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and the progress of Missionary Efforts vention of the Congregational Minisamong the Heathen. Published by ters in Massachusetts ; with an account the Yale College Society of Enquiry of its funds; its connexion with the respecting Missions. Second Edition. Massachusetts Congregational ChariNew-Haven. (In a former number table Society; and its rules and reguwe have expressed our approbation of lations. Svo.-Cambridge. this valuable little work ; and we Inaugural Discourse on Medical Edwould, in its improved form, particu- ucation. By Nathan Drake, M. D. Jarly recommend it to the patronage of President of the Medical College at the benevolent.)
Ohio.-Cincinnati. Pastoral Letter of the Rt. Rev. Dr. Address to the Farmers of the UnitEngland, Roman Catholic Bishop of ed States, on the ruinous consequenCharleston, to his dock in the States ces to their vital interests of the exist. of North and South Carolina and Geor- ing policy of this country. By M. Cagia.-Charleston.
rey. 8vo.-Philadelphia. A Charge to the Clergy of the Epis Report upon Weights and Measures. copal Church in the State of Connect- By John Quincy Adams. 8v0.-Washicut; delivered at the Convention of ington. the Church in said State, in St. John's Anniversary Discourse delivered beChurch, at Waterbury, June 6th, 1821. fore the New York Historical Society, By Thomas C. Brownell, D.D. LL. D. December 7th, 1818. By G. C. VerBishop of the Diocess of Connecticut. planck, Esq. Second Edition. 8v0.
Second and Third Letters to the New York. Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D. on his The Noble Slaves ; or the lives and charges against the Unitarians.-Balti- adventures of two Lords and two La
dies, being a history of remarkable
events. By Mrs. Aubin. 18m0.-Bos-. A Discourse on the early history of ton. Pennsylvania. By P S. Du Porceau. Report of the Board of Public Philadelphia.
Works to the Legislature of South An Historical Sketch of the Con- Carolina for the year 1820.
INDIA WITHIN THE GANGES.
It makes a vast difference in the ex
In Britain, a Advantages and disadvantages of the pense of a habitation.
house while essentially necessary to climate of India.
the preservation of health, must be The following remarks are extracted such as to be proof against the inclemfrom the monthly publication, enti
ency of the seasons. Scarcely the tled the “ Friend of India," conduct
most robust constitution could bear a ed by the Missionaries at Seram
constant exposure to the air during the pore. They will serve to make our
wbole twenty-four hours, even in the readers more familiar witb the cir.
warmest months of the year: in these cumstances of the East, and will ex
circumstances, wbat must the delicate, plain on what ground native teach- the diseased, and the infirin suffer, in ers may be supported at much less the most inclement seasons of the year, expense than European.—Lon. Mis. without a habitation sufficient to screen Reg.
them from the rigour of the seasons ! The climate of India, if it he not Far different is the climate of India. favourable to longevity-a point, how- It is true, that the heat for some ever, on which we ought to obtain far months is very great, particularly about greater evidence than any yet collect. mid-day; but then how soon is a sheled, before it be decided in the nega ter from the heat provided! It is aftive, is highly favourable to the enjoy- forded even by the shade of a tree; and, ment of the inhabitants, as it lessens, in in many cases, even a single leaf of the various ways, the expenses necessary Indian Arum, held by a native so as to to their comfort.
