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If Mr. Fuller, and his admirers, Virgin Mary ought not to be still think their ground tenable, called the mother of God; the this work certainly calls for their Monothelites, for teaching there most serious attention, as, on was but one will in Jesus Christ. Mr. F's own principle, it tends Mr. W. observes (p. 4-1). “ Had to set aside his conclusion in fa. it not been for the support your of the truth of Calvinism, trinitarianism derived from the pot indeed by a self-righteous patronage of successive Empeparade of the superior sanctity of rors, and its advancing under the Unitarians, but by the exhibition banners of the victorious armies of facts which cannot be gain. of Justinian, by which the sup. sayed, concerning the unholy porters of arianism were crushed, temper and wicked conduct of it is possible Arius might have Calvin.
been the reputed saint, and Atha. Chap. 1. Consists of prelimi. nasius the reputed heretic, to nary observations; and is divided this day.” Ile pays a just triinto four sections. Sect. 1. Con- bute of respect to modern livia tains important remarks on per- tarians, who are still charged secators and persecution. Per- with heresy by many of the secution is described as the off. reputed orthodox, and shows spring of superstition and bigotry. that some of the greatest scholars, The inconsistency of a persecut. most distinguished philosophers, ing spirit with genuine christianity and profound theologians, our is stated. The crooked ways of own country has produced, must persecutors, and the mischievons be ranked with that denomination tendency of their conduct, are of Christians. Sect. 3. Contains pointedly brought into view. a statement of the circumstances Sect. 2. Shews that some of the which render the obtaining of a wisest and best of men have been full and impartial account of Sercharged with heretical pravity. vetus, and many other reputed To prove this, Mr. W. refers to heretics, extremely difficult. The the Euchites among the Greeks, remarks in this section are calcu. the Waldenses among the Latins, lated to make the reader cautious the Reformers, who were called how he gives credit to the reports heretics by the Papists, and the of the reputed orthodox concern. Puritans who were charged with ing those who differ from them. heresy by the Episcopalians; to In sect. 4. Mr. W. glances at the Paul of Samosata, Pelagius, state of the christian workil down Wickliff, Huss and Jerome or to the period of Servetus's suffer. Prague, who were all persecuted ings. A short view is given of as heretics. To show on what christianity as taught by Jesus trivial grounds many were charg- and his Apostles : a sketch of its ed with heresy formerly, he re. leading corruptions follows, and fers to the Semipelagians, who of their consolidation in one un. bore the charge, for maintaining wieldy mass of superstition and that man by the mere force of iniquity, during the dark ness of mature might desire to do good; the middle ages. The reformaNestorius, for asserting that the tion is then noticed, and its na.
ture and value duly estimated. have his bowels torn out of This chapter, though preliminary, him! Another, (Aecolampadins) forms an important part of the thought it necessary the proteswork.
tant divines should make it their Chap. 2. Contains the Life of business to cry him down! and Servetus, to the time of his arrest Melancthon, the mild Melancat Vienne in Dauphine. It is thon wrote to the popish senate divided into seven sections. The of Venice, urging them to use first relates to his minority. Mr. the utmost of their endeavours to W. has attempted to show how his prevent the circulation of his character might be formed; his books in Italy ! In the following conjectures on this difficult point sections, we have as full an ac. are summed up in the following count of Servetus as can well be passage, (p. 96), which reminded given, during his residence at us of many interesting passages Paris, Charlieu, Lyons, and in Mr. Godvin's Life of Chaucer. Vienne. His literary attain.
“ The face of nature might, by the ments, academical honours, pro. magnificent objects it exhibited, inspire fessional engagements, controver. the love of liberty in so ardent a mind, sies on medicine and thcology, are and awaken grand ideas. The voice of paternal instruction might foster the briefly related ; the whole interimpressions nature made, and direct his spersed with important reflecthoughts into the channel in which they tions. flowed. If he met with no written ac- Chan On the persecution count of the Waldenses, traditions concerning them were likely to reach his of Servetus, contains nine secear, and excite sympathy and congenial tions. In the first, Calvin is thoughts. Conversation with Jews or shewn, to his indelible disgrace, Mahommedans might convince him to have been guilty of betraying more fully of the divine unity, and an î attention to the scriptures mature his ,
is his protestant brother, because judgment and establish him in his opi. he differed from him in opinion, nions."
