. This may be taken, therefore, as the real ratio for cast iron.

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