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lines of the face alter from infancy upwards, and spe. cify the different ages. We are now to pay most attention to simplicity, as the difference of ages we are about to speak of, turn chiefly upon the use made of this principle in a greater or less degree, in the form of the lines.
From infancy till the body has done growing, the contents both of the body and the face, and every part of their surface, are daily changing into more variety, till they obtain a certain medium (see page 78 on proportion) from which medium, as fig. *, if we return back to infancy, we shall see the variety decreasing, till by degrees that simplicity in the form, which gave variety its due limits, deviates into sameness; so that all the parts of the face may be circumscribed in several circles, as fig. f.
But there is another very extraordinary circumstance, (perhaps never taken notice of before in this light) which nature hath given us to distinguish oneage from another by; which is, that though every feature grows larger and longer, till the whole person has done growing, the sight of the eyestill keepsits original size; I mean the pupil, with its iris or ring; for the diameter of this circle continues still the same, and so becomes a fixed measure by which we, as it were, insensibly compare the daily perceived growings of the other parts of the face, and thereby determine a young person's age. You may sometimes find this part of the eye in a new-born infant full as large as in a P. 133
man of six foot; nay sometimes larger, see fig. *, and t.
In infancy the faces of boys and girls have no visible difference $, but as they grow up the features of the boy get the start, and grow faster in proportion to the ring of the eye, than those of the girl, which shews the distinction of the sex in the face. Boys who have larger features than ordinary, in proportion to the rings of their eyes, are what we call manly-featured children; as those who have the contrary, look more childish and younger than they really are. It is this proportion of the features with the eyes, that makes women, when they are dressed in men's clothes, look so young and boyish : but as nature doth not always stick close to these particulars, we may be mistaken both in sexes and ages.
By these obvious appearances, and the differences of the whole size, we easily judge of ages till twenty, but not with such certainty afterwards; for the alterations from that age are of a different kind, subject to other changes by growing fatter or leaner, which it
* Fig. 110. B. p: 2. + Fig. 114. B. p. 2.
* Fig. 115. T. p. 1. which represents three different sizes of the pupil of the eye; the least, was exactly taken from the eye of a largefeatured man, aged 105, the biggest, from one of twenty, who had this part larger than ordinary, and the other is the common size. If this part of the eye in the pictures of Charles II. and James II. painted by Vandyke at Kensington, were to be measured with a pair of compasses and compared with their pictures painted by Lilly when they were men, the diameters would be found in both pictures respectively the same.
is well known often give a different turn to the look of the person, with regard to his age.
The hair of the head, which encompasses a face as a frame doth a picture, and contrasts with its uniform colour, the variegated inclosed composition, adding more or less beauty thereto, according as it is disposed by the rules of art, is another indication of advanced age.
What remains to be said on the different appear- P. 134 ances of ages, being less pleasing than what has gone before, shall be described with more brevity. In the age from twenty to thirty, barring accidents, there appears but little change, either in the colours or the lines of the face; for though the bloom tints may go off a little, yet on the other hand, the make of the features often attain a sort of settled firmness in them, aided by an air of acquired sensibility; which makes ample amends for that loss, and keeps beauty till thirty pretty much upon a par; after this time, as the alterations grow more and more visible, we perceive the sweet simplicity of many rounding parts of the face begin to break into dented shapes, with more sudden turns about the muscles, occasioned by their many repeated movements; as also by dividing the broad parts, and thereby taking off the large sweeps of the serpentine lines; the shades of beauty also consequently suffering in their softnesses. Something of what is here meant between the two ages of thirty and fifty, see in figures *, and what further hayock time continues
* Fig. 117. and Fig. 118. B. p. 2.
to make after the age of fifty, is too remarkable to need describing: the strokes and cuts he then lays on are plain enough; however, in spite of all his malice, those lineaments that have once been elegant, retain their flowing turns in venerable age, leaving to the last a comely piece of ruins.
Such dispositions of the body and limbs as appear p. 135 most graceful when seen at rest, depend upon gentle winding contrasts, mostly governed by the precise serpentine line, which in attitudes of authority, are more extended and spreading than ordinary, but reduced somewhat below the medium of grace, in those of negligence and ease: and as much exaggerated in insolent and proud carriage, or in distortions of pain (see figure 9, plate 1.) as lessened and contracted into plain and parallel lines, to express meanness,awkwardness, and submission.
The general idea of an action, as well as of an attitude, may be given with a pencil in very few lines. It is easy to conceive that the attitude of a person upon the cross, may be fully signified by the two straight lines of the cross ; so the extended manner of St. Andrew's crucifixion is wholly understood by the X-like cross.
Thus, as two or three lines at first are sufficient to shew the intention of an attitude, I will take this opportunity of presenting my reader (who may have been at the trouble of following me thus far) with the sketch of a country-dance, in the manner I began to set out the design; in order to shew how few lines are necessary to express the first thoughts, as to different atti- P.136