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Resurrection and the Life ; he that heart which terminate on animal believeth on me, though he were dead, gratification as their object. These yet shall he live.Mourner! Read are styled the lust of concupiscence this divine promise, full of immortali, in which the Gentiles walked, which ty, as it is; and then wipe away all are to be subdued by the mortification tears from your eyes. It was better of our members. These lusts of the for her to depart. Be silent and open heart are indeed lusts of the flesh from not your mouth because God hath their relatiou to animal indulgence, done it.

B. N. but they are also denominated lusts

of the flesh, as being the specific ex

ercises of a general principle of deFor the Christian Spectator.

pravity, which is called the flesh.

That there is a more general prinUpon the term, Carnal Mind.

ciple of depravity called the carnal A correct exposition of the Bible is mind, is certain from the fact that preeminently important. In that those evil exercises of the heart book are contained those laws by which have no relation to animalism, which we are required to regulate our are described as the effects of this hearts and actions, and that system general principle denominated the of doctrine and evangelical experi- tlesh. Now the works of the flesh ence, by which the penalties of the are manifest : idolatry, hatred, variviolated law may be averted, and a ance, emulations, seditions, heresies, blessed immortality secured.

envyings. These are evils of the It is an infelicity attendant upon heart which may exist independently preaching the doctrines of the Bible, of the animal appetites, and yet are that our hearers are apt to regard called the works of the flesh, from them as matters of our own opinion, which it is perfectly manifest that flesh and not as the declarations of the is a term which characterises an evil living God. To remedy an evil of beart, independent of its alliance this kind, if it has existed, we have with body, as well as in connexion felt it important, instead of setting with it. forth a doctrine to be proved, to as The phrase carnal mind is a comsume, sometimes, the office of com- prehensive term employed to express mentator, and by a fair exposition of the whole moral nature of man, as terms, to bring the Bible to speak for he is antecedently to the renewing itself on the great points of primary influence of the Spirit of God. concern.

The following considerations esIt will be the object of the present tablish the correctness of this exposi. dissertation 10 explain the phrase, tion. "carnal mind."

1. The carnal mind, is a phrase of It is obvious that by the carnal synonymous inport with a heart at mind more is intended than the ani. enmity with God. The carnal mind mal appetites, or the indulgence of is enmity against God; of course a them. These appetites, cannot heart at enmity with God is the carproperly be called mind, or be cloth- nal mind. They are convertible ed with moral qualities, denominated terms. But we know that a heart at enmity against God, or be denied the enmity against God is the comprepossibility of subjection to the law. hensive principle of moral evil in Nor can this be true of the mere grat- man, which it is the object of the aification of these appetites, for this tonement, of the preaching of the may by self denial, be brought within gospel, and of the work of the Spirit the limits of the revealed rules, of to remove by reconciliation, and temperance.

which is subdued partially by regenNor are we to understand by the eration, progressively by sanctificararnal mind, merely those lusts of the tion, and entirely by that act of the

Holy Spirit which is denominated could afford no reason for fixing a glorification. A heart at enmity with limit to the strivings of the Spirit, God then, being a generic term, used while his depravity, called flesh, to express the entire principle of evi{ which resists and grieves the Spirit, in the heart, and the carnal mind be. furnishes an appropriate reason. ing this very enmity of heart against The Jews also placed great reliance God, is unanswerably a generic term for salvation upon their descent from comprehending the entire evil of Abraham. Our Saviour, cuts off man's nature.

