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ing, was well-pleased with the answer Protogenes had left for him, by which he was convinced that "fame had done him justice, and so correcting the line again, perhaps by making it more precisely elegant, he took his leave. The story thus may be reconciled to common sense, which, as it has been generally received, could never be understood but as 'a ridiculous tale.

Let us add to this, that there is scarce an Egyptian, Greek, or Roman deity, but hath 'a twisted serpent, twisted cornucopia, or some symbol winding in this manner to accompany

it. The two small heads (over the busto of the P.xix Hercules, fig. 4, in plate 1.) of the goddess Isis,

one crowned with a globe between two horns, the other with a lily *, are of this kind. Harpocrates, the god of silence, is still more remarkably so, having a large twisted horn growing out of the side of his head, one cornucopia in his hand, and another at his feet, with his finger placed on his lips, indicating secrecy: (see Montfaucon's antiquities) and it is as remarkable, that the

* The leaves of this flower as they grow, twist themselves various ways in a pleasing manner, as may be better seen by figure 43, in plate 1, but there is a curious little flower called the Autumn Syclamen, fig. 47, the leaves of which elegantly twist one way only.

deities of barbarous and gothic nations never had, nor have to this day, any of these elegant forms belonging to them. How absolutely void of these turns are the pagods of China, and what a mean taste runs through most of their attempts in painting and sculpture, notwithstanding they finish with such excessive neatness; the whole nation in these matters seem to have but one eye: this mischief naturally follows from the prejudic esthey imbibe by copying one another's works, which the ancients seem seldom to have done.

Upon the whole, it is evident, that the ancients studied these arts very differently from the moderns: Lamozzo seems to be partly aware of this, by what he says in the division of his work, page 9, “ There is a two-folde proceeding in all artes and sciences : the one is called the order of nature, and the other of teaching. Na- P. xx ture proceedeth ordinarily, beginning with the unperfect, as the particulars, and ending with the perfect, as the universals. Now if in searching out the nature of things, our understanding shall proceede after that order, by which they are brought forth by nature, doubtlesse it will be the most absolute and ready method that can bee imagined. For we beginne to know things by their first and immediate principles, &c. and

this is not only mine opinion but Aristotles also, yet, mistaking Aristotle's meaning, and absolutely deviating from his advice, he afterwards says, “all which if we could comprehend within our understanding, we should be most wise; but it is impossible," and after having given some dark reasons why he thinks so, he tells you " he resolves to follow the order of teaching," which all the writers on painting have in like manner since done.

Had I observed the foregoing passage, before I undertook this essay, it probably would have put me to a stand, and deterred me from venturing upon what Lamozzo calls an impossible task: but observing in the forementioned controversies that the torrent generally ran against me; and that several of my opponents had turned my arguments into ridicule, yet were daily availing themselves of their use, and venting them even to my face as their own; I began

to wish the publication of something on this P. xxi subject; and accordingly applied myself to

several of my friends, whom I thought capable of taking up the pen for me, offering to furnish them with materials by word of mouth: but finding this method not practicable, from the difficulty of one man's expressing the ideas of another, especially on a subject which he was either unacquainted with, or was new in its kind, I was therefore reduced to an attempt of finding such words as would best answer my own ideas, being now too far engaged to drop the design. Hereupon, having digested the matter as well as I could, and thrown it into the form of a book, I submitted it to the judgment of such friends whose sincerity and abilities I could best rely on, determining on their approbation or dislike to publish or destroy it: but their favourable opinion of the manuscript being publicly known, it gave such a credit to the undertaking, as soon changed the countenances of those, who had a better opinion of my pencil, than my pen, and turned their sneers into expectation : especially when the same friends had kindly made me an offer of conducting the work through the press. And here I must acknowledge myself particularly indebted to one gentleman for his corrections and amendment of at least a third part of the wording. Through his absence and avocations, several sheets went to the press without any assistance, and the rest had the occasional inspection of one or two other friends. If any inaccuracies shallbe found in the writing, I shall readily acknowledge them P.xxii all my own, and am, I confess, under no great concern about them, provided the matter in

general may be found useful and answerable in the application of it to truth and nature; in which material points, if the reader shall think fit to rectify any mistakes, it will give me a sensible pleasure, and be doing great honour to the work.


For the more easy finding the figures referred to in the two prints belonging to this work, the references are for the most part placed at the bottom of the page. Fig. T. p. 1. signifies the top of plate 1. L. p. 1. the left side. R. p. 1. the right side. B. p. 1. the bottom. And where a figure is referred to in the middle of either print, it is only marked thus, fig. p. 1. or fig. p. 2.

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