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training, 1,500 of this number being trained for new occupations, and the others receiving incidental training during the period of convalescence.
Practical Opportunities and Requirements
There is no such thing as a list of occupations which men suffering with certain disabilities can take up. That may seem strange, but we have not found it possible to relate the disabilities of the men to the trade they should take up. There are so many factors to be considered, and unfortunately they are all variable factors, and it is impossible to work out a problem with all the factors variable. After two years' experience we see no reason to change our method of dealing with each case individually. Sometimes we make mistakes, and then we change our plans. One of the first things to think of is the man's former occupation, so that as a result of our work there will be the least possible economic disturbance, and so that his former experience may be conserved. It is well to consider next the occupations allied to the man's former trade. If, however, it is decided that the man should take up something new, we endeavor to select an occupation which will employ all the man's remaining abilities, and so train him that he will not be dependent upon sentiment for holding his position, but will be able to hold it because of his efficiency in it. We select an occupation in which he can be efficient, disabled though he is, and then proceed to give him the best possible training for it.
As to the length of training, that is important. It varies with the individual. The average length is about six and a half months. We do not have hard and fast lines. We take as long as necessary. Our instruction is individual, as well as our selection in the first place. We discourage men from taking work at some occupation for which there may be an enormous demand for the moment, but which, after the war, will not give much hope for a future. We discourage them from seasonal jobs, but if a summer occupation is decided upon, provision for some winter occupation is also made. A great deal of training is given in the schools attached to the hospitals. Some men complete their training in the hospital school, when the treatment is prolonged. Then, again, there should be established a number of special schools where men can be trained in a variety of occupations.
You are a great deal better off in the United States with your existing institutions than we are in Canada. You have your technical schools and will be able to make great use of them. We use such institutions as we have in several ways. We have taken over wholly two institutions, and departments of other institutions, but we have learned this—that the invalided soldier does not mix well with the ordinary pupil. He needs different courses, a different kind of training. His training must be more intensive than we have been giving in the ordinary technical schools. We have few cases where our men have gone into the ordinary courses and done well. A school should be taken over, or some part of it, and special courses established.
Perhaps the most hopeful thing we have been able to do is that we have endeavored by means of simple surveys to discover opportunities for training men in industries themselves. When we had admitted for training about four or five hundred men we found the range of occupations limited. That was due to the fact that the number of occupations for which training could be given in schools was not very large. Today we are training men in 195 different occupations. We have been able to broaden the scope of opportunities for training by going into the industries themselves. We have found employers only too ready to co-operate. Out of this, we hope, will come a realization of what can be done for the disabled from industry in the way of conserving and training their remaining powers.
Problems for Educators and for Society
One thing must not be forgotten in this connection. The man's experiences in the army have led him away from the exercise of self responsibility. He has to be "de-militarized," so to speak. In our schools all our instructors are civilians, and so are all our vocational officers. Though many of them are ex-soldiers, they are not teaching in uniform, but as civilians, because we want the men to get the civilian idea back into their heads. The man must learn again to think for himself. We therefore surround him as soon as possible with civilian influences.
There are many other problems. Four thousand five hundred men have already been discharged from the United States forces because of tuberculosis—a national problem, apart from the war. The same with many other things. The personal survey which we make of every returned man all too often reveals an industrial history of drifting from job to job; in many cases for the lack of the right kind of school training. Every one of us who has any contact with this soldier problem at this time will go back to our ordinary school work with new ideas and new ways of doing things.
This is a problem, not for the government alone, but for us all. The returned soldier deserves the best we can give him, and that is to give him every opportunity and every assistance to become once more a useful and, therefore, self-respecting, self-supporting member of the community.
Our duty to the disabled is clear and I have every confidence that your great nation will do its duty, whatever it may cost, to those who may be disabled in this terrific conflict to preserve all that we hold dear as "free nations" in this world.
THE CHURCH, THE COMMUNITY AND THE PRESENT
Rev. Roy B. Guild, D. D., Executive Secretary, Commission on Inter-
TEXT: Jesus of Nazareth. "They led him unto the brow of the hill • • • that they might cast him down headlong. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way." Luke IV: 19-30.
Jesus at Jerusalem. "And when they came unto the place which is called the skull they crucified him." Luke XXIII: 5,?.
Jesus knew what it costs to love a city. At Nazareth he proclaimed his mission by quoting the social program of Israel's great prophet. His old time neighbors who had heard of his fame throughout Galilee preferred miracles to such a message and they tried to put him 2o death.
Like every other Jewish lad, Jesus loved another city—Jerusalem. The message that resulted in his rejection at Nazareth was more fully and fearlessly proclaimed at Jerusalem, arousing more determined enmity. But in the great city the loyalty of the common folk made his antagonists more cautions. At last he put the principles into action by driving the pious profiteers from the temple. They abominated the preaching. They hated the practice and this brought the opposition to a climax. They put Jesus to death.
Before he was put to death Jesus offered two prayers which revealed his despair and his hope. The first is similar to the cry of despair which has burst from the lips of many a devoted man and woman whose efforts have been defeated by the hopeless division of those who should have been the greatest helpers. The religious forces were divided into three great sects, Pharisees, Sadducees and Herodians. The leaders of these groups were too much concerned about their organization and their own leadership to look with pleasure upon the popularity of Jesus. They saw in this, and in the evident righteousness of his attitude to all questions, their possible downfall. For this they hated him. Looking upon Jerusalem, mindful of these divisions, he cried out, "Oh Jerusalem, Jerusalem, * * * how often would I have gathered thy children together, but ye would not." Only the common hatred of this champion of the right and the good brought them together.