this vain confidence, by teaching 2. The carnal mind is opposed to that it is the depraved nature of the Law of God. The moral law ju- man, and not that acquired by grace cludes in its requirements all moral which descends. That Abraham, of excellence of which the heart of man course, in whom they trusted, transis capable. But the carnal mind, is mitted depravity and not holiness to a temper of heart in all respects op his descendants; “ That which is posed to this law, and is in its veryboru of the flesh is flesh. Marvel not nature so contradictory to the exerci- that I said unto you, ye must be born ses required by the law, that it can- again." Flesh then means a depraved not be subject to it,” can by no modi- nature in the ancestor, and a depraved fication, and by no change of circum- nature in the descendant, and is put stances, be made obedience, even in for the whole moral nature of man the lowest degree. As the law tben, before regeneration. comprehends in its requirements all 4. The flesh is spoken of as the commoral excellence of which the heart is prehensive principle of all moral evil capable, that temper of heart denomi- in man, either as existing in his heart, nated the carnal mind, which is not or manifested in his conduct. The and cannot be subject to the law, works of the flesh are,"adultery, fornimust be the comprehensive princi- cation, uncleanness, lasciviousness, ple of moral evil in man, or the idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, heart of man as it exists antecedently emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, to its subjugation to the law of God beresies, envyings, murders, drunkby the Spirit.

eness, revellings and such like." By 3. The flesh is a generic term used the phrase such like, it appears that to denote that depravily of heart the preceding extended catalogue of which renders regeneration indispen- the sins of heart and life are given as sable.

specimens, and are put for the whole Our Saviour had said to Nicode- of human depravity; all the above mus, " Except a man be born again crimes, and all evil beside in man, he cannot see the kingdom of God.” proceed from the flesh. That fleste The ruler ouderstood him to mean a is a generic term expressing the denatural birth. Jesus reproves him praved nature of man, is still further for his ignorance, and reminds him evident from the consideration, that is that he speaks of a moral change, ac the verses immediately following complished by the Spirit ; and alle- those just quoted, the Spirit is de-ges as the ground of its necessity,– scribed as the efficient cause of all . That which is born of the flesh is goodness in man,or of his holy nature, flesh.” By flesh, in the first part of and the fruits of his operation are the sentence, I understand man as contrasted with the works of the depraved by the fall, and by Desh in flesh. The fruit of the Spirit is love, the last part, man as descended from joy, peace, long suffering, gentleness, a depraved ancestry. Man is denom- goodness, faith, meekness, temperinated flesh in reference to his deprav. ance, i. e. wbile all the evil or mau's ity; Gen. vi. 3. “My Spirit shall not vature is included in the term flesh, all always strive with man, for that he the moral, excellence is a fruit of te also is flesh;" his being literally flesh generation by the Spirit.

In accordance with this account, flesh a law that when he would do the flesh, and the Spirit, are repre- good, caused evil to be present with sented as the great principles of life him, and which in the 23d verse he and of death. To be carpally minded describes as “ warring against the law is death, but to be spiritually minded of his mind, and bringing him into is life and peace. And they are also captivity;"-a law which in the 24th represented as the two commanding verse he denominates a body of death, principles of all human conduct, good and in the 25th, the flesh, which or bad ; “ They that are after the serves the law of sin, while he himself flesh, do mind the things of the flesh, with the mind serves the law of God. but they that are after ihe Spirit, the In describing the experience of the things of the Spirit.— There is there- Galatian converts he employs the fore now no condemnation to them same language as in describing his which are in Christ Jesus, which walk own. Gal. V. 17. “ The flesh lustnot after the flesh, but after the Spirit. eth against the Spirit, and the Spirit If ye live after the flesh ye shall die, against the flesh, and these are conbut if ye through the Spirit do mor. trary the one to the other, so that ye tify the deeds of the body, ye shall cannot do the things that ye would. live."

