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OR THE

ART OF REASONING SIMPLIFIED.

IN THIS WORK REMARKS ARE MADE ON

Intuitive and Deductive Evidence;

DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN

REASONING BY

INDUCTION, ANALOGY, AND SYLLOGISM,

ILLUSTRATED; AND

Ancient and Modern Modes of Argumentation Contrasted,

AND THE

General Process of Reasoning, and its susceptibility of Improvement from Art stated.

IT ALSO CONTAINS THE DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN

Metaphysical, Moral, and Mathematical Demonstration, the Method of
Detecting Fallacies or Deviations from Correct Reasoning,
and the Rules of Interpretation, Controversy, and Method.

CLOSING WITH

EXERCISES

On a variety of interesting topics, to guide and develope the reasoning powers of the
youthful inquirer after truth.

BY S. E. PARKER,

AUTHOR OF THE ARTICLES PROSODY, QUANTITY, AND VERSIFICATION IN
DR. REES' CYCLOPEDIA.

BAGSTER & MARSHALL,

LONDON AND PHILADELPHIA.

1838.

STATIONERS' HALL.

PREFACE.

THAT man is an intelligent creature, or a being capable of receiving intelligence to an indefinite extent, is not only a well known and established fact, but also one which involves the most important consequences. This single attribute of human existence not only elevates man in the scale of being, constitutes him capable of unlimited improvement, and of communicating it to others, but at the same time, as to the discharge of his duties, grants him the privilege to increase not only his respectability, but also his usefulness to the society with which he is connected. Though, on the one hand, it would be impossible duly to appreciate a gift so inestimable, yet on the other, be it remembered, that there is nothing given to man, there is no talent with which he is endued, but what requires cultivation. Not only our corporeal but also our mental faculties, unless they have salutary exercise, are liable to decline. The body for want of it is liable to wane into the most lamentable state of langor and imbecility; and the mind, for reasons perfectly analogous, through the want of exercising the means, with which we are so abundantly privileged, becomes inert and capable of being not only deceived by others, but also irrevocably injured through our own neglect. It cannot for a single moment be doubted, that man, as a sentient, intelligent being, stands as a candidate for happiness. All men seek it, in one way or the other: a single exception would be a parodox in the history of humanity. According to the extent precisely of our mental vision, not only happiness on the one hand, is before us, until it prospectively rise into all the excellency of a prize whose value is ineffable, but also on the other, the risk of losing that at which all, in one way or the other aim, is felt with a vigilant sensibility that constitutes the best guarantee of success. Attention is an important act in the mind of man; when that is gained much is done, yet not all. Though the prospect of success, from attention, immediately rise above zero in the scale of expectancy, yet more is wanting. An object the most desirable may be proposed, yet information of the means of its attainment may be either wanting, or we are not possessed of the method of so connecting the several parts of that information together, as from thence to deduce a conclusion such, as shall infallibly lead to the attainment of the object desired. Hence man, though capable of intelligence, is fallible: but especially is that man

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