overshadow his head, will be esteemed
by him a sufficient shelter, while trav. cap or hat, is almost abhorred by Hinelling under the meridian sun, per. doos of both sexes ; and although a haps at 120 degrees of heat by Fah Hindoo Sircar in a city puts on a turrenheit's thermometer. Nor is it by ban for the sake of appearing in a suitany means uncommon, to see a small able dress for business, he embraces shed formed by two bamboos cut from the first moment of his return to bis the hedge, placed so as to meet each domestic circle to lay aside the useless other at the top, and covered by leaves and unpleasant incumbrance : in the from the neighboring trees, form a same degree, a covering for the feet, nightly abode to a Hindoo for months and even the legs, appears to the natogether, while not above three feet in tives of India equally unnecessary: albreadth at bottom, and not exceeding though the dress of ihe women extends four feet in height. During certain to about the mid-leg, for the sake of months in the year, many from choice decency, the feet and the lower part sleep in the open air during the whole of the leg are generally left without night, often on the terrace of their hou. any covering even among them : by ses, without sustaining the least injury; children of both sexes, and evev by and any one who takes a walk through men highly respectable in life, a coithe chief street of Calcutta, sufficiently ering for the feet or the legs is regardearly may see hundreds of the natives
ed as quite superfluous. It is true, sleeping in the street, or at their own that men in higher circumstances wear or their employer's door, for perhaps shoes occasionally; but they are never the greatest part of the year. A few like those worn by even the British rupees, therefore, will erect a dwelling peasantry: they cost scarcely more which shall be as well accommodated
than a tenth of the price, unless when to the peculiarities of the climate, as adorned with gold or silver : they are one erected in Britain at ten times the
merely worn when out on a visit, and expense. The effect of this in the ar thrown aside when the wearers are at ticle of rent must be obvious to all. home. Some wear shoes when they But this brings with it another adran travel ; but, if they have to go any distage; the expense of erecting a com tance, the shoes are perhaps as comfortable habitation being so very small, monly to be seen in the hand as on the almost every one is able to erect a feet; and this is certain of being the house for himself : for this the wages case, as often as any stream of water, of three or four months will often be
or any miry part of the road, presents sufficient, and sometimes a much less itself: the case with which they can sum. Thus the expense of rent, which pass a river bare-foot and bare-legged, the generality of the inhabitants of and the enjoyment of washing their Britain have to meet, the mildness of feet when arrived on the opposite side, the climate in India almost wholly re makes them lay aside every ihing of the moves from its inhabitants.
nature of shoes, whenever an opportuWhile the nature of the climate cre.
nity of this nature presents itse!f. ates such a saving of expense to the The effect of this benign climate natives relative to their habitations, it in lessening the quantity, and of is scarcely less favourable relative to course the expense of HOUSEHOLD CLOTHING. As defence from the rig FURNITURE, so large an item of ex. our of the seasons is so little needed, pense in Britain, is scarcely less sendecency and ornament are the only sible than in lessening that of their objects in view : in these, their simpli Clothing and Habitations. A bed is city of manners, and the unchanging scarcely known among them: a mat forin of their garments, reduce the ex answers every purpose of repose ; and pense to a mere trifle: one fashion almost any thing serves for a pillow; pervading the whole country, their ap ibis mat is in general spread on the parel never grows old by merely being ground; not seldom, indeed, when it seen, as is sometimes the case in Eu is quite damp; although some of them rope among those classes of its iobab.
have so far profited by the example of itants who are far from being opulent. Europeans, as to purchase a coton Further, many articles of apparel high- wbich to spread their mat, the price ly necessary in Europe, are almost al- of wbich however seldom exceeds together unknown to the inhabitants a few apas. For a covering, the cloth of this mild climate : a separate cover. which they wear by day generally ing for the head, wither in the form of answers every purpose; and thes
an expense, which lies so heavily those whom they hold dear, against its on a man in England, is scarcely severity, can never be created in the known among the Hindoos. Moreo- inbabitants of India. These habits are ver, the mildness of the climate indue the result of continued exertion, occaces them to sit without doors rather sioned by wants perpetually recurring, than within, by far the greater part of which are unknown to the inbabitants the year ; but a shed out of doors, or of India. Hence they have always the shade of a large tree embowering
fallen a prey to
their portbern and their habitation, is not a place which western neighbours; and have been requires to be decorated with chairs subjected, in a greater or less degree, and tables. Hence the absence of to some nation or other, almost from these articles of furniture forms anoth the earliest ages. Nor, indeed is all er sasing, for which they are indebted that EMPLOYMENT created among to the mildness of the climate, which them, which the necessity for supplythus eases them of all the labor through ing these wants creates in Britain, and which these articles are procured in which adds so much to the polished Europe.
state of society there, while it furnishIn these, and various other ways, es labor for numerous classes of its indoes the climate contribute to dimin habitants. ish the wants of the native of India, rerespecting bis Habitation, his Furniture, and the Clothing of himself and family ; the care of providing which presses heavily, from year to year, on [A pamphlet has been published in the British Peasant and Artisan.