The hope of Jesus was voiced in the last prayer offered before he went out to Gethsemane. In an upper room with his chosen friends, he knew what was soon to take place, and why. But he was looking out into the future. He prayed for all that would believe upon him through the faithfulness of his disciples. The same burden that was the cause of the lament was the cause of the earnest petition. The divided city was the doomed city. So looking to the future he cried out to God, "I pray * * * that they may be one that the world may believe." Five times in that prayer in one way or another, Jesus expressed his longing for the unity of the children of the one Father of us all.
Unity Necessary Among Lovers of Righteousness In a common hatred of the one who went about doing good, these groups, manipulated by the temple grafters, put Jesus to death. Has not the time come when a common love for those we would serve should more strongly unify the religious forces of all communities in service than others are unified in hatred of the good we would do? Or will the divisions of the religiously minded defeat the cause of humanity to which we stand pledged? Shall it be the lament or answered prayers? The churches must give the answer to the community in this present crisis.
Disasters are great levellers. In flood or fire or cyclone, our common humanity comes to the front as the mere incidents of our life are cleared away. The one standard is "What is your need?" So this war, the greatest catastrophe of human history, is bringing to the front the great common essentials of human life and causing us to strive only for these. Changes have come about in our national life, financial, social and political, which might otherwise have come only after generations of striving. Whether they will be permanent or not depends on our ability to appreciate their significance, and our determination to maintain what is worth while. All these changes are being discussed and will be discussed in the sessions of the National Conference of Social Work. This afternoon the chief interest is in the religious changes that are taking place.
Those who come to us from the battle fields of Europe never refer to religious matters without speaking of the spirit of unity which is everywhere evident. The "Piping Parson," so-named because of his ability to play the bag-pipes, Chaplain Watt of the Gordon Highlanders, the Black Watch, in an address in New York, declared that the soldiers did not care for the various religious shibboleths. The chaplains of all faiths fraternized with one another and ministered alike to the wounded and the dying of all creeds. Similar testimonies come from chaplains, Y. M. C. A. secretaries, soldiers and correspondents. The chapter in the late Donald Hankey's book, "A Student in Arms" entitled "The Religion of the Inarticulate," has already become a classic in the religious records of this war.
This spirit of unity has been expressed in this country by the giving of over fifty million dollars for the work of the Young Men's Christian Association. Religious workers will do well to understand the giving of the greatest sum ever raised at one time by any single religious organization. There are two things which explain this substantial approval of this great undertaking. It stands for religious unity and practical human service. It is the embodiment of the two great essentials set forth in the Old Testament and reiterated by Jesus, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God and thy neighbor." Two Sundays ago I spent the day in a hut in a great aviation camp. At eight o'clock and at nine o'clock a Roman Catholic priest conducted mass in that hut. The second person I met on entering that building was the Jewish welfare worker, whose headquarters were there, and twice during the day as a Protestant minister, I preached the gospel of faith and service to the magnificent men who were preparing to give their lives for America and humanity. Every hut stands for religious unity. And every hut stands for service, seven-days-in-the-week service.
And because of this fact the people of all creeds and of no creeds will in a short time give more quickly and more joyously more money than has yet been given.
Potsdam and Ward Politics
As the religious forces seriously face all the problems at home, will they be able to unite in community service which will correct our social wrongs and establish everywhere the social right, as men of many nations and every creed fight shoulder to shoulder to correct world wrongs? Will we who stay at home be able to make these communities in which we live fit habitations for the returning soldiers? When this war is over, will we have so lived that we will be worthy neighbors of men who have offered their all in army and navy? Remember that these men have met the supreme test of a man in the task of eliminating from the realm of the world's politics that for which the Kaiser and the Potsdam gang stand. He would be the world's political boss and they would be his ward heelers, with nations as their wards. To be rid of this thing is our reason for being in the war. It is the menace of our most cherished political institutions, and all the institutions related to them.
While we are so bitter and so eloquent in our denunciation of Kaiserism in Berlin, let us remember that nearly every city has its man or its men who are tarred with the same stick, who are of the same stripe, about whom are the political gangsters who menace the city's life. We are nothing short of hyprocrites if we cheer our soldiers as they march forth to eliminate the Potsdam gang, and have not the courage or the convictions to purge from our cities every influence which menaces the physical, moral, and spiritual welfare of our boys and our girls. The city that complacently endures these conditions in these days and does not have its Ypres, its Sommes and its Verduns, however the battle may turn, is not worthy of the men who have gone to France, nor noble enough to welcome such as may return. In that day the judgment upon the religious forces will be final. We must get together. We can get together, and I am here to tell you we are getting together. We still have a long way to go, but we have started.
First, I must speak of the getting together of the Protestant Christian forces. This is not the getting together in organic unity which is the earnest wish and hope of many. If that comes about it must be by our first becoming acquainted. We are becoming acquainted by working Together, the best basis of acquaintanceship that has ever been devised. On the occasion of the forming of the Federation of Churches of Denver,