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had instructed at Corinth, that neither have a subject before us, that has in they nor he, had any correct and cer- it many things transcending our tain knowledge on religious truths ? knowledge. We can decide against that they who in Corinth consented to Jews, Mahometans, Socinians, Unifollow him as a teacher, and they versalists; yet the ability of doing all who should through his writings in this does not imply the possession of after ages, ought to be very cautious boundless knowledge. What we gain how they arrogated to themselves any by revelation in the present state, is certainty on religious opinions, and necessarily limited then, the apostle be very cautious of dissenting in a de- means, because revelation itself is limcided manner from the Pagan, the ited as to subjects, and the extent to Atheist, the Deist, the Jew, the Ma- which it treats on those subjects. hometan, the Socinian, or the Univer. There is no other absolute necessity salist?

of a limited knowledge, that stops If the apostle be allowed to speak short of the coutents of revelation. in his own case, and interpret his own Can the text of the apostle be used meaning, then, he never meant to as- then as a defence of latitudinarianism, sert, when telling his fellow christians on points of absolute revela on ? If that we know in part,” that there any are content so to use it, it must is an absolute defect in us, in the pres- be from opinions they have formed on ent state, in regard to our arriving at the subjects of revelation itself, and certainty, from our means of religious not from correctly interpreting the kpowledge.

meaning of the apostle. As to the aThe meaning of the apostle then bility or not of our coming to correct must be that the partiality of our knowledge on the subjects of revelaknowledge is owing to the limitation of tion, I will beg leave to quote an aniour means of knowledge, compared mated passage from Chillingworth. with the extent of the objects of knowl Though we pretend not to ceredge. There is a certain extent of tain means of not erring in interprerevelation, which, though conveying ting all scripture, particularly such knowledge as far as it goes, stops short places as are obscure and ambiguous, of revealing to us the whole of the yet this methinks should be no im. subject. The extent to which it leads pediment but that we may have cer. us in the present state into the knowl- iain means of not erring in and about edge of God, is so incomplete, com- the sense of those places which are pared with the fuller revelations of so plain and clear that they need no the heavenly world, that the difference interpreters: And in such, we say, is like the views of the child compar- our' faith is contained. If you ask ed with those of the maturer man. me, how I can be sure that I know After we have attained to these truths the true meaning of these places ? I that are revealed, the apostle means ask you again, can you be sure that to assert that we yet "know but in you understand what I, or any man


?-God be thanked that we We know from revelation that have sufficient means to be certain there is a God of infinite perfection; enough of the truth of our faith : But yet how many things can be asked the privilege of not being in possibilrespecting this subject, that we have ity of erring, that we challenge not, 'ho means, in the present state, of because we have as little reason as answering? We know how to de- you, to do so; and you have none at cide the atheistical controversy ;

all. If you ask, seeing we may posbut in deciding it, we admit what sibly err, how can we be assured we transcends our knowledge. In the do not? I ask you again, seeing Deistical controversy, we know on your eye-sight may deceive


how which side the truth lies; but in ad can you be sure you see the sun when mitting the fact of a revelation, we you do see it? A pretty Sophism ! Vol. 3—No. II.




That whosoever possibly may err,

For the Christian Spectator. cannot be certain that he doth not err. A judge may possibly err in judgment, can he therefore never have " Salute no man by the way." assurance that he hath judged right? A traveller may possibly mistake bis

Oh, stay me not; a Canaan traveller, I

lo baste am bound to happier worlds on way, must I therefore be doubtful

high. whether I am in the right way from My day far spent, I urge my onward pace; my hall to my chamber? Or can Oh, stay me not from heaven ; my natal our London carrier have no certain

place. ty, in the middle of the day, when he

Talk not of glee; I bear a bleeding heart; is sober and in his wits, that he is in With untold sorrow pierc'd; I mourn, the way to London?