into the hands of papists, and of These conjectures Mr. Wright instigating them to persecute and founds on the circumstances of destroy him! Mr. W. has entered the country where Servetys was particularly on the evidence of born and educated. Sect. 2 and this fact. Irie's Letters to Arney, 3. Contain an account of Ser. believed to have been dictated by vetus during his stay in Germany; Calvin, are given at length. of his first publications about the Sect. 2. Narrates the proceedings Trinity; and the alarm they cre- against Servetus at Vienne, where ated among the protestants. It he narrowly escaped being burned scems the young reformer, fear. alive, and was really burnt in less of danger, in the first pro, effigy with his books, and of his ductions of his pen, dared to at. flight to Geneva, where Calvin tack the leading corruptions of caused him to be arrested, conchristian doctrine. This brought trary to the laws of the Republic upon him a torrent of abuse and to Calvin's own sabbatarian from the great protestant leaders, notions on a Sunday, and after he One of them, (Bucer) declared was stripped of the property he from the pulpit that Servetus had with him, committed to ought to be cut in pieces, and to prison. The trial of Servetus at
Genera, which is circumstantially Servetus, and the sentence by related in sect. 3. exhibits a which he was condemned to be shocking scene of injustice and burnt alive, with suitable remarks cruelty, in which Calvin appears, on each: a process and sentence throughout, the principal actor, which may vie with those of In sect. 4. we find the articles which the Popish bishops of the which Calvin selected from the same age were the execrable au. books of Servetus with a view to thors. Servetus's dying speech criminate him, and the Dr.'s forms another section. This aranswer. " In drawing up these ticle is the more important as it articles it is easy to perceive,” as exhibits the doctrines in defence Mr. W. justly observes, (p. 192), of which he became a martyre. " Calvin rather acts the part of a The last sect. describes “ the last partial reporter, who is anxious act of this tragedy, which was to criminate, than of a faithful performed at Geneva, on the copiest who states fairly what 27th of October, 1553.” “On another has written.” Servetus's this day," says the author, (p. petitions to his judges form the 256.) “ with many brutal cir. next section. Reduced to po- cumstances, the sentence was ex. Ferty and misery, languishing out ecuted, to the encouragement of his days and nights amidst the Catholic cruelty, to the scandal damps and gloom of a prison, of the reformation, to the offence infested with vermin, in a Pro- of all just men, and to the ever. testant city, he petitions for re. lasting disgrace of those ecclesias. lief, but, as this writer says, (p. tical tyrants, who were the chief 212) “his petitions were as fruit. instruments of such a wild and less as if howled out to the winds: barbarous deed.” his cruel persecutors were not to In chap. 4. Mr. W. enters the be moved by any considerations lists with those who endeavour to of either justice or compassion; palliate orthodox cruelty, and bigotry had steeled their hearts.” proves that persecution, by what. In the next seet. Mr. W. gives the ever party practised, is utterly correspondence between Calvin, indefensible. Calvin and his as. the magistrates of Geneva, and sociates, to justify the murder of other reformed ministers and ma. Servetus, attempted to prove that gistrates, on the case of Servetus; heretics ought to be put to death which shows how totally ignorant by the civil magistrate! This murof the nature of Christian liberty, derous doctrine Mr. W. combats and destitute of Christian charity by arguments which cannot be rethe leading Protestants at that sisted, where the voice of truth time were. Mr. W. leaves the is regarded, and concludes, (p. Teader to make his own remarks 273,) that “ All pretensions to on this correspondence, after ask, dominion over conscience is treaing one question. " If the spirit son against society, and against it discovers be the spirit of reformation, what is the spirit of Popery?"The next sect. con. The dying spech of Servetus, as tains the process drawn up against tyrdom, each separately.
also an oration, by Mr W. on his narJesus Christ, the only person ap- law and gospel, and of justifica. pointed to exercise authority over tion; was singular in his ideas of the consciences of men. When the Jewish prophecies, and showever civil magistrates assume do. ed himself a zealous friend to minion over the faith of others, Christian liberty. and punish them for their sup. In chap. 7. Mr. W. vindicates posed heretical opinions, they are Servetus, on the ground of na. guilty of a vile usurpation. To tural right, of reason and scrip. invest civil governors with autho. ture, of antiquity ; by the ex. rity to interfere with the consci. ample of Caivin and his associates, ence, and punish men for their by the effects produced by his religious sentiments, is to con. writings and sufferings, by the stitute them odious tyrants, and countenance his leading doctrines has a tendency to destroy all li. have received from some of the berty.” Mr. W. goes on, in the greatest men since that time ; and following sections, to show that shows that his failings did not persecution is irrational, anti- arise from a vicious principle. christian, highly injurious to the The eighth and last chap. is an church, and baneful to Christia- oration on Servetus, in which the nity ; that it has been disapprov. leading circumstances in the pre, ed by wise and moderate men, in ceding history are recapitulated, all ages, and that persecutors are and placed before the reader in a the real heretics, and schismatics, light dat must excite an abhor. This division of the work is writ- rence of bigotry, and lead him ten with the spirit of Milton, the to cherish the principles of Chris. strength of Locke, and the inge. tian liberty. nuity of Robinson.