New-York, entitled " Sunday School Should any say—“This is no kind
Facts, collected by a member of the of advantage : it is a state of unnatu
General Association of Teachers." ral poverty, which cannot fail to occa
From this useful tract, we publish sion misery”-it should be recollected, •Hints' which we hope will be useful.] that this is not the state of the indigent Each school should be under the dimerely, but of the affluent; who could rection of a Committee, chosen from well afford any kind of convenience or the Instructors, and the Elders or othornament; and who forbear to pro er Members of the Church. vide themselves with those articles of The management of the School convenience not from parsimonious should be intrusted to one Superintenfeelings, but because they view them dent, or more if necessary. as totally needless. These accom The School should be divided into modations, therefore, as to their Habit- four classes, and each class into secations, Clothing and Furoiture, are tions of from five to ten each, as cirnot reputable (not necessary to reputa- cumstances may require. Those who tion) and when this is the universal read in the Testament or Bible, should feeling, there is no idea of poverty or be placed in the first class ; those who dishonour attached to their absence. read indifferently, in the second class; Even in the article of clothing for their those who spell chiefly, in the third children, a degree of affluence, does class; and those in the alphabet and not lead them to change the mode, and monosylables, in the fourth class. scarcely to add a single article ; but The exercises should be varied as rather to load the children with orna- much and as frequently as possible, in ments of silver and gold; a native child order to avoid wearying the child by of ten years old, who is not arraged in too much and too long continued clothing to the amount of a rupee, will sometimes have on his bare legs and The child should be employed in arms, ornaments to the amount of the alphabet but a few minutes, and more than a bundred.
then put immediately into syllables, From this state of things, certain so that he may catch and distinguish effects necessarily follow. That inde. the sound and its use with the names fagitable habit of industry and that ro of the letters, and thence to spelling bustness of mind, which are created in reading lessons as soon as possible. the inhabitants of Britain, by their be A portion of time should be set ing compelled to meet the wants occa- apart each day for moral and religious sioned by the inclemencies of the cli- instruction. mate, and to guard themselves and A courge of Catechetical instruction
should be commenced as soon as the from every evil, and to conduct themchild enters the School.
selves with propriety: Corporeal punishment should be The Teacher should be particular to wholly discarded. To win and gov- call on the parents, and ascertain the ern by persuasion, is the great secret reason of every instance of absence of and grand principle of Sunday Schools. bis Pupils. The word of God should be made to The subject of visiting the families pronounce upon every accusation, and of the Pupils is less understood, and the children should be called upon to perhaps still less practised, than any convict from the Bible, and render a other department of Sabbath Schools. Scriptural judgment against the ac- A constant and familiar intercourse, cused.
should be maintained between the The exercises of a class should not Teachers, and more especially the Su-" be interrupted on account of the mis- perintendents and those families. Their conduct of any member of it ; but utmost confidence should be obtained, such a one should be handed over by by entering familiarly into their combis Teacher to the Superintendent, for mon concerns in life, and other general investigation of bis conduct and re- topics, such as may interest them and proof.
take possession of their feelings, and So various are the opinions on the in this manner prepare the way for subject of rewards, that all attempts to moral and religious instruction, wheniotroduce a uniform system bave pro- ever an opportunity shall be presentved abortive ; and there remins no ed to do it with effect. The character hope of doing more than to recom- and disposition must be studied, so mend, that rewards be dealt out as that nothing should bear the appear. sparingly and judiciously as possible. ance of intrusion. Cheerfulness and
In each school there should be a dis- frankness should characterize every tinguished class, which should be open visit, every word and every action. to all the deserving, after having continued in School a certain time, and made suitable proficiency. To be admitted to the distinguished honour of a place in this class, should supersede President of the Geneva Bible Soci
Letter from Prince Galitzin to the all other rewards, and render them liable to be taken from their studies to
ety. assist in school, when their services “I have had the honour of receiving could be used to advantage. And from your letter dated the 10th of March, the time of entering this class, each and the packet which you were kind one should be considered candidates enough to add to it. It is with peculfor a certificate, to be given them after iar pleasure that I heard of the labours a certain time, should their conduct as well as the success of the Genera and improvement be approved ; which Bible Society-- a progress of the Bibliccertificate should be an ample recom- al Cause, which affords me a new submendation for any place to which they ject of praise and thanksgiving to the may be called.