These, you

apart see, are right worthy consequences,

From mortal eye


ear, nor beed their

noise, and yet they are as like to your own, Who vaunt the worth of false terrestrial as an egg to an egg, or milk to milk.

joys. “ The ground of your error here is, your not distinguishing between Point not mine eye to soft abodes of actual certainty and absolute infalli- Below, it dwells not; soon my bright rebility. Geometricians are not infal lease lible in their own science; yet they From earth, will crown this weary pilgrim are very certain of what they see

brow : demonstrated: And carpenters are

Oh, not with treacherous hopes beguile not infallible, yet certain of the straitness of those things which agree with Ask not to join the merry social song, their rule and square. So though the All mute and pensive as I pass along church be not infallibly certain that This rugged, darksome land of sorrow, in all her definitions, whereof some


Tban songs, I more lift up the voice of are about disputable and ambiguous

prayer. matters, she shall proceed according to her rule; yet being certain of the Oh, stay me not; I'll pass, in harmless infallibility of her rule, and that in way, this or that thing she doth manifestly Thy fields

, thy cottage. See! the falling proceed according to it ; she may be The lengthening shadows ; how they urge certain of the truth of some particu

me on ; lar decrees, and yet not certain that Ob, stay me not; I must, I must be gone. she shall never decree but what is

E. W true.”

0. F.

me now.

Review of New Publications.

Inaugural Discourse, delivered be- their eyes over one or two of the in

fore the University in Cambridge, troductory sentences, though not in Aug. 10th, 1819: by Andrews the style of a real student, is yet not Norton, Dexter Professor of Sacred without its effect in satisfying the Literature.—Cambridge : printed miod, as to the attention which it by Hilliard & Metcalf, at the Uni- should give to the work. We canversity Press, 1819.

didly consess, that our desire of read

ing throughout the discourse which The practice so frequent among appears at the head of this article, readers, of turning to the conclusion and of making it the subject of reof a book, after they have glanced mark, was conceived in this anticipa

ting and impatient attitude of the spects for eulogy; and with regard to mind. The first two sentences, which the latter, we confess we could not clearly announce the design of the au- but feel conscious, after having read thor, were found to be the follow- the discourse throughout, that there ing:

was in it a portion of good sense, of

manly éloquence, and of correct and The liberality of our citizens, and espe- elegant composition highly honoura. cially of one distinguished individual, who bore a name which has long been honour.

ble to the professor of sacred literaed, and which I hope will long continue ture in Cambridge. to be honoured among us, baving afforded In whatever light the science of new facilities for theological instruction in theology may be viewed, every rethis University, an additional professorship bas in consequence been founded.- flecting mind will concede that it About to enter on the duties of this new possesses transcendent importance; office, I have thought that it would not be

since it treats of the being and attriuninteresting to speak of the extent and butes of God, his relation to us as relatioas of the science of theology, or, in other words, of the intellectual acquisi

men and as sinners, the dispensations tions and endowments required to consti of his providence, his will with restute a consummate theologian.

pect to our actions, and his purposes The conclusion of the discourse with respect to our end, it involves in runs thus :

its discussion the greatest interests in

existence, viz. the divine glory and And what consciousness of desert can the salvation of the soul. The glory be more honourable or more animating of God and the sinner's salvation are than bis, who feels that he is directing all his efforts, that he is devoting the whole the paramount interests involved in energy of his mind, that he is pouring theological inquiries.

To promote himself out like water, to swell the tide, them, should certainly be the great which is to bear his country on to happi- object of a teacher of theology, ness and glory!