Having now by an exposition of the 5. Flesh and Spirit are terms of term carnal mind, or fleshly mind, opposition ; the one employed to de- shown that it denotes the whole mornote all the remaining sin, the other al nature of man, I proceed to inall the existing holiness in the be- quire what account the Scriptures liever.

give of mao's moral nature under this In the experience of Paul, these term; and we have seen already that two terms suffice to describe all which they declare the whole moral nature was felt of good or evil by him; they of man to be eomity against God, are the two leaders of the contending and at variance with the law of God. hosts in his heart. Thus speaking of It is declared that none of the moral himself, Rom. VII. 14. “The law,” exercises of man's heart by nature are he says, “is spiritual, but I am car- conformed to the law of God, and that nal, sold under sin.” He does not they are in their very nature, all of call indwelling sin which annoys him them, so opposed to its requirements, the carnal mind, because it was not in that they can by no means be obedi. him the entire principle of action, butent in the least degree. he calls it carnal, as retaining the It is also declared that in the flesh same general nature of opposition to of man, his whole moral nature before the law of God. He speaks of him- regeneration, there dwells no good self also, as “sold under sin," as sy- thing. nonymous with his being carnal, in. I know, saith the Apostle, that in tending by the bondage not the en- me, that is in my flesh, there dwelleth tire dominion of sin, but the constancy no good thing. This is said indeed and irksomeness of its influence upon of his depraved nature, as weakened his heart. This constant influence by the existence of holiness, but if in upon his heart of what he terms the this relatively enfeebled state, there flesh, he assigns as the cause of his was no goodness in it, there surely doing what he disallows and hates, could have been none when the flesh and of his leaving undone the things constituted his entire moral pature. which he would do; 11–15. That The Scriptures decide that in the in him which he denominates carnal, whole moral nature of man, termed in the 14th verse, be calls “ sin that the flesh, there is nothing by which dwelleth in me" in the 17th verse; he can by any means please God. and this sin that dwelleth in him he “So then they that are in the flesh calls in the 18th verse, me, my flesh. cannot please God." This it will be In the 21st verse, he calls this same observed, is an inference from the

text, so often quoted ; The carnal and regulate and direct all the iomind is enmity against God; so then, stincts, sympathies, and natural affecbecause the carnal miod is enmity tions of his bature, which are local in against God, they that are in the flesh, their objects, limited in their benign or under its influence, as the sole tendencies, and may become, without principle of moral action, cannot the guardiauship of holiness, princi. please God. The carnal nrind is not ples of collision, cruelty, and desola. subject to the law of God; so then lion. because there is in it no principle of If it should be supposed that in the obedience to the great law of bis em- absence of holiness, this secondary pire ; they that are in the flesh, or un virtue had been inculcated as a parder the sole guidance of this rebell tial substitute, I answer, that the secious disposition cannot please God. ondary virtue if it exist at all, exists The carnal mind cannot be subject to as a part of man's nature which has the law of God; so then they that are survived the fall. There must have in the flesh cannot, under its influ. been therefore, tivo moral laws and ence, as the sole principle of account- two kinds of moral excellence in Parable action, do any thing to please adise, before the fall, which would be God. The principle of loyalty being like making a master-spring of suffigone, and that of rebellion existing in cient power to control every move. full vigour, there is nothing which ment, great and small, of an extended God can approve.

machinery, and then to plant another The description of man's moral na- feeble spring by its side, on which a lure under the term flesh, decides portion of its minor movements should that there is in man by nature no be made dependant, moral excellence, different from holi Let the holy love which the law ness, and of an inferior kind. commands beat in the heart of man,

The Scriptures are silent with re- and by its mighty impulse, bis intelspect to the existence in man of any lect, his memory, his imagination, his such secondary moral excellence in conscience, his natural affections, his ferior to holiness. Did such excel- instincts and sympathies, and his lence exist, there must be two moral willing hand and tongue will all perlaws, one requiring holiness, the oth- form, with unerring constancy, their er, this secondary inferior moral ex. respective parts, in constituting a cellence ; for moral excellence is, in state of perfect society. A seconda. its nature, excellence in an accounta- ry moral excellence is uot needed ble creature, and consists in conform therefore, and it is presumed does not ity to some law. But the moral law exist. In this conclusion we are conis the great and sole rule of moral firmed by the consideration that all obligation, and standard of moral ex- moral evil consists in the transgrescellence. There can be no moral ex• sion of the moral law, to which holicellence therefore, which does not in ness is obedience. clude that holiness which is conformi But if there were a secondary moty of heart to the law.