A variety of notes are added, Chap. 5. Contains an account in which the cause of religious of the writings of Servetus, the liberty is ploaded with firmness chief of which were against the and zcal, and many important Trinity and other reputed ortho. subjects are brought forward, and dox notions. His Preface to the bricily considered Mr. W.'s design Bible and specimens of his Notes in the notes seems to be to give his are here inserted. What he wrote work a more direct bearing against relative to the circulation of the bigotry and intolerance in all the blood is given at length. The forms they assume: consequently passage in his edition of Ptolemy's he pleads for Catholic emancipaGeography, which Calvin quoted tion, the abolition of the test laws, as the ground of a criminal charge of spiritual courts, &c. and gives against him, is fully considered; the due meel of praise to those and a letter to one of the minis. who have distinguished themselves ters at Geneva, inserted as a spe- as the friends of Christian libereimen of his epistolary writings. ality, among whom Mr. Wright
From the summary of the Dr.'s distinguishes the celebrated Mr. opinions, contained in chap. 6. Penn. it appears he was a Unitarian Having now given a faithful Baptist, denied the popular no. analysis of this interesting work, tion of original sin, differed ma- we shall beg Icave to recommend terially from the reputed ortho- it to the notice of our readers. It dox reformers in his views of the is the only complete life-that we know of- of the great, much- a growing conviction prevail ainjured Unitarian Reformer. It mong the Dissenters, of the ne. assumes the form of an Apology, cessity of academical learning to not because it is premeditated and their ministers. Learning is, we uniform panegyric, but because are persuaded, favourable to truth, the memory of Servetus is so en. as it certainly is to candour. And Teloped in calumny, that an im- as the public mind is becoming partial biographer in scarching for daily more enlightened, the li. the truth of facts relating to him, beral education of Christian must necessarily appear as his ad. teachers is absolutely necessary to vocate, or rather the adversary of give their instructions a becoming his slanderers. The work is, pero share of dignity, and to make haps, diffuse-- the real biogra- them ellicacious. A learned mi. phy of Servetus might have been nistry would redeem the Dissen. compressed into a narrower com- ters from the contempt io to which pass—but no one will consider they seem to have fallen in the this as a blemish, who has gone eye of scholars, and produce in farther in the book than the table the end a greater degree of union of contents. The excellent essays and cordiality among themselves. Gif we may so call them) which Ignorance and vulgarity are the accompany the life of Servetus, rank soil in which grow the bane. cannot be any where out of place: ful weeds of prejudice and bithough no place could be fitter for gotry. the exposure of persecution, and The discourse before us is ho. the recommendation of charity, nourable to the author's ingenuity than a volume devoted to the and liberality. It will, we hope, character and memory of a Uni. be eminently useful to his own de tarian martyr.---The Apology nomination, the Independants, deserves a place in every library, into whose hands it is most likely and every intelligent family, and to fall; though there is no class will, we doubt not, be patronised of Dissenters who may not read by such as wish to convince the it with pleasure and profit. We world by a practical proof of the wish, at the same time, Mr. evil and execrable nature of bi. Cracknell had not adopted the gotry and intolerance.
pompous style of calling our W. A. academies colleges; our ministers,
priests and ambassadors; our Art. IV.- Tke Utility of Acade. pulpits, sacred desks; and the
mical Institutions to the Church like expressions, which are un. of Christ. A Sermon preached suitable to Christian siinplicity at Horton Chapel, June 26, and modesty, and seem to be an 1806, before the Supporters of affectation of hierarchical digni. the Horton College, at their An- ties, or as our fathers would have niversary. By Ben. CRACK- called them, vanities. NELL, A.M. ininister of Wey. mouth chapel. 8vo. pp. 37.
" Art. V.- A Defence of the Esta. Longman & Co. Is. 6d.
blished Protestant Faith. A Weare truly happy to perceive Scrmon preached in the Pariske