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"An Indirect or Negative Demonstration is that which shows a proposition to be true, by proving that some absurdity would necessarily follow if the proposition advanced were false.

This is sometimes called Reductio ad Absurdum; because it shows the absurdity and falsehood of all suppositions contrary to that contained in the proposition.

8 A Problem is a proposition or a question proposed, which requires a solution.

As, to draw one line perpendicular to another; or to divide a line into two equal parts.

9. Solution of a problem is the resolution or answer given to it.

A Numerical or Numeral solution, is the answer given in numbers. A Geometrical solution, is the answer given by the principles of Geometry. And a Mechanical solution, is one obtained by trials.

10. A Lemma is a preparatory proposition, laid down in order to shorten the demonstration of the main proposition which follows it.

11. A Corollary, or Consectary, is a consequence drawn immediately from some proposition or other premises.

12. A Scholium is a remark or observation made on some foregoing proposition or premises.

13. An Hypothesis is a supposition assumed to be true, in order to argue from, or to found upon it the reasoning and demonstration of some proposition.

14. A Postulate, or Petition, is something required to be done, which is so easy and evident that no person will hesitate to allow it.

15. Method is the art of disposing a train of arguments in a proper order, to investigate the truth or falsity of a proposition, or to demonstrate it to others when it has been found out. This is either Analytical or Synthetical.

16. Analysis, or the Analytic method, is the art or mode of finding out the truth of a proposition, by first supposing the thing to be done, and then reasoning step by step, till we arrive at some known truth. This is also called the Method of Invention, or Resolution; and is that which is commonly used in Algebra.

17. Synthesis, or the Synthetic Method, is the searching out truth, by first laying down simple principles, and pursuing the consequences flowing from them till we arrive at the conclusion. This is also called the Method of Composition; and is that which is commonly used in Geometry. 18. The sign (or two parallel lines), is the sign of equality; thus, A B, implies that the quantity denoted by A is equal to the quantity denoted by B, and is read A equal to B.


19. To signify that A is greater than B, the expression A7B is used. And to signify that A is less than B, the expression AB is used.

20. The sign of Addition is an erect cross; thus A+B implies the sum o A and B, and is called A plus B.

21. Subtraction is denoted by a single line; as A-B, which is read A minus B; A—B represents their difference, or the part of A remaining, when a part equal to B has been taken away from it.

In like manner, A-B+C, or A+C-B, signifies that A and C are to be added together, and that B is to be subtracted from their sum. 22. Multiplication is expressed by an oblique cross, by a point, or by simple apposition: thus, A× B, A. B, or AB, signifies that the quantity denoted by A is to be multiplied by the quantity denoted by B. The expression AB should not be employed when there is any danger of confounding it with that of the line AB, the distance between the points A and B. The multiplication of numbers cannot be expressed by simple apposition.

23. When any quantities are enclosed in a parenthesis, or have a line drawn over them, they are considered as one quantity with respect to other symbols: thus, the expression AX(B+C-D), or A× B+C—D, represents the product of A by the quantity B+C-D. In like manner, (A+B)×(A—B+C), indicates the product of A+B by the quantity


24. The Co-efficient of a quantity is the number prefixed to it: thus, 2AB signifies that the line AB is to be taken 2 times; AB signifies the half of the line AB.

25. Division, or the ratio of one quantity to another, is usually denoted by placing one of the two quantities over the other, in the form of a fraction.


thus, signifies the ratio or quotient arising from the division of the quantity A by B. In fact, this is division indicated.

26. The Square, Cube, &c. of a quantity, are expressed by placing a small figure at the right hand of the quantity: thus, the square of the line AB is denoted by AB2, the cube of the line AB is designated by AB3; and so on.

27. The Roots of quantities are expressed by means of the radical sign √, with the proper index annexed; thus, the square root of 5 is indicated √5; √(A× B) means the square root of the product of A and B, or the mean proportional between them. The roots of quantities are sometimes expressed by means of fractional indices: thus, the cube root of AXBXC may be expressed by VAXBXC, or (AxBXC), and

so on.

28. Numbers in a parenthesis, such as (15. 1.), refers back to the number of the proposition and the Book in which it has been announced or demonstrated. The expression (15. 1.) denotes the fifteenth proposition, first book, and so on. In like manner, (3. Ax.) designates the third axiom; (2. Post.) the second postulate; (Def. 3.) the third definition, and so on

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29. The word, therefore, or hence, frequently occurs. To express either of these words, the sign .. is generally used.

30. If the quotients of two pairs of numbers, or quantities, are equal, the

quantities are said to be proportional: thus, if



= ; then, A is to B Di as C to D. And the abbreviations of the proportion is, A: B:: C: D; it is sometimes written A: B⇒C: D.


1. "A POINT is that which has position, but not magnitude"." (See Notes.)

2. A line is length without breadth.

"COROLLARY. The extremities of a line are points; and the intersections "of one line with another are also points."

3. “If two lines are such that they cannot coincide in any two points, with"out coinciding altogether, each of them is called a straight line." "COR. Hence two straight lines cannot inclose a space. Neither can two straight lines have a common segment; that is, they cannot coincide "in part, without coinciding altogether."


4. A superficies is that which has only length and breadth.

'COR. The extremities of a superficies are lines; and the intersections of one superficies with another are also lines."


5. A plane superficies is that in which any two points being taken, the straight line between them lies wholly in that superficies.

6. A plane rectilineal angle is the inclination of two straight lines to one another, which meet together, but are not in the same straight line.



N. B. 'When several angles are at one point B, any one of them is expressed by three letters, of which the letter that is at the vertex of the angle, that is, at the point in which the straight lines that contain the angle meet one another, is put between the other two letters, and one of these two is somewhere upon one of those straight lines, and the other upon the other line: Thus the angle which is contained by the straight lines, AB CB, is named the angle ABC, or CBA; that which is contained by AB,

The definitions marked with inverted commas are different from those of Euclid

BD, is named the angle ABD, or DBA; and that which is contained by 'BD, CB, is called the angle DBC, or CBD; but, if there be only one an 'gle at a point, it may be expressed by a letter placed at that point; as the angle at E.'

7 When a straight line standing on another straight line makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of the angles is called a right angle; and the straight line which stands on the other, is called a perpendicu lar to it.

8. An obtuse angle is that which is greater than a right angle.

9. An acute angle is that which is less than a right angle.

10. A figure is that which is enclosed by one or more boundaries.-The word area denotes the quantity of space contained in a figure, without any reference to the nature of the line or lines which bound it.

11. A circle is a plane figure contained by one line, which is called the circumference, and is such that all straight lines drawn from a certain point within the figure to the circumference, are equal to one another and are called radii.

12. And this point is called the centre of the circle.

13. A diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn through the centre, and terminated both ways by the circumference.

14. A semicircle is the figure contained by a diameter and the part of the circumference cut off by the diameter

15. Rectilineal figures are those which are contained by straight lines

16. Trilateral figures, or triangles, by three straight lines.

17. Quadrilateral, by four straight lines.

18. Multilateral figures, or polygons, by more than four straight lines.

19. Of three sided figures, an equilateral triangle is that which has three equal sides.

20. An isosceles triangle is that which has only two sides equal.


21. A scalene triangle is that which has three unequal sides.
22 A right angled triangle is that which has a right angle.
23. An obtuse angled triangle is that which has an obtuse angle.

24 An acute angled triangle is that which has three acute angles.

25 Of four sided figures, a square is that which has all its sides equal and all its angles right angles.

26. An oblong is that which has all its angles right angles, but has not al its sides equal.

27. A rhombus is that which has all its sides equal, but its angles are not right angles.


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