ral excellence, not including holiness There is no need of any secondary in its nature, there must of necessity kind of moral excellence to answer all be a secondary kind of moral esil the ends of our social and accountable not consisting in the transgression of existence; the higher principle of the moral law. But as we find no moral excellence included in holiness, secondary moral evil, we conclude answering completely all the purpo- there is no secondary, inferior kind of ses of a supposed secondary kind of moral excellence in man. As all virtue. The great principle of love his depravity consists in the carnal to God and love to man, operating in mind, so all his moral excellence con the heart according to the command. sists in that love which is the fruit of ment, will control the actions of man,

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1821.]
A Serinon on Genesis xxviii. 17.

455 the Spirit. This point so plain al- down to sleep, a stone bis pillow, the ready, is settled by the consideration canopy of heaven his covering. ly that goodness in man in its most com- his dream, he saw, a vision,.- a ladprehensive sense is denominated a der, reaching from earth to Heaven, Fruit of the Spirit. The fruit of the the angels of God ascending and deSpirit is love, goodness; as all good- scending upon the ladder, and over it, ness or moral excellence in man then the Lord God, who called to him, and is the effect of regeneration by the confirmed the promise before made to Spirit, none existed in his nature be- Abraham. “ And Jacob awaked out fore that event.

of his sleep, and he said, Surely the The declarations of the Scriptures Lord is in this place, and I knew it conceruing the carnal mind, the flesh, not. And he was afraid, and said, &c. lead us to the conclusion, that How dreadful is this place! This is man is by nature entirely depraved. none other but the house of God, and If in his natural condition, called the this is the gate of Heaven.” flesh, he is an enemy to God; is not, What 'place, did Jacob intend, and while remaining in that state when he said, “This is the house of cannot be subject to the law; is in God'? There was no house near his flesh, his whole moral pature, him. He lay in the open field, bethere dwells no good thing; if he can neath the vault of heaven. Even not please God while in the flesh, pos- though we should suppose he had sessing not only do holiness, but no some particular reference, to the spot moral excellence of any, even an in- of ground on which he lay, or the ferior kind; and if all his moral ex stone on which his head had rested, cellence as a christian is the result of yet why did he call the place a house? his regeneration, and is a fruit of the By the house of God, the Gate of Spirit, I perceive not for myself, any heaven, he doubtless had reference to way to evade this testimony of the the place of the vision. He had seen Bible to the entire depravity of nan God, in his dream, therefore' he was by nature,

D.D. afraid. "God,' said he, is in this

place, and I knew it not. How dread

ful is this place. This is none other A SERMON.

but the house of God, and this is the Genesis xxviii. 17.–And he was gate of heaven.' The place of the

afraid, and said, How dreadful vision, the expanse above and around is this place! This is none other him, seemed to bim as the house of but the house of God, and this is God. The extended earth on which the Gate of Heaven.

he stood, seemed the floor, and the

arches of the sky, the lofty roof These are the words of the Patri- of the magnificent dwelling place arch Jacob. At the earnest request of of the Almighty. It seemed inRebecca, who was anxious that her deed the house of God, for in it he favourite son should escape the ven- bad seen the visible presence of the geance of Esau ;-and under the sol. Lord of Hosts, attended by his retiemin charge of Isaac, his father, who nue of holy Angels. was unwilling that he should take a It was this sight, that made the wife from the idolatrous Canaanites, Patriarch afraid. Though it is said Jacob arose to go to Padan-Aram, to "he was afraid,' yet he could not the house of Bethuel, his mother's fa- have a fear for his personal safety. ther. He went wholly unattended, The whole vision was fitted to banish and with small supplies, probably to such fear. The mercy of God to a escape the notice, and thus avoid the guilty world, was shadowed forth, the rage and euvy of his brother Esau. angels descending with messages of Night came on him, in a certain grace and errands of mercy, and asplace ;-the sun was set, and he lay cending with reports of their ser

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