through the instrumentality of his If all that a “consumaate theolo- studies and exertions. Professor N. gian” intends to do, or if all the result introduces indeed the name of the Suof his “intellectual acquisitions and preme Agent in a general way, and endowments” be what is included in speaks of man as an immortal being : "swelling the tide which is to bear but by not adverting to the peculiarity his country on to happiness and glo- of human nature as depraved, and the ry;" and if at the same time he has consequent relation which the divine Do higher “consciousness of desert” character bears towards it, he has, as than what is derived from this source, we conceive, overlooked the real exit occurred to us, that a “consummate tent, and some of the most important theologian” might be but little better bearings of this great science. He than a political intriguer, or at least may therefore be consistent with himthat he might be identified with a self, in speaking only of the intellecworldly-minded statesman. Some im- tual qualifications of a theologian, unpressions also, which time and fashion derstanding by that phrase merely have obliterated from the minds of a the reasoning powers, the capacity of part of the community professing re- conceiving, remembering and combinligion, were awakened concerning ing ideas, or, more generally, literary that which such a theologian as Paul, and scientific accomplishments of evor Edwards, would have felt author- ery sort. These qualifications, withized to make bis governing object, or out doubt, are sufficient to teach and would have deserved as the result defend a theology, whose principal and the recompence also of his la- object is the augmentation of national bours. From this specimen we con- happiness and glory—a happiness cluded that there would be somewhat and glory which consist, let it be reto censure in the discourse, whatever membered, more in the reception of a matter there might be in other re- philosophical religion, than in sub

jection to the pure doctrines and pre- strength of mind and literary skill.cepts of the gospel.

These alone are expected to furnish But though the writer may be here us with greater light thao has hitherto consistent with himself, we cannot been enjoyed by the church of Christ think that he is consistent with the on earth! truth. Something beyond great men But it is time to refer to a few partal powers and literary accomplish- ticulars of his illustration of the extent ments, are necessary to constitute a and relations of the science of theoloconsummate theologian,' or one who gy, or the intellectual qualifications can properly and ably teach the sci- and endowments required to constience of christian theology. For this, tute a theologian. indeed all our natural and acquired On the connection of theology with talents are demanded, and the great- metaphysics, which is the first coner a person's talents, the more auspi- nection considered, we present the cious, other things being equal, may following paragraph : be expected to be the result of their application. But we ask, with a con It is one part of the business of a theolofidence not to be shaken, that the af- gian to make bimself familiar with those

reasonings, by which the mind, now that it firmative must be conceded to us, are has been educated by christianity, is able, not a love of the truth, purity of in- even when left to its own powers and retention, spiritual discernment, and a sources, to establish or render probable heart renewed unto holiness, quite as the interpreter of the works and provi

the truths of religion. He must become indispensable ? Intellectual and spir- dence of God, and qualify himself to peritual accomplishments united, make ceive the barmony between the two revethe real copsummate theologian. lations wbich God has given us ;—that, Some of the truths of the bible are so

which is taught us by the laws wbich gov.

ern the world, as ibey proceed in their contrary to our natural views, or so

regular operation ; and that wbose divine humiliating to our natural feelings, origio was attested by the presence of a that it is only through the medium of power, controlling and suspending those regeneration that they are conveyed laws. He will find a perfeci barmony be.

tween them; and will perceive that the to the heart, and seen in their real evidences of buth, though derived from beauty and glory. Whatever the un sources the most remote from each other, derstanding may itself dictate on such Aow together at last, and bear us on to one subjects, however it may be capable

common object, the truth of the essential

principles of religion. of attaching a true meaning to the Yet notwithstanding the strength of terms, which present a spiritual ob- argument by which these principles are ject to the mind; yet the heart so supported, we cannot but remark that our controls the understanding in these conclusions are embarrassed by some dif

ficollies; and we know that scepticism has cases, that the latter remains, to a laboured to overthrow all our reasonings. great extent, in darkness. They there. The theologian, in pursuing bis inquiries fore who do not love the truth, and respecting these difficulties and objections, have not a disposition to bow to it, uitermost, will be obliged 10 go on to the

if be be determined to follow them to be are essentially deficient in the neces

very limits of human knowledge; to the sary qualifications of an accurate the barriers which the mind bas not yet passologian. They will with too much ed, and which perhaps are impassible. He certainty misapprehend, pervert, or