Lord, who ceases not to employ all Punctuality should be undeviatingly the means of grace to draw unto himpractised by the Instructors, as well as self those whom he has redeemed by enjoined upon the Pupils.
his blood. Assiduity and attention should mark “The Committee of the Russian all their actions wbile in school, that Bible Society, to whom I have not deno time may be lost, and no opportu. layed to communicate this interesting nity given for play or idleness.
intelligence from the banks of the LoCare should be taken to impress up man Lake, have listened to it with a on the minds of the Pupils, a due re- joy equal to my own ; and this joy was gard to the Sabbath, and all its insti: increased, in proportion as we repre. tutions and duties ; to convince them sented to ourselves all the great results of their errors, and of the awful nature which you glance at in your letter, and and tendency of sin, as a crime not to which undoubtedly so many united against man, but against a holy God, and salutary efforts, with the help of and the necessity of a hearty repent- our Saviour, must one day conduce. ance, and of new enderrous to refrain Oh may the blessed time soon arrive,
PRINTING ESTABLISHMENT IN ASIA.
in which there shall be but one fold and presents itself, undoubtedly, to any one one Shepherd! The interest which the who pays any attention to it, which is, Geneva Bible Society and its President that the worship of the Lord in spirit take in the success with which the and in truth increases daily among all Lord deigns to crown the feeble la classes. O God, thy ways are in the bours of the Committee of the Russian sanctuary! Thou art the God who Bible Society, has sensibly affected the doest wonders! Thou makest known latter. Interpreter of its sentiments of to the nations the mystery of thy will! gratitude, I beg of you, at the same May thy name be blessed both now time, Sir, to accept of my most sincere and to eternity. thanks for the good wishes which you Lond. Mis. Reg. April 1821. express on my account, and which I feel I merit so little : for, let us not forget that we are, in his all-powerful hand, but as clay in the hand of the Our readers have already been informed potter.
of the fact, tbat, in consequence of the With regard to the progress of the urgent recommendation of ihe Rev.Mr. Russian Bible Society, it is in fact not Williamson, late British Chaplain at without being profoundly moved by Smyrna, that a PRINTING PRESS should the infinit grace of God towards us, be established in Western Asia, in conthat I proceed to give you some ac
nection with the American Mission, a count of it. About 200 Societies in number of gentlemen in this town had the Provinces co-operate already with
opened a subscription for that purpose. the Society of St. Petersburg, in the
This subscription has since been filled
to the amount of three thousand dollars a great Russian Biblical Cause: more than a million seven hundred thousand
year, for five years. The first meeting
for this purpose was held about the wide rubles have been contributed, in the dle of January last; when thirteen genspace of seven years, to advance the
tlemen were present. It was an eve. sacred end of these benevolent institu ning which, probably, no one of them tions : more than 275,000 copies of the
will forget while he lives. At that Holy Scriptures, in thirty different lan meeting, the subject was freely discusguages, have been distributed among
sed; the information in the possession all classes : and, while the Russian
of those present communicated; and a
committee of three appointed to com.' version of the Holy Books, of which
mit that information to writing, to be some parts have just appeared, is re reported and made use of at an adjournceived with the greatest enthusiasm by ed and larger meeting. We have prothe whole nation, the Crimean Tartars, cured a copy of that report, and invite the Kalmucs, the Tschuwashians, the the attention of our readers to it, as a Tsheremissians, the Mordwashians, the
document of uncommon interest. We Karelians, &c. to the most distant in
inform them also, that another subscrip, habitants of the borders of the White
tion is now open for three thousand dolSea, all begin to read, in their own lan
lars, to purchase the presses and fonts
of types, and other articles necessary to guages and dialects, the Word of
commence the undertaking; as the anTruth, the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
nual subscription for five years is not to Even in the East, in Persia, and in purchase, but merely to support the esAsia Minor, resound anew, after so tablishment. We are happy to be able many ages of sullen silence, the good
to inform them, that in this latter subnews of salvation by the crucified Sav scription, a gentleman in New York has iour, who is the true God and eternal
already forwarded the generous sum of
five hundred dollars. Bost. Rec. life.
Such are, Sir, in a few words, the Memoir on the formation of a Printing result of the labours of the Russian Bi Establishment in Western Asia. ble Society, as they present themselves An important design is now presentto our eyes. Although He, whose ed to the contemplation of the benev. eges are as a flame of fire, and who olent. It is the diffusion of the light searches the hearts and the reins, alone and influence of Divine Truth, by knows, in all their extent the salutary means of that wonder-working engine, effects which the reading of the Holy the Press, among nations who were Scriptures may have had upon the once flourishing in the profession of bearts of those who have thereby godliness, and enjoyment of the ordilearnt the way of salvation-one gene nances of the Gospel, in their primitive ral and very consolatory observation simplicity and purity ; but who have
Vol. 3. No. VII. 49