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“ but as spittle. The same is to be faid, “if in washing the mouth a drop of water « be swallowed, provided it be against our " will.

“ Fourth, in the action. If any requi« site be wanting, it is no facrament; for « example, if it be celebrated out of holy

ground, or upon an altar not consecra“ ted, or not covered with three napkiņs : “ if there be no wax candles; if it be not “ celebrated between day-break and noon; " if the celebrator have not said mattins “ with lauds ; if he omit any of the fa“ cerdotal robes ; if these robes and the “ napkins be not blessed by a bishop; if " there be no clerk present to serve, or « one who ought not to serve, a woman, « for example; if there be no chalice, the “ cup of which is gold, or silver, or “ pewter; if the vestment be not of clean “ linen adorned with silk in the middle, “ and blessed by a bishop; if the priest “ celebrate with his head covered; if there “ be no miffal present, tho' he have it by “ heart.

“ If a gnat or fpider fall into the cup “ after consecration, the priest must fwal“ low it with the blood, if he can: other

“ wise,

“ wise, lec him take it out, wash it with “ wine, burn it, and throw it with the " washings into holy ground. If poison “ fall into the cup, the blood must be “ poured on tow or on a linen cloth, re“ main till it be dry, then be burnt, and " the ashes be thrown upon holy ground. “ If the host be poisoned, it must be kept “ in a tabernacle till it be corrupted. :

" If the blood freeze in winter, put “ warm cloths about the cup: if that be “ not sufficient, put the cup in boiling


“ If any of Christ's blood fall on the “ ground by negligence, it must be licked “ up with the tongue, and the place fcra“ ped: the scrapings must be burnt, and " the ashes buried in holy ground.

.“ If the priest vomit the eucharist, and “ the species appear entire, it must be “ licked up most reverently. If a nausea “ prevent that to be done, it must be kept “ till it be corrupted. If the fpecies do “ not appear, let the vomit be burnt, and “ the ashes thrown upon holy ground.”

As the foregoing article has beyond intention swelled to an enormous fize, I shall add but one other article, which shall be


extremely short; and that is the creed of * Athanafius. It is a heap of unintelligible jargon; and yet we are appointed to believe every article of ,it, under the pain of eternal damnation. As it enjoins belief of fank contradictions, it seems purposely calculated to be a test of slavish submission to the tyrannical authority of a proud and arrogant priest *, : :

· * Bishop Burnet, seems doubtful whether this creed was composed by Athanafius. His doubts, in my apprehension, are scarce sufficient to weigh against the unanimous, opinion of the Christian church. .


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IN the foregoing chapter are traced the that state. From these premises, may it not with certainty be inferred to be the will of God, that men should obey the dictates of the moral sense in fulfilling every duty of justice and benevolence? There moral duties, it would appear, are our chief business in this life; being enforced not only by a moral but by a religious principle.

gradual advances of the sense of Deity, from its imperfect state among favages to its maturity among enlightened nations ; displaying to us one great being, to whom all other beings owe their existence, who made the world, and who governs it by perfect laws. And our perception of Deity, arising from that sense, is fortified by an intuitive proposition, that there necessarily must exist fome being who had no beginning. Considering the Deity as the author of our existence, we owe him gratitude ; considering him as governor of the world, we owe him obedience : and upon these duties is founded the obligation we are under to worship him. . Further, God made man for fociety, and implanted in his nature the moral sense to direct his conduct in VOL, IV. 0 0


Morality, as laid down in a former + sketch, consists of two great branches, the moral sense which unfolds the duty we owe to our fellow-creatures, and an active moral principle which prompts us to perform that duty. Natural religion consists also of two great branches, the sense of Deity which unfolds our duty to our Maker, and the active principle of devotion which prompts us to perform our duty to him. The universality of the sense of Deity proves it to be innate ; the same reason proves the principle of devotion to be innate; for all men agree in worshipping superior beings, whatever difference there may be in the mode of worship.

Both branches of the duty we owe to God, that of worshipping him, and that of obeying his will with respect to our


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