must fix a steady attention upon ideas very

abstract, shadowy and inadequate. Where deny some material parts of the di

the last rays begin to be lost in utter darkvine communication. Our anthor has ness, he must distinguish in the doubtful not insisted on spiritual qualifications. twilight between deceptive appearances, He does not even speak of common must subject to a strict scrutiny, words and virtue, or of honesty of heart; but expressions which often deceive us, and seems to rest the proper and adequate often mock us with only a show of meanrepresentation of the will of God, ing He must engage in complicated and whether as taught us in the volume the terms of language, divested of all their of nature, or that of revelation, on usual associations, become little more

than algebraic symbols; and in pursuing guments, to which his attention may be these processes, he must proceed with the directly called, he must apply the results greatest attention and accuracy, because a of his own inquiries to the statements single false step may render bis conclu which may be laid before him. We speak sions altogether erroneous.-pp. 8–10. for instance, of that evidence for our re

ligion, which arises from the intrinsic di. These truths, if they have not alto. vinity of its character.-pp. 13, 14. gether the praise of novelty, are at least well told.

The author then proceeds to obThe next relation which Prof. N. serve, that“ in order to estimate this considers, is that which theology evidence justly, our religion must be bears to physical science. In a sin compared with the systems of philosgle thought respecting our feelings ophy and morals by which it was of devotion,” spoken, as the con preceded.” Without rehearsing what struction would indicate, of mankind is here said, we would in a single at large, and not of holy persons in

word observe, that the same superiparticular, we perceive, if we mistake ority, which even a celebrated infinot, the common place of what Chal- del* ascribed to the life and death of mers denominates“ an indolent and

Jesus over those of Socrates, is pre

dicable of the doctrines of Jesus over superficial theology.” As the several topics of this discourse are not

all that ever proceeded from the formally laid down, and the phraseol- schools of human wisdom. On that ogy of relation and intellectual acqui- kind of evidence which is called sitions with which the author began,

external, the following important often varies, or in a number of instan- thoughts may be presented. ces is laid aside, some mistake may

When he (the theologian) comes to the perhaps be made in attempting to sep- study of the scriptures, in proportion as he arate them. The next relation how removes the accumulated rubbish of techever wbich he considers, appears to

nical theology, under which their meaning be the relation of theology to the stu

has been bucied, and obtains a distinct view

of it, he will discover new and very strikdy of the evidences of divine revela- ing evidence of the truth of our religion. tion. In this part of his discourse he It is evidence, but a small portion of which goes more into detail, and is propor

has yet been distinctly stated by any writionally interesting. It will be cheer

We have indeed scarcely any work

relating to it, except that valuable one of fully allowed also, that some of his Paley, his Horæ Paulinæ. It is evidence sentiments are extremely important, which arises from the agreement of the and deserve the consideration of ey

New Testament with itself, the coinci.

dence and correspondence of its different ery student in theology. The fol

parts, and its agreement with all our lowing, among others, it is thought, knowledge respecting that state of things possess this character.

wbich existed during the time of the first

preaching of christianity.-pp. 15, 16. The proof of the miraculous dispensations of God consists in a series of the most From the value of these and other remarkable phenomena, which, if we re remarks on this subject, we should ject the belief of such interpositions, can be accounted for by no other causes ; and

be disposed to deduct a little, in the sbich have marked the whole history of belief that the author meant by “the man with a track of light, like that of the accumulated rubbish of technical thesetting sun upon the ocean. !n making ology,” and “gross theological erbimself acquainted with the evidences of our religion, as they have been commonly rors,” which he also speaks of, many stated, the theological student will per

truths which we hold to be vitally imceive that it is only a portion of its proof portant; and that all the latter statewhich has yet been collected and arrang ment amounts to is, let the scriptures ed; and that in tbe most able works we have on the subject, that of Paley for in

in their doctrines especially, be constance, is to be found only an abridgement, strued as the Unitarians construe them, or a passing notice of many important ar and far greater evidence will be afguments, while others are wholly omitted. Even in order to feel the force of those ar

* Rousseau.


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